Puslapio vaizdai

"Mr. Williamson, in a subsequent letter, addressed to your Board on the 1st of December last, to which I have already alluded, has taken a very different view of these subjects. I am far from presuming to contend against the fair principle of allowing to every man the right of changing his opinion, wherever research and experience may induce him to alter it; but it must be conceded, as equally true, that much of the weight of authority is forfeited to him, upon either side of a question, whose opinion is found to be recorded on both. I should be sorry, however, if Mr. Williamson were to consider me as failing in personal consideration for him, although I may feel it a duty to myself and to the country, upon a subject of so much interest to both, to animadvert with freedom upon those parts of his statement in which he materially differs from me and from himself. The gentlemen of the linen trade of Ireland are the only fair umpires between us; and to them I appeal. At a meeting held at the White Linen Hall, of Belfast, on Friday and Saturday the 5th and 6th of January last, which was attended by a number of the most respectable bleachers, dealers, and manufacturers of that county, the whole process was shown; and the sentiments of the meeting having been officially communicated to you by the Marquis of Downshire, I consider them suitable to me here, and, therefore, I have annexed a copy of them to this letter. Now, let us look to that part which relates to the subject before us.

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We, the subscribers, conceive it but justice to those experiments which were made by Mr. Lee in our presence, from beginning to end, as well as to remove any prejudices which might have been adopted by persons who have no idea of the nature of the process, to state,-1st. That there is no necessity for water-rotting flax, to make it in any wise better, than, if properly pulled and safely stacked, it will be without so doing. 2nd. That by avoiding the process of water-rotting the seed is saved from our own flax, equal, as we saw this day, to any imported. (a) The solubility of the colouring matter of unsteeped Hlax in water, or soap and water, and the facility of bringing it, after washing, to a pure and brilliant white, without the aid of any chemical agent, comes next into consideration. Mr. Williamson considers the solubility of the natural colour of the flax to belong in common to all flax, namely, that which has been either steeped or dew-rotted, as well as that which has been submitted to neither process. I hardly know what is meant by the colouring matter of flax that has been steeped or dew-rotted; its natural colour is obviously lost by the steeping, the strength of the fibre is reduced, and the flax itself has assumed the colour of the animal, or vegetable, or mineral qualities which impregnated the water in which it was immersed, Imbibing with it adye, from whatever quality prevailed, so much in the way of the bleacher, that he can only get rid of it, as Mr. Williamson once truly said, by the means of 'a tedious, difficult, and dangerous process. To show, were it possible, the general solubility of the colouring matter of all flax prepared in every manner that is practised, Mr. Williamson has laid before you, as he states, the following samples :-No. 1. A sample of water-rotted flax, perfectly white, that was bleached in twenty-four hours with water. soap and water, and diluted oxymuriatic acid, without the intervention of alkali.' 'No. 2. A sample of dew-rotted flax, made white in the same time, and with the like materials.' No. 3. A sample of Irish flax, prepared after the manner of Mr. Lee, treated in the same way, and with similar success.' 'No. 4. A sample of flax imported from Pernan, apparently dew-rotted, treated in the same way, and with the same success.' And No. 5. 'A sample of hemp made white in the same time, and with the same success." have seen these several samples; they are indeed made white, but they are of a pale deadly colour, differing from that pure and brilliant white which shows the wholesome condition of the fibre as well as its beauty. The staple of these specimens has been destroyed by the strength of the acids employed in whitening them, and I only wish they were of sufficient quantities to be offered to the test of manufacture. Oxygen (says Mr. Williamson) whether from the atmosphere, or from the direct application of the oxymuriatic acid, is necessary to the whitening of all flax. I am not of that opinion; and I must appeal, from a position more strongly put than well considered, to the declaration of the gentlemen of the linen trade in his own neighbourhood, at the meeting to which I have referred. The whole of their proceedings is annexed; but their last resolution in speaking of the flax prepared after the new manner, thus expresses the opinion of those present: The said flax, after thus passing through the refining machine, and being washed

(a) This paper was signed by only 'ten gentlemen, and not all engaged in the linen trade.

in cold water, did, in a short space of time, part with all the impure matter it contained, or very nearly so; and it was rendered completely pure and very nearly white, by being boiled in soap and warm water about twenty minutes. All this was without any exposure to the atmosphere. None is necessary to the whitening of the flax, however desirable it may be at a favourable season of the year.' It will, perhaps, surprise you to hear that Mr. Williamson attended this meeting himself. He there saw a parcel of Irish flax taken in a yellow state, and put into a course of being made white: he left it for a while undergoing that operation, but in the care of persons whose veracity is known to him. He returned before it was finished, and witnessed its conclusion, whereby the flax was brought to a brilliant white in less than an hour from the time it was begun, by the simple means of soap and water only, and without any exposure to the atmosphere. But supposing, which I cannot adinit, that the oxygen of the air is necessary to bleaching a good white, is it nothing to have removed the necessity of resorting to those caustic materials which have been hitherto used in the course of a process at once dilatory, dangerous, and expensive.

"THE MACHINERY.-It remains only now to report to you whatever fell under my observation connected with the mechanical part of the new process. The introduction of new machinery, into any country, has disadvantages to encounter from ignorance or prejudice, or both; but, much to the honour of Ireland, I will say, that, so far from finding any hostile disposition to a system that threatened a subversion of all the ancient habits of the people, in respect to the great staple manufacture of their country, I met everywhere a kind and encouraging reception; all professed to feel an equal interest with myself in the welfare of the new process; and all were desirous of understanding it. A complete set of machinery comprised four machines:-1. A Thrashing Machine; 2. A Breaking Machine; 3. A Cleansing Machine; 4. A Refining Machine. Objections were made to the machinery in many places where it was not understood, and the substance of them was thesc,-First, That it consumed too much time, and, therefore, cost too much labour; and, secondly, that it occasioned great waste. Experiments are stated to have been made by Mr. Williamson, with a view to ascertain the extent to which those objections were found to exist; and, therefore, it becomes necessary to advert to his report of the results. In the series of samples, he has sent you as he states, the following: No. 6. A sample of unbleached flax, prepared according to the new method, 32 ounces of which produced, on Mr. Lee's machinery, 31 ounces of unrefined flax, with more than one hour's labour of one man.' 'No. 7. A sample of the same growth, prepared in the same way, without steeping, but cleaned at a flax-mill, produced 7 ounces, unhackled, with less than five minutes' labour.' 'No. 8. A sample of the same growth of flax, steeped or water-rotted, a like quantity of which, cleaned at a flax-mill, produced 7 ounces, unhackled, with less than five minutes' labour.'

Mr. Lee, after a long defence of his machines, next refers to his visits to different parts of the country, and concludes with a tribute of thanks to the Marquis of Downshire for the kind attention he at all times received from his lordship.(a);

Proceedings of Institutions.

CLAPHAM.-On Friday evening, Nov. 18th, Mr. Joseph Simpson, of the Islington Institution, delivered an interesting and instructive lecture before the members of the Literary Institution, on "The Times we Live in." Reverting to periods antecedent to the age of railroads, steam, electricity, gas, and other manifold necessities of the present day, the lecturer drew a picture of the manners and customs in the so-called "good old times," and forcibly contrasted the disadvantages under which our ancestors laboured, with the advantages enjoyed by the present generation. To the progressive spirit of the art of printing he justly attributed the great advances made during this century, and truly said that, through its me

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dium, what would formerly have required ages to com-tory of this country through several ages, remarking upon plete, was now effected in a single lifetime. The lecture afforded considerable satisfaction.

DURHAM.-On Friday evening last, the twenty-eighth anniversary meeting of the Mechanics' Institute was held in the reading room. The president, Mr. J. F. Elliot, occupied the chair, and opened the proceedings with a few remarks. The secretary, Mr. W. Hutchinson, then read the Report, from which it appeared that at present the number of members was 336, exclusive of life members. Of this number 163 are members of both the reading-room and library, whilst the remaining 173 are members of the library only. The income for the year ending September 30th, was £168 15s. 9d., and the expenditure £159 5s. The library has been increased by the addition of fifty volumes, and a large selection of parliamentary papers has just been received from Mr. W. Atherton, M.P.

LYMINGTON.-On Tuesday week, Mr. John Haas delivered a lecture on "Fables," to the members and friends of the Literary Institution. The lecturer traced the origin of parables and fables from remote antiquity to the present period; and proved beyond a question that the truths thus circulated were calculated not only to amuse the young, but, as in the days of old, to afford lessons of caution and instruction to those of maturer years.

READING.-Mr. J. Boorne, the Honorary Secretary to the Literary, Scientific and Mechanics' Institution, delivered a lecture "On the Poetry and Genius of Longfellow," to the members and friends of that Institution last week. After some introductory remarks on poets and poetry in general, Mr. Boorne said that he thought it would be no injustice to Dana, Emerson, Bryant, Whittier, and other noble sons of song in America, to style Longfellow the poet of that country. In his writings, richness of imagery, wideness of sympathy, a manly earnestness of purpose, with a mildness and felicity of expression, were the qualities which struck the most casual reader. He did not excel in the profound or sublime, in the majestic or philosophic; but in the beautiful, the feeling, the sympathetic, and the descriptive, he was scarcely to be equalled,-certainly not surpassed. He had done very much to supply a demand-which he had greatly assisted in creating-for a class of pure and pleasant poetry, such as was referred to, and at the same time illustrated by that piece of his "The day is done." A few years since, Longfellow spent much time on the continent of Europe, in pursuit of his profession: and Sweden, Holland, Germany, and Spain had supplied him with many subjects of verse, and he had translated much of the poetry of those countries. In his writings there were no idle tales, no song without a healthy sentiment, no piece without a lesson. These remarks were illustrated by "The Belfry of Bruges," "The Psalm of Life," "Footsteps of Angels,"" The Village Blacksmith," &c., which were appropriately and effectively recited. Evangeline" was next spoken of as the best and most artistic of Longfellow's compositions. It was written in the old Latin hexameter, a metre seldom attempted by modern writers, but in which Longfellow had been most happy. Longfellow was no literary thief; he never appropriated the words or ideas of others; we therefore the more readily pardoned the occasional repetition of his own. There was throughout Longfellow's writings a tinge of sorrow, if not of melancholy-a melancholy, however, which did not depress downward, towards death, but served only to stimulate to life and action. He did not cast a strong summer sunshine on our path, but shed a chequered autumnal ray. With him there were no unqualified pleasures. The lecturer recited many pieces during his discourse, concluding with those which might be described as heroic, as "Excelsior" and "The Light of Stars."

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the deeds of valour and heroism of its former inhabitants, and its present position; touching upon its form of Government, which he designated as a very bad one, he pointed out the abuses and corruption which were practised by every person in authority-from the Sultan down to the lowest officer of Government. He gave some amusing anecdotes of the low state of civilization, the education of the inhabitants, and their ill success in attempting to follow the other countries of Europe in the great march of progress, as also the wretched state of their army and navy. He depicted in forcible language, the low moral state of the people and the practice of infanticide, and the slavery carried on at Constantinople, which he believed to be worse than that of America.

SALISBURY.-The lecture on " Nineveh," delivered on Wednesday last at the Literary Institution by the Hon. and Rev. S. Best, of Abbot's Ann, attracted a very large audience. The hon. and rev. lecturer contrived to compress within the limits of a single address a highly instructive and interesting epitome of the results of the valuable discoveries of Layard, Botta, and others; pointing out the antiquity and splendour of the buried cities, the power of the commercial states of which they were the capitals, the striking evidence they afford of the literal truth of many passages of Scripture, which sceptical philosophers had previously regarded as either mythical or allegorical; and deducing from the fall of Nineveh those lessons of warning and watchfulness which are so peculiarly applicable to a great commercial nation like England, which worships wealth like a deity, which lies midway in that stream of civilization and greatness which has uniformly flowed from the South-East towards the North-West, which has overflowed Assyria, Greece, Rome, the Netherlands, and Britain, and left all but the latter dry; and which is now setting full upon the shores of North America. At the conclusion of the lecture the Lord Bishop of Salisbury, patron of the Society, proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer, and took the opportunity of expressing his own sympathy with the objects of the Institution, which, in its twofold aspect, afforded opportunities to its members for the enjoyment of the pleasures of taste and imagination, and for the cultivation of the best feelings of the heart, by familiarizing their minds with literary studies, while in the other department of it-the scientific-it might be brought to bear upon the material arts and manufactures of the country, and thus encourage studies which were as delightful to those who pursued them, as they were beneficial to the country at large. The Very Reverend the Dean seconded the vote of thanks, which was carried by acclamation. The foregoing lecture was illustrated by thirty diagrams belonging to the Hants and South Wilts Lecturers' Association, which already possesses a large collection, illustrative of the following subjects:-Nineveh, 30; Solar System, 23; Physiology, as regards Health, 10; Eastern Habitations, 10; Catacombs of Rome, 21: Paganism, 6; Nebula, 6; Optics, 6; Microscope, 6; Mechanics, 3; Missionary, 20; Australian, 10; Manufacture of Glass, 3; Ditto of Gas, 1; Smelting of Iron, 1; Phantasmagoria Lantern and Microscope-Natural History Sliders, 56; Botanical ditto, 14; Astronomical ditto (plain), 30; Ditto ditto (rackwork), 10.

STIRLING. Taking advantage of the Exhibition of Photographic Pictures, from the Society of Arts, London, Mr. Rae, the Secretary to the School of Arts, delivered a lecture on Wednesday week to the members and friends of this Institution "On Photography, or the Production of Pictures through the Agency of Light." The lecturer referred to the first researches made by Neipee, Daguerre, Fox Talbot, Wedgewood, and Sir Humphry Davy, and said that the whole art depended on a very ROMFORD.-On Tuesday evening a lecture on "The simple fact or principle-the blackening action of light Manners, Customs, and Habits of European Turkey," was upon certain salts of silver. He familiarly explained the given by Mr. Percy St. John, in the hall of the Literary photographic printing-press-the production of negatives and Mechanics Institution.-The lecturer traced the his-and positives-the fixing process-the various chemical

FISHING STEAMER.-- -The Deep Sea Fishing Association are about to introduce a novelty-a fishing steamer: it has just been launched in the Clyde. The steamer can carry four fishingboats to the fishing-ground, where they will be lowered into the sea, while fishing will also go on from the steamer. The machinery of the vessel is of a new kind-there are neither paddles almost instantaneously, without stopping the machinery or letnor screw; and the vessel can be stopped, turned, or backed, ting steam off.

substances used, and the means employed for taking por-
traits and views from nature by the camera obscura. He
proceeded to describe the various processes, such as the
calotype on paper, the collodion on glass, the daguerreo-
type on silver plates, and the albumenised process, which
was a substitute for the collodion on glass plates. Nature
was herself the photographic painter; and although we
had views innumerable of our ancient buildings and
hoary-crested piles, yet no labour of man, however great
his genius, could equal in faithfulness and delicacy of
touch the graphic delineations of Nature's artist-the
light of the sun, the crowning beauty of morning and the
glory of the day. He considered that the art of photo-
graphy was only in its infancy, and that it was impossible
to conceive to what purposes it might not still be applied.
He rapidly sketched the new system of photo-printing, the
application of photography to astronomy, and to the
value of this art as a means of collecting truthful ex-
amples of architectural details; and, in conclusion, exhi-a
bited the stereoscope, an instrument for illustrating bino-

cular vision.




Inst. of Actuaries, 7.

ANOTHER ARCTIC SEARCH.-It was unanimously agreed at the meeting of the members of the Geographical Society, on Monday se'nnight, that the chairman, Sir Roderick Murchison, should solicit the Admiralty to send out another expedition to the Arctic regions, in the summer of 1854. The new Arctic expedition is intended to proceed in quite a contrary direction of Sir John Franklin and the officers and crews of the Erebus any of those previously sent out from this country in search and Terror discovery ships, now upwards of eight years absent from England.


A NEW DISCOVERY.-The Official Venice Gazette states, in special article, that the Olympic Academy of Vicenza, having carefully examined the discovery made by their fellow citizen Tremeschini (mentioned about six months ago) of electric telegraphy by secret transmission, has publicly declared it to be a most successful invention. The commission appointed to test its efficacy was composed of the Councillor-Delegate of the The first experiment consisted in sending and receiving a disPodesta, the Superior Commissary, and the Academic Council. patch in the common way, without secrecy. In the second experiment, a dispatch was sent secretly, and the answer received in the same manner, by the aid of the new apparatus. In the third, a dispatch was sent openly, and the answer received secretly, to show that the secret apparatus might be used or susthe apparatus of Tremeschini may be applied to Morse's telegraph. pended at will. The results of the inquiry show:-1st. That 2nd. That when the dispatch is sent secretly it can only be reCivil Engineers, 8.-Resumed discussion "On Ocean detection. 3rd. That secrecy may be suspended or applied at so, any fraud in that respect being subject to immediate Steamers," and paper by Mr. J. Leslie, "On In-pleasure. The report of the commission is highly eulogistic of

British Architects, 8.-Mr. C. Winston, "On the ap-
plication of Painted Glass to Buildings in various
styles of Architecture."
Geographical, 84.-Lieut-Gen. A. Jochmus, com-
municated through Sir Roderick Murchison,
"Journey into the Balkan, or Mount Haemus;
with a description of the defiles through this cele-
brated mountain range, and a comparison of the
routes pursued by Darius, Alexander the Great, and
Marshel Diebitch."

clined Planes for Canals."

Botanical, 8.-Anniversary.

Society of Arts, 8-Mr. A. Fraser," On the Consump-
tion of Smoke."

Geological, 8.-Messrs. W. R. and H. Binfield, "On
the Occurrence of Fossil Insects in the Wealden
Strata at Hastings, Sussex;" and Mr. D. Sharpe, "On


the invention.



From Gazette, 18th November, 1853.

Dated 5th September, 1853.

the Age and Character of the gravels at Farringdon, 2042. J. Clare, jnn., Liverpool-Construction of iron houses, vessels,


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NOVEL APPLICATION OF GLASS.-The Prussians have put glass to a novel use. A column, consisting entirely of glass, placed on a pedestal of Carrara marble, and surmounted by a statue of Peace, six feet high, by the celebrated sculptor Rauch, is about to be erected in the garden of the palace at Potsdam. The shaft will be ornamented with spiral lines of blue and white. THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY at Brussels has just been placed in electric communication with the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, for the purpose of facilitating the determination in a direct manner of the difference of longitude between the two establishments. This operation is one of extreme delicacy, as well as of great importance to geodesy. The electric communication is made in such a manner that every oscillation of the pendulum at Brussels will be represented with accuracy at Greenwich, and vice versa. The observations are to commence this week. PHOTOGRAPHY ON TEXTILE FABRICS.-Messrs. Wulff, of Paris, have placed before the French Institute some specimens of photography on linen, oil cloth, chintz, &c. This discovery will be of great importance for architectural ornamentation and other useful purposes. Such pictures can be cleaned by wiping, nay, they can be washed, and a portrait on linen or long-cloth can be forwarded in a letter. As, moreover, these photographs can be obtained at a cheaper rate than those on metal or paper, the art will become more popularized. Messrs. Wulff keep their procedure yet secret, but it is thought that they operate on a preparation of iodized collodion.-Builder.


Dated 22nd October, 1853.

2443. J. F. Mermet, 23 Red Lion street, Holborn-Elastic spring in a tube, the lid of which moves down and up, according to pressure.

Dated 1st November, 1853.

2521. J. Crowley, Sheffield-Construction of ovens and furnaces. 2523. J. Hansor, Wandsworth road-Illuminating gas.

2525. A. Elliott, West Houghton, Lancashire-Looms.

2527. H. Tylor, Queen street, London-Chair bedstead.
2529. W. R. Palmer, New York-Spike threshing machines.
2531. J. Heywood, Ratcliffe bridge, Lancashire - Machines for
printing yarns.
2533. R. Circhbutt, King's road, Chelsea-Woodcutting machines.
Dated 2nd November, 1853.
2535. F. A. Gatty, Accrington-Bath for heating and distilling.
2537. W. A. Gilbee, 4 South street, Finsbury-Levelling apparatus.
(A communication.)
2539. W. Maltby, Cawborough-Preventing collisons on railways.
2541. F. Lipscombe, 233 Strand-Steam power, and regulating same.
2543. H. Brierley, Chorley, Lancashire-Spinning and knitting
2545. R. G. Hedges, Southampton row, Russell square—Fastening

ends of India rubber springs.

smoke, &c.

Dated 3rd November, 1853. 2548. W. Wood, 128 Chancery lane-Abstracting and consuming 2547. P. McGregor, Manchester-Spinning and doubling machinery. 2549. J. Moffatt, Birmingham-Candlesticks. (Partly a communication.) 2550. C. Reeves, jun. Birmingham-Swords, bayonets, &c. 2551. T. Irving, Dueton, Yorkshire-Preparation of wool for 2552. B. E. Duppa, Malenagner Hall, Kent-Colouring photographic 2553. W. Patterson, Edinburgh—Chairs. 2555. G. Duncan and J. Boyd, Liverpool, and J. Backy, Knotty Ash, 2556. E. Goddard, Ipswich-Gasburners. near Liverpool-Cask manufacturers' machinery. 2557. J. H. Tuck, Pall Mall-Motive power, and for raising liquids.


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2562. W. Crosland, Hulme-Governing speed of engines. 2563. W. Racksterr, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich-Buffers. 2564. W. E. Newton, 66 Chancery lane---Machinery for crushing ores. (A communication.)

2565. H. H. Higginbottom, Ashby de la Zouch-Water closets. 2566. H. Pratt, Broughton street, Worcester-Kneading dough, clay, &c.

2567. W. Foster, Lister place, Bradford-Looms.

2568. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's inn fields-Malleable iron manufacture, &c. (A communication.)

Dated 5th November, 1853.

2569. J. Smith, Bradford-Millstones. 2571. J. Harrison, Crewe-Steam engines.

2572. J. Hyde, Sheffield-Furniture castors.

2573. C. Carr and W. K. Horsely, Seglich, Northumberland-Steam machinery and pumps for mines, &c.

2574. R. W. Jerrad, 17 Upper Eccleston place, Eccleston squareSteam boiler furnaces.

2575. J. Rubery, Birmingham-Open caps for sticks of umbrellas, &c. 2577. W. B. Johnson, Manchester-Steam engines, and pressure indicator.

2578. E. Kesterton, Long acre-Springs for carriages.

Duted 7th November, 1853.

2579. II. Pershouse, Birmingham-Deposition of metals. 2580. J. Todd, Fish street hill-Spindles and bearings for lathes, &c. 2581. M. L. J. C. V. Falconi, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury— Composition for preservation of the dead.

2583. J. Grindrod, Liverpool-Steam engines.

2584. H. Wiglesworth, Newbury-Coupling railway carriages. 2585. R. Roughton, Woolwich-Steam boilers, &c. 2586. T. Walker, Birmingham-Railway signal apparatus. 2587. A. V. Newton, 66 Chancery lane-Preventing fraudulent abstraction of property. (A communication.) Dated 8th November, 1853.

2588. J. Onions and S. Bromhead, Peckham-Machinery for paper and papier maché.

2589. J. Gardiner and W. W. Wynne, Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire-Gas stoves.

2590. E. H. Graham, Maine-Firearms.

2591. H. Chamberlain, Kempsey, near Worcester-Brick tubes and tiles.

2592. G. F. Parratt, 27 Victoria street, Pimlico-Life rafts.

2593. E. L. Hayward, 196 Blackfriars road-Rozer of door and other locks.

2594. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's inn fields-Machinery for preparing and combing wool, &c. (A communication.) Dated 9th November, 1853.

2596. B. Dangerfield, and B. Dangerfield, Jun., West BromwichSteam boilers.

2597. T. Dunn, Windon Bridge Iron Works, Pendleton; J. Bowman, Plaistow, Essex; and J. Dunn, Bellevue terrace, Pendleton -Machinery for raising, &c., heavy bodies.

2598. J. A. Driew, Patricroft-Cutting velveteens, &c. &c., to produce piled surfaces.

2599. J. Brown, Darlington-Coke ovens.

2600. W. Dicks, Floore, Northampton-Wheels for carriages.


Sealed November 16th, 1853.

658. John Talbot Ashenhurst, of Upper John strect-Improvement in pianofortes.

1206. Jean Jacques Joseph Janin, of Gerrard street, and Alexander Seymour, of the Strand-Certain improvements in the manufacture of boots and shoes.

1733. George Spencer, of Manor road, Walworth-Improvements in springs for carriages.

1780. George Katz Douglas, of Chester-Certain improvements in the permanent way of railways.

1870. Richard Farmer Brand, of South terrace, Willow walk, Bermondsey-Certain improvements in firearms and ordnance. 1897. John Perkins, of Manchester-Improvements in the manufacture of oils. 1920. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery lane-Improvements in the distillation and purification of resin oil. (A communication.) 2016. Astley Aston Price, of Margate-Improvements in treating wash-waters containing soap, oils, saponified or saponifiable materials, and in obtaining products therefrom.

2023. Henry Jeremiah Iliffe, and James Newman, both of Birmingham-Improvements in the manufacture of buttons. 2070. William Hall, of the Colliery, Castlecomer-Improvements in the conversion of peat into charcoal.

2121. William Smith, of Little Woolstone, Bucks-Improvements in implements for tilling and preparing land for crops. 2136. George Spencer, of Cannon street, west-Improvements in supporting rails of railways.

2149. Sydney Smith, of Hyson Green Works, near Nottingham.Improvements in governors for steam engines. 2203. Hiram Tucker, of Massachusetts, U.S.-Improvements in the art or process of applying colours to a surface by means of a liquid. 2205. William Farmer, of Fulham Brewery-Improvements in apparatus for preserving provisions.

Sealed November 17th, 1853.

1215. John Lee Stevens, of King William street, City-Improvements in grates and stoves.

1217. James Thomas George Vizetelly, of Peterborough court, and Henry Richard Vizetelly, of Gough square-Improvements in printing machines. (A communication.) Sealed November 18th, 1853.

1222. John Haskett, of Wigmore street.-Improvements in anchors, to be called the "Ferdinand Martin Safety Anchor." (A communication)

1224. Wharton Rye, of Collyhurst, near Manchester- Certain improvements in kitchen ranges or fire grates. 1227. John Ryan, of Liverpool street-An apparatus for purifying liquids in a ready and economical manner

1231. George Sant, of Norton Lodge, Mumbles, Swansea-Improvements in clocks or timekeepers.

1327. John Macdonald, of Henry street, Upper Kennington laneImprovements in and applicable to lamps; also applicable to apparatus for lighthouse signal purposes; part of the invention applicable to other useful purposes.

1601. John Fell, of Chorlton upon Medlock-Improvements in the treatment of certain oils. 1864. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane-Improved preparation or composition to be applied to pigments, for the purpose of facilitating the drying of the same. (A communication.)

2064. James Gascoigne Lynde, jun., of Great George street-A pressure governor or self-acting apparatus for regulating the flow of water.


Richard Laming, of Millwall, Poplar-Improved process for purifying gas.

2150. John Barsham, of Kingston upon Thames-Improvements in the mannfacture of bricks, tiles, and blocks.

2186. George Peabody, of Warnford Court-Improved machinery for dressing and warping yarns. (A communication.) Scaled November 19th, 1853.

1239. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane-Improved machinery or apparatus applicable for pumping water, and supplying steam boilers with water, and maintaining the water therein at a proper level. (A communication.) 1244. William Fulton, of Paisley-Improvement in the treatment, and scouring or cleansing of textile fabrics. 1246. St. Thomas Baker, of King's road, Chelsea-Improvements in revolving shutters.

1251. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn -Improvements in rotary engines, to be driven by steam or any vapour, fluid, or gas; and in boilers or generators to be used in generating steam or gas for driving the aforesaid or other engines, or for other purposes. (A communication.) 1252. Thomas Isaac Dimsdale, of Kingstown, near Dublin-Improvements in purifying coal gas, and in disinfecting sewage or other fetid matters, and in absorbing noxious gaseous ex halations. 1251. William Carr Thornton, of Cleckheaton-Improved machinery for making wire cards.

Sealed November 21st, 1853. 1260. Henri Joseph Scouttin, of Nactz, France-Improved plastic compound, applicable to various ornamental and useful purposes.

1262. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn -Improvements in navigable vessels, to be employed in all waters, and to be propelled or impelled by sails, steam power, or other means. (A communication.)

1289. Thomas Singleton, of Over Darwent-Improvements in looms. 1945. John Webster Cochran, of Gower street-Improvements in machinery for crushing, grinding, and pulverizing stone, quartz, or other substances.

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No. 54. Vol. II.]


Journal of the Society of Arts.



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 30, 1853. THE Third Ordinary Meeting of the One Hundredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 30th ultimo, WILLIAM BIRD, Esq., in the Chair. The following candidates were balloted for and duly elected :Allan, Thomas

Aston, William

Barrett, Richard

Blews, W. H. M.

Boulton, George
Brown, William

Canning, The Right Hon.
Coe, John
Cottain, Edward
Cunningham, Henry Dun-
das Preston, R.N.
Dargan, William
Dawson, John
Drummond, Henry, M.P.
Elliott, George Augustus
Fergus, John, M.P.
Fife, The Earl of
Foley, John Hodgetts
Hodgetts, M.P.
Fox, Wm. Johnson, M.P.
Goode, William James
Green, Stephen
Grosvenor, Lord Robt.,M.P.
Harrowby, The Right Hon.

the Earl of

Hervey, Rev. Lord Arthur
Hills, Rev. George, M.A.
Hooper, John, M.D.
Hutchinson, Rev. Jas. M.A.
Jackson, Ralph Ward
James, Jabez
Knight, Valentine

Lee, Philip B.
MacAlpine, William
Marcoartu, Arturo de
McCormick, William
Merchant, Thomas
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A.
Murray, Andrew
Newcastle, His Grace the
Duke of

Norris, John Pilkington
Peel, Sir Robert, Bart., M.P.
Pollock, Henry
Rae, William Fraser
Reid, Hugo
Robinson, Frederick
Smith, William Henry
Standring, Benjamin, Jun.
Stanley, Lord, M.P.
Stansbury, Charles Fred.
Topham, James Tell
Towneley, Charles, M.P.
Travers, John Ingram
Wallenn, William Henry
Wallis, Thomas Henry
Wells, William, M.P.
Westminster, The Most

Noble the Marquis of
White, John
White, John Francis
Wilson, John Robert
Winstone, Benjamin
Wovendon, Joseph
Zetland, The Earl of

Also the following as Honorary Corresponding Members:

Fresenius, Professor, of


[Dec. 2, 1853.

as in the case of ordinary flax. The leaf is from 4 to 7 inches in length, and from 3 to 5 inches broad; it grows in clumps, from a depressed stem, something like an iris. The leaf is very parenchymatous or fleshy, provision for the removal of which must be made in any machinery intended for the preparation of the fibre. The native mode is to scrape the leaves with a cockle shell, thus tediously separating the fleshy portion from the fibrous; and the peculiarity of this successful but laborious process should not be overlooked. It is stated that, on trial, the strength of this material was found to be much superior to many others in common use, as the following proportions will show :-Silk, 34; New Zealand Flax, 23 4-5ths.; Hemp, 16 1-3rd.; Flax, 11 3-4ths.; Pita Flax, 7." Specimens of Chinese muscles, containing the Artificial Pearls alluded to in a previous number (Vide Vol. 1, p. 587), were likewise shown. The Paper read was :—



In presenting a paper on "Smoke Combustion," it is unnecessary to premise that, under the prospective alteration of the law with regard to furnaces, the subject, interesting as it is to the public generally, must be particularly so to the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. It is not intended to enter upon the various theories which have been advanced upon the subject, or to discuss the many inventions before the public, still less to bring forward any new theory, but to give the "results of absolute work," in a successful attempt to remove the smoke nuisance from an extensive London brewery and its neighburhood. Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, and Co. have for many years been desirous of removing the nuisance from their densely-populated neighbourhood, and for this purpose had tried most of the plans which previous to 1847 gave reasonable hopes of success. It is unnecessary to allude to the various plans which have been tried, though it may be excused if the writer refers to a partially successful attempt of his own. The boiler (a spherical one, without a tube) was set in the 312. Spalding, Mechanics' Institute. ordinary way, until the return side-flue reached Previous to the reading of the paper, the the fire-bars, when it was made to descend, and Secretary drew attention to some large and mag-was connected with a cast-iron box, placed on a nificent Photographs, which had been received from the Imperial Printing Office, at Vienna, and which, though unequalled in superfices by any British specimens, had been produced by an English lens, made by Ross. Also to a garment or cloak, manufactured from New Zealand flax, prepared in the native manner, which had been sent for exhibition by Mr. W. Stones, who, in a communication to the Secretary, said, that "it should be remembered that this fibre is obtained from the leaf of the plant, and not from the stem,

Kasteele, M. Van de, the Hague The following Institutions have been taken into Union since the last announcement :310. Galway, Royal Institution.

311. Hexham, Mechanics' Literary and Scientific Institution.

level with the furnace. This was repeated on the opposite side of the fire. The boxes being highly heated by the action of the fire, caused a rapid combustion of the smoke passing through them; but unfortunately, the consumption of the smoke caused the destruction of the smoke-consumer-the box was destroyed by the heat inside as well as outside. Fire tiles were afterwards substituted, but shared the same fate.

A general remark may here be made respecting many of the plans tried at the brewery,

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