Puslapio vaizdai

taken off the wood, and the wood is then cut in such away as
to be casily made into shavings; the shavings are then cut very
thin; next they are placed in water for six or eight days, then
they are dried, afterwards they are reduced to the finest powder
This powder is then mixed
possible by means of a corn mill.
with the rags which serve to prepare the pulp of paper, and the
ordinary operation of paper making is proceeded to. All white
woods, such as the poplar, the lime, and the willow, are suitable
for the purpose, but the discoverer ascribes a good deal of his
success to the quality of the water he employed-that of the
little river Doller, which runs near Mulhouse. For the first ex-
periment he employed the wood of the trembling poplar, and he
presented specimens of paper made from it.

WHITEHAVEN.-Through the able labours of Mr. Musgrave and his predecessor, the Mechanics' Institution is in possession of the nucleus of what promises to be, at no distant date, a museum second to none in the country. The committee of this Institution regret the small advantage that seems to be derivable, in the formation or enlargement of museums, from the exchange of specimens as suggested by the Society of Arts. Mr. Musgrave has been in direct communication with several Institutions, that expressed themselves desirous of such exchange, but the answers of all who acknowledged the receipt of the letters were very discouraging. He has now in his possession duplicate specimens illustrative of the geology of the neighbourhood of Whitehaven, and will be very glad, on his own account, or on behalf of the Institution, to exchange the same with any Institution in Union, for a like number of specimens descriptive of the geological characteristics of a district or any other branch of Natural History, or illustrative of any Arts or Manufactures carried on in any particular locality; the only cost to each party being the carriage of the parcels received.




London Inst., 7.-Mr. W. H. Monk, "On Chamber Music."
Actuaries, 7.-Mr. Samuel Brown, "On a method of classi-
fying Life Policies so as to afford a ready means of forming
a Table of Mortality from the experience of the Office.'
"Account of an
Geographical, 8.-1. Lieut.-Col. Lloyd,
Expedition to the sources of the Amazon, and sketch of
the road from Lima to the Silver Mines of Cerro de
Pasco." 2 Lieut. Col. Lloyd, "Short Account of the
Failure of the Darien Expedition." 3. Baron de Bode,
"Notes on the Steppes of the Turkoman and Country
South-East of the Caspian."

Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. J. Tyndall, "On Heat."
Meteorological, 7.-Dr. Moffat, "On Medical Meteorology
and Atmospheric Ozone."

Civil Engineers, 8.-Renewed Discussions. 1. On Ruth-
3. Mr.
ven's Propeller; and 2. On Decimal Coinage.
J. Brunlce's "Description of Embankments
Morecombe Bay."
Medical Chirurgical, 83.
Zoological, 9.

London Inst., 2.-Mr. E. W. Brayley, jun., "On Physical

Society of Arts, 8.-Mr. Leone Levi, "On the Importance
of a Correct System of Agricultural Statistics."
Microscopical, 8.

Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. Wharton Jones, "On Animal Phy.
"On the great

London Inst., 7.-Mr. C. Cowden Clarke,

Novel writers of Europe.'
Chemical, 8.-Anniversary.
Antiquaries, 8.
Royal, 84.


WELSH IRON AND COAL TRADES.-The markets for the two great staple productions of South Wales are most active, and business is described as being unprecedentedly brisk. The demand for coal is enormous, and the consequence is, that every collier is fully employed, and new pits are being sunk. WED. The quantity of steam-coal required for ocean-going steamers is extremely great, and a large trade is rapidly springing up in the port of Llanelly for this species of coal, which is found in that neighbourhood in great abundance. The large steam companies are using it, and the Government contracts require 20,000 tons of it for supply in the Baltic and Mediterranean. The iron trade is also very brisk, the large orders for foreign rails and home consumption rendering the market firm. One of the large works is about to be re-opened, having been closed some time, which will give employment to hundreds of men. The wages now given to the workmen are very remunerative, and none now are out on strike.


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Architectural Assoc., 8.

"On Chemical

Royal Inst., 8.-Dr. J. H. Gladstone,
Affinity among substances in Solution."
London Inst., 2.-Mr. E. W. Brayley, jun., " On Physical

Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. Miller, "On the Chemistry of the
Non-Metallic Elements."
Medical, 8.

PAPER FROM WOOD.-In the last sitting of the Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale a paper was read setting forth a plan for making paper from wood. The bark is first


ANTHRACITE FOR STEAM PURPOSES.-According to the SAT. results arrived at by the experimental trip of the Great Britain to Australia with this species of fuel, it would appear that it is admirably adapted for all steam purposes, and for ocean voyages has a great superiority over all other sorts of fuel, by showing an economy of 10 per cent., stowing in a far smaller compass, creating no soot, ash, clinker, or dust, so as to choke the pipes, rendering it very unhealthy for the firemen, and covering the engines and ship with dust. On her first voyage to Australia she consumed from 50 to 60 cwts. per hour, while with anthracite the consumption in the 24 hours never exceeded from 30 to 40 tons-some days only from 15 to 20 tons. On leaving Liverpool the Great Britain took 1000 tons of best Pembroke-104. shire anthracite, and 300 tons of patent fuel. In the 13 days to St. Vincent, 380 tons were consumed; there 300 tons of Cardiff coal were taken in. After a voyage of 49 days she arrived at Port Philip, with upwards of 400 tons of coal in stock, having used about 820 tons from St. Vincent, or 1200 tons on the whole voyage from Liverpool to Port Philip. The men are better able to stand their work with anthracite than with other fuel. No fans were required to increase the blast, and with an ordinary draught it is perfectly easy and practica. ble, not only at all times to be enabled to generate steam, but likewise to maintain it.-Mining Journal.

AMERICAN DAGUERREOTYPE.-We have recently inspected some Daguerreotype Portraits executed in Philadelphia, which are as remarkable for their cheapness as their beauty. They are of the ordinary miniature size, coloured, and mounted in an oval frame, and then inserted in a folding ornamental case; the whole being executed for eight shillings. They are remarkable for their clearness and accuracy. The instantaneous character of such a mode of obtaining portraiture might surely render it cheaper among ourselves, and thousands obtain what hundreds only ask for now. It is an art cosmopolitan in its very nature. -Art Journal.


Delivered on 10th March, 1854.

Par. Numb.

99. Barnstaple Bribery Bill (1819)-Return.
102. Bullion, &c.-Return.

103. Committee of Selection-Sixth Report.
Prince Edward's Island-Return.

Delivered on 17th March, 1854.
106. Railway and Canal Bills Committee-Third Report.
43. Bill-Declarations.

Church Estates Commissioners-Third General Report.
Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England-Sixth General Re-

Natal-Further Correspondence.

Delivered on 18th and 20th March, 1854.

70. Savings Banks (Number of Depositors, &c.)-Accounts. 71. Savings' Banks-Return.

100. Towns (Ireland)-Return.

1:0. Menai Straits-Copies of Memorial and Report.

44. Local Acts-Reports from the Admiralty.

105. Railway (Number of persons employed, &c.)-Return. 40. Bills-Highways (District Surveyors).

41. Bills-High Treason (Ireland).

42. Bills-Property Disposal.

44. Bills-Friendly Societies (Amended).

46. Bills-Oxford University.

47. Bills-Church Building Acts Amendment (Amended).
Eastern Papers-Parts 5 and 6.

Prisons (Scotland-Fifteenth Report of the General Board of

Turnpike Trusts-First Report by the Secretary of State.
Railways (Number of Passengers, &c.)-Return.

Delivered on 21st March, 1854.
44. Local Acts-Reports from the Admiralty.
94. Teinds (Scotland)-Return.

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Dated 17th October, 1853.

2389. W. Roy, sen., Cross Arthurlie-Colouring matters for printing. Dated 13th February, 1854. 352. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Protecting iron from oxidation.

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2233, Thomas William Kennard, of Duke street, Adelphi-Improvements in constructing piers and foundations under water. 2332. William Muir Campbell, of Glasgow-Improvements in earthenware kilns.

2505. Andrew Maclure, of Walbrook-Improvements in lithographie printing presses.

2651. James Wills Wayte, of Gate street, Lincoln's inn fieldsImprovements in self-feeding furnaces.


Dated 22nd February, 1854.

428. E. Massey, 3, Tysoe street, Clerkenwell-Ships' logs.

Dated 28th February, 1854.

477. L. A. Pallegoix and A. L. Bellange, Paris-Treating wheat. 479. F. S. Thomas, 17, Cornhill-Rifle carriage.

481. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Admitting steam, &c., to cylinders of oscillating engines. (A communication.)

485. A. L. Mallet, 52, Rue de la Pepiniere, Paris-Apparatus to destroy effects of shocks.

487. J. Medwin, Blackfriars road-Water guages for steam boilers. 489. J. T. Way, Holles street, Cavendish square, and J. M. Paine, Farnham-Gas.

491. J. S. Holbeche, Sutton Coldfield-Invalid bedsteads.

Dated 1st March, 1854.

493. H. Gilbert, Suffolk street, Pall Mall-Artificial teeth.
495. W. Ehrhardt, Birmingham-Ordnance and fire arms.
497. W. J. Curtis, 23, Birchin lane-Levigating machine.
501. J. and T. Sibley, Ashton under Lyne-Cutting discs out of

metal plates.

503. M. N. Illakowicz, 35, Maddox street-Picture frames. 505. J. S. Holland, Woolwich-Locks.

507 J. Parry, jun., Liverpool-Mills for grinding bones, &c. (A

508. R. V. Houssart, 29, Dunstan street, Kingsland road, and R.
Houston, 1, Skinner street-Vessels to contain fluids.
509. H. and J. Ellis, Salford - Finishinz, &c., woven fabrics.
510. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock-Lubricating shafts.
511. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock-Mining engines.
512 J. Currie, Glasgow-Grinding grain.

513. T. Dawson, King's Arms Yard-Umbrellas and parasols.
514. J. Tann, Minerva terrace, Hackney road-Locks.

Dated 3rd March, 1854. 516. T. and R. Yates, Bury-Looms. 518. L. Tindall, Scarborough-Churns.

520. G. Spill, Old Farm House, Stepney-Hats.

521. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Measuring and folding cloth. (A communication.)

Date of


522. C. Bloomer, West Bromwich-Spikes and bolts. 523. J. Bour, Mauritius-Evaporating saccharine liquids.

524. W Vaughan, Stockport, and J. Scattergood, Heaton NorrisWeaving.

1854. March 18. 21.



532. J. K. Stuart, Glasgow-Hats.

Dated 6th March, 1854.
531. J. Warhurst, Hollingworth-Steam boilers.
538. T. II. de Nivelles, Foley place-Separating metallic from
earthy substances.

540. P. A. de S. S. Sicard, Paris-Purifying water.
542. B. Brokenshar, St. Austell-Amalgamator.
Dated 7th March, 1854.
544. W. Clay, Liverpool-Manufacture of axles, &c.
546. G. Chant, Stoke sub Hamdon-Fan, parasol, or sun shade.
Dated 8th March, 1854.

Dated 4th March, 1854.

526. C. Nightingale, Wardour street-Curling horse hair. 528. R. Madeley, Birmingham-Metallic bedsteads, &c.

530. H. D. Mertens, Margate-Steam engine valves. (A commu

No. in the


548. H. B. Barker, Manchester-Waterproofing fabrics. (A com-

549. G. Beardsley, Coal pit lane-Textile and looped fabrics. 552. J. D. Brunton, Truro-Wind guards.

556. G. Devincenzi, Grosvenor street-Ornamented surfaces, &c.


2958. Paul Wagenmann, of Boun-Improvements in the manufacture
of liquid hydro-carbons and parafine.
3008. John Macintosh, of 12, Pall Mall East-Improvement in dis-
charging projectiles.

57. Elmer Townsend, of Boston, U. S.-Improvements in ma-
chinery for sewing cloth, leather, or other material. (A

101. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall-Improve-
ment in the manufacture of candles and night lights.
108. Edward Highton, of Regent's park-Improvements in suspend-

ing the wires of electric telegraphs.

134. Nehemiah Hunt, of the State of Massachusetts, U. S.-Improvements in machinery for sewing cloth or other material. (A communication.)

147. Henry Watson, of High Bridge, Newcastle upon Tyne-Improvements in water closets.

178. John Ridgway, of Cauldon place-Improvements in the method of generating and applying heat to kilns, ovens, and furnaces, for manuiacturing purposes.

Sealed March 20th, 1854.

2181. Ferdinand Potts, of Birmingham-improvements in the manu-
facture of paper tubes, and in the apparatus connected
2184. Henry Needham, of Wardour street-Improvements in revolving


An Artiste's Cornet à Piston ...............
Seamless Lady's Shoe ..................................................

Sealed March 22nd, 1851.
2190. James Baldwin, of Birmingham-improvements in the making
of paper bags.
2191. Frederick Crace Calvert, of Manchester-Certain improved
processes for separating emery from other matters.
2235. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, of South street,
Finsbury-Improvements in treating certain exotic plants
for the production of a fibrous substance, known in com-
merce by the name of vegetable silk. (A communication.)
2293. James Bullough, of Accrington, and John Walmsley and
David Whittaker, of Black burn-Improvements in ma-
chinery or apparatus for warping and sizing, or otherwise
preparing yarns or warps to be woven.

2353. William Muir Campbell, of Glasgow-Improvements in potters' or earthenware kilns.

2411. Robert Shaw, of Glasgow-Improvements in writing instru



2521. John Crowley, of Sheffield-Improvements in the construction
of ovens and furnaces.
2777. Louis Alexandre Michel, of Paris-Invention of a system of
apparatus for sawing and breaking sugar.


25. William Rigby, of Glasgow-Improvements in steam-hammers and pile-driving machinery.

35. John Davie Morries Stirling, of the Larches, near Birmingham -Improvements in the manufacture of iron.

71. Henry Beaumont Leeson, of Greenwich-Improvements in gas


165. Henry Seebohm, of Esholt, near Leeds-Improvements in combing wool, goats hair, alpaca, cotton, and other fibrous materials.

205. Thomas Thurlby, of Guildford street East, Spa fields-Improvements in the means of effecting instant communication between distant points of railway trains.

Proprietors' Names.

Henry Distin
Walter Hart



Cranbourne street, Leicester square,
Horns lane, King street, Norwich.

No. 71. Vol. II.]


Journal of the Society of Arts.

number of farmers in Great Britain actually does not excoed 300,000, so that in the extended practice of large holdings any calculation becomes circumscribed and easy.

We may conceive that in such an immense country as FRIDAY, MARCH 31, 1854.

Russia, with hali the land comparatively raw and unapproachable by the ice, or in such a country as the United

States, now only subjected to human strength by the iron SIXTEENTH ORDINARY MEETING.

axe of the sturdy settler, it will, indeed, prove difficult to WEDNESDAY, MARCH 29, 1854.

scan it all over, to compute the number of acres sown

with different crops, and the number of quarters of The Sixteenth Ordinary Meeting of the One grain which they yield. No such difficulty ought to be Hundrerith Session, was held on Wednesday, the experienced within the British Islands, every portion of 29th instant, the Right Honourable the Earl of to its capabilities to the best of human powers and

which has been long explored, inhabited, and tested as HARROWBY in the chair.

ingenuity. The following candidates were balloted for and But experience is the mother of wisdom. What does duly elected :

it teach? Have attempts carefully made actually failed ?

On the contrary, we find that individual merchants, such Emslie, John

Keating, The Venerable as Mr. Sandars and Mr. Hodgson, of Liverpool, have Headlam, Tho. Emerson, Archdeacon

obtained pretty accurate accounts by sending individuals M.P. Salmon, John C.

into different parts of the country whilst the grain is yot Rush, G. W. | Wilson, Isaac

in the ear, to cut out a square yard and see what it The following Institution has been taken would produce in the different kinds of land-clay lands, into Union since the last announcement :

sandy lands, &c. The Highland and Agricultural So

ciety of Scotland have recently transmitted abstracts 355. Weston-super Mare, Athenæum.

of returns of the Agricultural Statistics of the Counties Previous to the reading of the paper, the called forth the approbation of the Board of Trade.

of Roxburgh, Haddington, and Sutherland, returns which Secretary called attention to some specimens of There we find the number of acres under different kinds Cambay stones, which will be found described at of crop; the amount of stock; and also the amount of page 618, Vol. 1, of this Journal, and also to steam. water, and horse power employed agriculturally some specimens illustrative of the electro-plating

in East Lothian, and an estimate of the produce of the

crops. Similar statistics have also been obtained for the of metallic articles with white metals, which is counties of Norfolk and Hampshire. But the most com; explained at page 340 of the present number. plete answer which may be given to those who apprehend

insurmountable difficulties, is to be found in the satiefacThe Paper read was

tory results of the stati-tics of the produce of Ireland, ON THE IMPORTANCE OF A CORRECT SYSTEM collected by the efficient aid of the Constabulary and OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS.

Metropolitan Police, on printed forms, and in pur

suance of instructions supplied to them. It is not asBy LEONE LEVI, F.S.S.

serted they are perfect; it is physically and morally Of all questions that of subsistence is the most impor impossible that such statistics can ever be perfect, but tant which could engage the attention of the legislator, as a whole, for all practical purposes, they may bo the senator, the staiist, or the civilian. It is the touch considered a most successful performance. These fur stone which draws into it all the elements of public nish the number of holdings, the extent of land under and social welfare. It is the foundation of national pros- crop, and an estimate of the quantity of produce by coun. perity, and the essential of individual happiness. When ties and by Poor Law Unions; the rate of produce, the one of our mighty floating palaces weighs her anchor for a classification of crops, the breadth of tlax cultivated in long passage across the ocean the first of her preparatory each county and the numbers of stock of all descriptions. duties is the purchase of provisions—to see that a suffi To arrive at a correct appreciation of the subject, we ciency of stores is provided for her crew and passengers. must first be convinced of its importance, and of its erAnd when on the setting in of winter we enter on our pedieney, then distinctly apprehend what is required, and, yearly pilgrimage, is it not the duty of a nation as of indi. lastly, by what means it may be attained. On the imviduals, to make an estimate of the amount of food we are portance and expediency of collecting statistics of agricullikely to have—whether we shall have full rations, or have tural produce, it might seem scarcely necessary to ento make up with half a one? And yet we are blindly large, but the claims of statistical science in this direcgroping our way, eating, perhaps, in superabundance för tion, have not hitherto been universally recognized. It a few short months, and when well entered into the gulf is a melancholy truth, that as yet few believe in statistics. of our yearly existence we must put into a port of distress The philosophy of inductive science is with large to purchase food, at whatever prices it can be got, and numbers a mysterious problem. Every body admits ito compete with the fainished crew of many nations, in that if in repeated instances, over a long space of time, a exhausting the surplus of a scantily provisioned stock of certain event has happened at certain periods there is grain.

good ground for believing that the same will continue to What are agricultural statistics but a computation of happen; but a preconceived scepticism in numbers prethe number of loaves we shall obtain from our own fields vents them applying common reason to great but every for one agricultural year, and how many pounds of meat day occurrences. They have not the power of magnifywe shall get from our cattle? These are surely practical ing figures, and of preserving the same faith in them. questions which cannot be misunderstood. And yet Besides, other considerations, foreign to the purpose, as whilst their plaioness defies speculation, mountains of dif- well as self-interest, political tendencies, or dread of ficulties arise, and a phantom disturbs our vision, so that revelations, enter the mind, and are sufficient to make we are driven back from our inquiry without further them decided enemies to statistical inquiries. Tho consideration. What is our field of operati, n? The masses must, therefore, be taught the meaning of staarable and garden land of the United Kingdom is about tistics, their object and province. Statistics is the science twenty millions of acres, and the meadows, pastures, of observation. It takes actual facts and studies them in and marshes contain twenty-seven millions, a surface con- their nature and effects. It is founded on experience siderably smaller than that of many other countries. The rather than on thcory. A chemical discovery is made


1846 1847 1848 1849

1850 1851

It is applied to the cultivation of the soil. The sta-
tistics of produce of that soil before and after the ap
plication of such chemical discovery, is the surest test of
its worth. Within the domain of statistics is whatever
is important to the interest of a State, whether it be
Institutions, physical forces, education, science, crime,
or religion. Its province is to elaborate truths which
lie remote from the surface of daily life, and to reduce
into statistical analysis, the wants, the resources, and
the experiences of society at large. In the words of
the fifteenth annual report of the Statistical Society
of London:—
:-"Man in society is the subject of our
study; to detect the influences which bear upon his wel
fare, our ultimate aim; inductive reasoning from pheno-
mena observable, and observed with mathematical preci-
sion our method, and to make use of all evidence of this
character which may be turned up in the early
working of society, as well as to collect new data our
necessity." As to the statistics of agriculture, we have
abundant evidence that a sufficiency of supplies of food for
the growing population is most important to the moral,
political, and material welfare of a state. When misery
prevails crime abounds. When corn is dear a cry for
reform finds a ready ear; and when our loaves cost 10d.
instead of 6d. money is dear, prices of manufactures are
low and labour is scarce. It is to enable us to meet these
contingencies betimes that agricultural statistics are
wanted. If we possess an early estimate of what we are
likely to require from foreign countries, we shall be able
to send ships to the Baltic long before the Russian ports
are frozen, and shall be early in the markets to provide
for our wants. We must remember, that as the harvest
on the Continent is generally two months earlier than in
this country, they have the first chance of obtaining
their supplies at cheaper rates than we can, when our
wants are fully manifested.

It is not then an abstract question, but one of great practical bearing to possess proper statistics of agricultural produce. Its pounds, shilling, and pence value is not less evident. The Deputation from the City lately presented a petition on the subject to Lord Aberdeen, and it was by them stated, that the quantity of corn annually sold in the United Kingdom is not less than 40 million quarters, and the simple oscillation of 1s. per quarter would make a difference of about two millions sterling. The fluc tuations in prices in the last few years is as follows.-Highest and Lowest Average Prices of Grain from the year

1846 to 1853.

Highest. s. d. 62 3 102 5 56 10

3. d.
45 1
49 6
46 10

Difference. Por Cent.
8. d.
17 2
52 11








38 9
36 11


1 43 6


7 2
6 9
8 9
29 9

37 2
43 3



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which appear a year and a quarter after each harvest. The same may be said of the returns received from the Highland Society, and of those not yet published for the counties of Norfolk and Hampshire. What is wanted is, first, how many acres of land are sown with each kind of crop; secondly, the probable yield, and this sufficiently in time to govern the markets, to check alarm, or to give a timely warning of impending wants. We know our wants, if we do not know our supplies. We know that a population of 28 millions will require 28 millions of quarters annually of wheat and flour, besides what is wanted for cattle, horses, malting, and other purposes. Already our population is largely dependent on foreign wheat. Estimating the yearly consumption of each individual at eight bushels, and taking the average yearly importation of wheat and wheat-flour, it seems that whilst from 1801 to 1810, the mean population of Great Britain being 11,769,725, the number of persons fed upon foreign wheat was 600,946. From 1841 to 1850, the mean population being 19,967,876, the number dependent upon foreign wheat and wheat-flour was not less than 2,818,328. The quantity of grain imported from 1847 to 1853 was as follows:

Grain Imported into the United Kingdom from 1847 to 1855.









Quarters. 11,672,533










Formerly the quantity imported yearly, varied considerably. One year we might want one or two millions of quarters; the next, nothing. Of late, however, the importation has been uniformly large, leaving a conviction that our agricultural produce does not keep pace with the increase of our population, and with their growing resources; and we are the more interested to ascertain as early as possible what is that amount of extra supplies which will be required to meet our already large want of foreign help. Of the two subthe probable yield-the former is easier ascertained than jects of enquiry,-how many acres of land are sown, and the latter. In both there must necessarily be some looseness. The first would embrace the number of acres sown with wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, peas, flax, seeds, turnips, potatoes; the number of acres in permanent grass, and the number in annual grass, &c. The second, an estimate of the probable yield of each per acre. The retuins of the number of acres under crop might be collected early in spring. By extensive meteorological observations, the progress of vegetation might also be obtained at various intervals. The estimate of the produce should be ob tained within one month, at the latest, after the harvest. The difficulty of obtaining the accounts at such an early period is doubtless considerable, having regard to the time requisite for printing, distributing, collecting, and classifying the returns It has been suggested by Mr. G. Wingrove Cooke to select in every county some few parishes, which shall fairly represent all the diversities of soil, culture, and climate, that obtain throughout the county. Having settled on the representative parishes, subject, of course, to changing them for others, if any alteration should occur in their culture which would destroy their representative character, returns should be collected of the culture and produce of such representative parishes, which, by due calculation of the proportion of the parish to the district, would exhibit the agricultural statistics of the county.


45 11
73 0

The shipowners also find in this uncertainty the utmost
difficulty in providing ships, the difference in the tonnage
alone being estimated at one million tons.

17 39

Having so far established the position, that it is important and expedient to obtain agricultural statistics, we shall proceed to the second enquiry, and the most important one, viz., What kind of statistics, and at what intervals of time, and at what months of the year are they required? The important object to be kept in mind is, that of all statistics agricultural statistics are intended to meet a substantial want. We cannot adapt our wants to such statistics, but we must adapt such statistics, and the machinery for obtaining them, to what is felt necessary. To have the statistics of the quantity of food at our disposal for a given time, when that quantity is all eaten up, is altogether absurd. And yet such are the agricultural statistics of Ireland,

Hitherto we have spoken of annual estimates. It may also be important to obtain decennially more complete

agricultural statistics for purposes of taxation, and for the object of showing the progress of agricultural science. The Statistical Congress, lately held in Brussels, at which there were official representatives and men of science from thirty-two countries, confined its recommendation to decennial statistics. At these distant intervals the statistics might furnish complete information on the conditions, proceeds, and results of agricultural industry, comprising facts with reference,-1st. To the soil itself. 2nd. To the natural phenomena which fall under the observation of the cultivator. 3rd. To the implements used for cultivating the land. 4th. To the means employed to supply the substances with which the soil is wanting. 5th. To the domestic animals. 6th. To the special culture of each useful vegetable 7th. To the laws of production, division, and consumption of agricultural produce; and 8th. To the relation of agriculture to society. All these various items of information do not form an essential part of agricultural science. What concerns the soil, its nature, and its properties, belong properly to geology. Natural phenomena are within the domains of physics, zoology, or botany. The Statistical Congress did not consider it possible to reduce all those subjects in the form of statistics, and therefore simply recommended generally that the information should comprise all the conditions, proceeds and results of the agricultural industry of the country at ■ given time, and all the facts which may assist towards the proper appreciation of them in all their different aspects. This is also exceedingly useful. But what is most essential, is the annual estimate, and that is the great practical object aimed at by the advocates of agricultural statistics in this country.

Now that we have cleared our path as to the objects and requisites of agricultural statistics, we shall consider the means by which they may be obtained. One might think that what is actually required is not such an enormous labour after all. The difficulties are more imaginary than real, and the enquiries are such as private individuals, stimulated by interest and enterprize, often partially carry out by themselves. We have already pointed out what Messrs. Hodgson and Sandars, of Liverpool, have done. Another illustration of a similar character may be produced. A corn factor of London, in 1850, sent a large number of schedules containing questions on the results of the potato crop in Ireland. He received a number of replies, some from Roman Catholic clergyman, some from millers and dealers in the corn trade, and some from land-holders, public functionaries, &c. The replies referred to all parts of the country, and they constituted a comparison of the potato crop of that year with the preceding one. They showed inwhat, and how many districts the tubers were not affected, where slightly, where partially, where much, and where at all affected, then, as to the portion of the crop that would be saved for human food. The reports gave, also, accounts of the wheat crop, describing in how many districts it was deficient; in how many a fair average, a good average, and where abundant. These are successful experiments by individuals. The same may be said of the quarterly meteorological observations made by Mr. Glashier in forty two places of Great Britain. There is one great advantage in individual efforts, the responsibility is less; inaccuracies are excusable; the credit attached to them is proportioned to their intrinsic value. Not so with government accounts. They come out with all the credit and éclat of official statements, and if they prove erroneous, they mislead a much larger number of persons; and it should be a principle of action on the part of government, whenever it is not in their power to produce strictly correct accounts, to leave private individuals to make them on their own responsibility. With respect, however, to agricultural statistics, it needs be a vast national measure, co-extensive with the kingdom itself, requiring considerable and permanent machinery, such as no private energy can in any case supply, and, like the census of population, the statistics of education

or of crime, it behoves government to undertake it by the best means at their command. This duty government is about to assume, and it is all-important that all classes-the farmers, the merchants, the land-holders, and the magistrates-should afford them their moral and physical co-operation. Let us now see what is the machinery at their command for such a purpose. At the suggestion of the late talented Mr. Porter, a statistical department was formed in 1832 connected with the Board of Trade. Such department has hitherto not extended its functions beyond the statistics of commerce and shipping, but the principle which it em. bodies is, that it should become a department for the regis tration of all the statistics of the country; that whilst the other offices are for administration, for direction, for inquiry, for legislation, &c., this should be for registration, or for the statistics of trade and commerce, population, agriculture, industry, crime, &c. A statistical department of such a character has been established in most countries. The statistics of agriculture, should devolve on the Statistical Department of the Board of Trade; but that office would require to be expanded and reconstructed to undertake this important duty. The next statistical organisation in this country is that of the Registrar General for births, deaths, and marriages. That office lately exhibited an unparalleled activity and ability for performance of labour, in the collecting of the census, by the wonderful machinery employed, by the expedition with which the returns were collected, and by the extent of the information obtained. This office has already ascertained the number of farmers in Great Britain, and also the number of farms, and their size. The plan they adopted was (the enumerators being above 30,000 in number) to deliver to every oocupier of a house or tenement a householder's schedule, 7,000,000 in number, weighing in the aggregate nearly 40 tons. They trusted to the parties to fill such papers honestly and in the best way they could, and notwithstanding the difficulty of getting ladies to tell their ages, and many other local or personal prejudices, they obtained the most comprehensive returns over published. The same plan could be pursued for agricultural statistics as for statistics of population. Schedules might be annually sent to the 300,000 farmers, and the result, in course of tine, would, undoubtedly, be as satisfactory as by any other means. In Belgium they pursued the same plan. In France they formed commissions and sub-commissions spread throughout the country, a most complicated and unsatisfactory process. The other statistical organisation, which Go. vernment seems disposed to adopt is, the Poor Law Board; and it is by their instrumentality, that agricultural statistics have lately been obtained for the counties of Norfolk and Hampshire. I confess I have a strong aversion to the machinery of the Poor Law for this purpose, and fear that the associations connected with it may prove injurious to the object in view. The plan pursued in the case of the foregoing counties, was as follows. The Poor Law Board sent schedules to the Board of Guardians. These were handed to the enumerators, or relieving officers of the parishes, who disributed them among the occupiers of the land, and got them filled up. A committee was moreover appointed by the Board of Guardians, consisting of some of the guardians and some experienced farmers, to inspect the proceedings; and where any farmer objected to give returns, to direct themselves to the proprietor himself or otherwise. The experiment proved successful. But it should be observed, that the counties of Norfolk and Hampshire are counties much advanced both in intelligence and resources.

With regard to Scotland, the Highland and Agricultural Society having succeeded in the statistics of three counties, they, in all probability, will be entrusted with the entire management for that part of the kingdom. In a letter addressed by the Secretary of that Society to the Board of Trade, the following statement was made respecting the mode pursued in collecting the statistics:"When the extent of acreage was collected, occupier

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