« AnkstesnisTęsti »
448. J. Banfield, Birmingham-Communicating with guards and drivers.
464. C. Lamport, Workington-Ship-building.
465. J. Boydell, 65, Gloucester crescent, Regent's park-Hurdles and fences.
466. J. Elder, Glasgow-Marine engines.
467. A. Plantin, 25, Thayer street, Manchester square-Stopping, &c., trains.
468. W. E. Staite, Manchester-Preparation of madder and munjeet for dyeing.
469. F. Westbrook, Kensington-Cleaning of windows.
451. C. J. Fisher, Temple-Detecting forged notes, &c. 452. E. H. Bentall, Heybridge, Essex-Ploughs.
453. E. Power and T. Knowles, Birmingham-Watches, &c. 454. T. Forsyth, Wolverton-Furnaces.
455. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Dressing stone. (A communication.)
457. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Power from heated air and gases. (A communication.)
458. J. Barker, J. Andrew, and W. Hayes, Salford-Cleansing wool, &c.
459. C. W. Siemens, Adelphi chambers.-Electric telegraphs. 3014. (Partly a communication.)
461. G. Collier, Halifax-Twisting fringes.
462. J. Keenan, Paris-Blocks for printing. (A communication.) 463. C. F. Bekaert, 10, Rue de la Victoire, Paris-Oxigenated oil. (A communication.)
473. C. de Bussy, 45, Mornington road, Regent's park-Amalga
mation of gold ores.
474. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Harrows. (A communication.)
476. J. Morrell, Bradford-Stopping tap of any vessel after quantity required is withdrawn.
Dated 28th February, 1854.
486. W. Patten, 22, Old Fish street-Valves for water.
490. T. J. Johnson, 19, Booth street, Spitalfields-Roasting malt. 492. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Art of reading. (A communication.)
: Dated 1st March, 1854.
494. J. T. Cortin, 64, New Compton street-Soleing shoes and boots.
Dated 27th February, 1854. 471. P. Fougerat, Bordeaux-Paddle wheels.
Sealed March 13th, 1854.
472. J.D.M.Stirling, Larches, Birmingham-Tubes and cylinders of 2119. James Hill Dickson, of Evelyn street, Lower road, DeptfordImprovements in machinery or apparatus for the preparation of flax and similar fibrous material.
Sealed March 14th, 1854.
2128. John Timmis, of Stafford-Improvements in safety valves for 2129.
496. C. Hargrove, Birmingham-Furnaces.
498. T. H. Ewbank, South-sq., Gray's inn-Terry or looped fabrics. 502. W. and J. Clibran, Manchester-Regulating pressure of gas from main.
506. T. Metcalfe, 19, High street, Camden town-Folding bedsteads, &c.
2169. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet street-Improvements in the manufacture of soap and saponaceous compounds.
2204. Alexander Dalgety, of 76, Florence road, Deptford-Improvements in lathes.
2220. Louis Dominique Girard-Improvements in hydraulic engines.
2252. William Brown, of Bradford-Improvements in apparatus used
2948. John Tribelhorn, of St. Gall, and Dr. Pompejus Bolley, of
Hill's New Camp Bedstead
Henry Jackson, of High street, Poplar-Improvements in machinery for moulding bricks and other articles of brick earth.
3033. John Pym, of Pimlico-Improvements in machinery for grinding auriferous and other ores and separating the metal therefrom. 3035. Alfred Trueman, of Swansea, and Isham Baggs, of LondonImprovements in grinding, amalgamating, and washing quartz and other matters containing gold.
63. Joseph John William Watson, of Old Kent road-Improvements in signalling.
162. John Lockhart, junior, of Paisley-Improvements in the manufacture of bobbins.
168. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street, Holborn-Improvements in machinery for bending metal and producing forms thereon by pressure.
Alexander Wallace and George Galloway, both of GlasgowImprovements in the construction of portable articles of furniture.
Sealed March 15th, 1854. 2141. Eliezer Edwards, of Birmingham-Invention of a new or improved gas stove.
2143. Henry Kraut, of Zurich-Improvements in tools or implements to be used for boring or cutting rock, or other hard substances, for the purpose of blasting.
2147. Henry Jeanneret, of Great Titchfield street-Improvements in machinery for digging and tilling land.
2152. David Mushet, of Coleford, Gloucestershire-Improvements in steam engine boiler and other furnaces.
2159. Alexander Thomson and David Lockerbie, both of GlasgowImprovements in kilns for baking and burning articles in earthenware.
2160. John Adcock, of Marlborough road, Dalston-Improved apparatus for measuring the distance travelled by vehicles. 2166. Christopher Nickels and Ralph Selby, both of York road, Lambeth-Improvements in the manufacture of flexible tubes and bands, and in covering wire.
2172. William Lamplier Anderson, of Norwood-Improvements in propelling ships and other vessels.
2270. James Lee Norton, of Ludgate Hill-Improvements in instruments or apparatus for measuring and indicating the distance travelled by carriages, and in the means of transmitting motion thereto from the running wheels.
2783. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, Finsbury-Certain improvements in the construction of the Jacquard machine. (A communication.)
97. William Crosskill, of 'Beverley, Yorkshire-Improvements in the construction of portable railways.
107. William Crosskill, of Beverley, Yorkshire-Improvements in the construction of carriage wheels to run on railways and ordinary roads.
WEEKLY LIST OF DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY REGISTERED.
115. Edward Lord, of Todmorden-Certain improvements in looms for weaving.
181. John Bapty, of Leeds-Certain improvements in machinery for preparing to be spun, wool, and other fibrous substances when mixed with wool.
High street, Southover, Lewes, Sussex
No. 70. Vol. II.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS. [MARCH 24, 1854.
Journal of the Society of Arts.
FRIDAY, MARCH 24, 1854.
72,000l. worth were exported annually, and this has risen to the present time to the enormous sum of 1,717,8337. per year. It was in 1788 that cotton imported from the East Indies first made its appearance in the English market. By the time the Company's monopoly was relaxed, in 1814, it amounted to 4,000,000 pounds sterling, and it now averages from one hundred and sixty to one hundred and seventy millions of pounds sterling, for the cultivation of which an area of 8,000 square miles is required.
FIFTEENTH ORDINARY MEETING. WEDNESDAY, MARCH 22 1854. The Fifteenth Ordinary Meeting of the One Hundredth Session, was held on Wednesday, the 22nd instant, WILLIAM BIRD, Esq., in the chair. The following candidates were balloted for and duly elected:
The most extraordinary instance of the recent appearance of a trade of enormous magnitude of a commodity unknown to us is furnished by gutta percha. This invaluable substance first made its appearance in the home market in 1847. It is now used for almost every purpose of manufacture, the demand for the raw material being Manchester, Right Rev. the such as to threaten in a few years to extinguish the supply Lord Bishop of unless new sources be opened up, or new varieties of material be resorted to as a substitute. Oil seeds, many of which
The following Institutions have been taken have but recently made their appearance among our exports, have of late years become large articles of merinto Union since the last announcement :chandise, and from 30 to 40,000l. worth of linseed alone are annually shipped for England from the single port of Bombay. Within the past ten years the manufacture of coir mats and stair-carpets has been introduced into this country. The raw material chiefly comes from Ceylon, and I can find no return of its value, but the out turn of
The Paper read was :
ON SOME OF THE UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES the manufacture in this country exceeds, I have great OF INDIA.
By GEORGE BUIST, M.D., of Bombay.
reason to believe, 100,000l. a year. But it is not so much in the material we possess as in the enormous amount of untutored and unemployed labour at our disposal, When the climate, geography, or government of India that India promises to become a field for productive are spoken of at home, it seems generally to be supposed enterprise. The wants of the natives are so simple and that the country is one of uniform character and moderate so few, and the supplies of food and clothing, such as they dimensions, compact, accessible, and well and uni- desire, so cheap and plentiful, that they require much versally known to us. It seems scarcely ever to be stronger incentives to exertion than they have hitherto recollected that this vast territory embraces an area of possessed before they will be induced to exert themselves 1,309,200 square miles, surrounded by a boundary line of as they ought,—a higher order of industry, a larger re11,260 miles, or nearly half the circumference of the muneration than they have been accustomed to, and a globe. Of this 800,758 square miles belongs to England, better means of transporting the produce of their labour 508,422 square miles to native states. It is close on the to a profitable market than they at present possess. The area of Europe, which is in all 2,793,000 square miles, happiness of human life mainly consists in the multitude less the wastes of Russia, Sweden, and Norway, or of incidents, and the amount of innocent excitement comwithout these 1,035,300 square miles. Over this enor-prised in it, and there is no doubt the natives would be mous country, stretching from 8° to 32° north, and many times as happy and wealthy as they now are were rising from the sea level to an altitude of 28,000 feet, they only taught how profitably to exert themselves, and far within the region of the perpetual snow, in which stimulated to exertion by the fruits of industry being every conceivable variety of climate, soil, and production rendered profitable to them. prevail, there are in all about 60,000 Europeans to about 200,000,000 natives, of which about 50,000 are private soldiers or residents of the presidencies, and about 13,000 servants of the government, or one man of education and intelligence, to every thousand square miles. But, thus scattered and separated as they would require to be before this average was supplied, affords a most erroneous view of the state of matters as it actually exists. European are, in reality, massed together at the presidencies and principal military stations; they are never found in parties of less than four and five; generally they are in groups of many times this number, and over India at large so much as one station where any European of intelligence resides will | scarcely be found in every 10,000 square miles requiring to be examined, the climate offering the greatest obstructions for man moving about in the day time in the open air. Every year, as might under these circumstances be ex-tofore, the beaten paths of custom, or endeavouring pected, brings whole divisions of knowledge within a reach perpetually to lean on the arm of Government for aid in wholly new to us, and, as yet, we are only beginning to things which they themselves were perfectly capable of become acquainted with the grand features and vast accomplishing. resources of the country. As was well remarked by Sir Charles Trevelyan, in his evidence lately published, the produce of India yielding about twenty millions of exports annually, and the revenues affording nearly a similar amount, form but an inconsiderable fragment of what may be expected to be realised when proper means are adopted for their development. In 1778 the culture of indigo in Bengal scarcely covered its own expenses; thirty years afterwards
An excellent sketch has been given by Dr. Royle of the most productive of our existing known resources, so far as these have already been improved; to attempt a notice of those requi ing to be developed, or capable of profitable development, would be to assume an amount of information, to the possession of which no individual can pretend, and to aspire to the solution of a difficulty, time, experience, and investigation alone can solve.
On the grand scale, it will be allowed on all hands, that the three things mostly required are-1st, the opening up of the country by roads and railways; 2nd, the improvement of its fertility, b. means of irrigation and improved methods of culture; and, 3rdly, the general enlightenment of the people, so that they may learn to see their way and think for themselves, to rely on their own reflection, industry, and resources, in place of following, as here
Limited in extent and short in duration as our expe rience in railway making has been, it has proved in the last degree encouraging to us. The vast physical difficulties, so often represented as all but insurmountable, have been found to vanish the moment they were faced, and to have been little better than creatures of the imagination. The natives, of all descriptions, have shown an extraordinary aptitude for the performance of almost
352. Cirencester, Permanent Library.
every kind of work, whether in the mere drudgery of for solely from water rent, at so much per thousand cubic cutting and embanking, or in the most difficult depart- yards as at present, no interference whatever being made ments of tunnelling, bridging, and wall building; and with existing territorial revenue or other public arrangethe result has been, that the work has reached, or surments. In the vast sums just named there seems margin passed, the highest standard of excellence the most enough of profit both for Government and the copartnery; ambitions of our engineers had aspired to, and been and the large amount saved by the dispatch insured by executed at a cost great below the sum estimated. private ent rise, exerting itself under the strong stimuNor is this all. Though only twenty-two miles of raillants of gain, compared with the delays which always have as yet been in use, and this for the space of no more attend all the peaceful operations of Government, would than ten months, the fragment betwixt Bombay and in itself be sufficient to fill a capacious treasury. Canals Tannah having been opened on the i5th April, 1853, the of irrigation go hand in hand with the construction of terminus being at a country village, yielding no goods roads and railways, the latter furnishing the former with traffic whatever, the revenues from passengers and parcels the means of transporting to market the increased produce alone have been at the rate of nearly eight per cent. per they bring into existence, and which could only by some annum, on a total outlay of 7,0001. per mile; and as the such means as this be made profitable, the former providing wet season, which enormously reduces all kinds of traffic, the latter with the traffic they most desire to increase. occupies half the summer six months, and only one-fourth When it is considered how recent a thing it is for the of the whole year, the gross revenues on the line for the Government of this country to pay any heed to the in: twelvemonths, of which the whole coming portion s'ruction of the people in arts and manufactures, for the is favourable to traffic, will probably be found to exceed development of the industry and resources of the country, eleven per cent. on the year. The ordinary estimate for it will not be deemed very wonderful that the subject working charges is 50 per cent. on the receipts, and this should in India be almost altogether overlooked. When will leave 54 per cent. for dividends, at the commence it is seen with what assiduity it has of late years been ment of the experiment, before any goods traffic can taken up in England, and what gigantic results it procome into existence, and probably not one-fourth of what mises to produce where private enterprise is of itself will by and bye appear, when the line is extended, has accomplishing so much, and stands comparatively so littlo made its appearance.
Thirteen years elapsed betwixt in need of assistance, the fruits that may be looked for the time Mr. Vignoles recommended the construction of from it in India, where, in the midst of natural resources railways all over India at the Government charge, and of unbounded promise, the slavery to custom is universal, that when the Governor-General, taking up the subject and apathy and ignorance reign supreme, may be guessed in a spirit worthy of himself and of the age, gave the at. I am so little acquainted with what has been done weight of his authority for the immediate commencement at the other Presidencies, and should probably do such of a scheme on which heretofore years had been wasted in inadequate justice to individuals, that I shall chiefly correspondence. It has been staied in Parliament that confine my remarks to Bombay, merely noticing the seven years were employed in writing about the Bombay Engineering College at Roorkee, the Museum of Economic ragment, which was commenced and completed in a single Geology at Calcutta, and the Economic Museum and working season, at an expense of 7,0001. per mile, when School of Industry at Madras. The oldest of these estab 15,0001. were allowed by the consulting engineer of lishments is that at Calcutta; it was brought into existGovernment. The superintending engineer of Madras ence about twelve years ago, and placed under the charge still maintains, that at our past rate of progress forty years of Mr. Piddington, formerly an officer in the Company's will be required before we reach the cotton country, and Commercial Navy, a man of talent, general accomplishprobably two centuries will elapse before England is as ments, and indefatigable industry, of late years celebrated well supplied with railways as Austria, Prussia, Belgium, for his researches of the “phenomena of hurricanes and and France already are.
storms." The museum contains specimens of the raw The papers lately published by the most distin hed material--animal, vegetable, and mineral-of the manuengineers under Government, show that the construction factures and tools, and implenents of manufacture, to be of canals of irrigation have scarcely ever yielded Govern- met with in India. I am not aware in what particular ment less than 15 per cent. in immediate return, that manner, or under what regulations, it is made available they have often afforded from 25 to 30 per cent., not un. to the public. The Engineering College at Roorkee was frequently from 30 to 50 per cent.—and on several brought into existence under the auspices of the distinoccasions hydraulic works have repaid themselves within guished Governor of the North-west Provinces, the late a year or a year and a half of their construction; and it Mr. Thomason, when that splendid system of canal opehas been clearly proved, that there yet exist lands rations, which, during our wars with Atfghanistan and capable of profitable irrigation sufficient to increase the Sciode, had been permitted to languish, was brought into revenues of India from 5 to 15,000,0001. annually, activity by the late and present Governors General, were the whole money invested in the works to be bor Forming the head-quarters of the works, and placed rowed at 5 per cent. Col. Cotton estimates that the nearly at the centre of the principal operations then in single work across the Gadavery, costing 50,0001., will progress, the object of the establishment was to provide
lmost immediately yield 25,0001. a-year, and, when the instruction in all departments of practical and theoretical cultivation of sugar is extended, will probably realise engineering, and their kindred arts and sciences, to the 50,0001. a-year; and that had it existed during the last natives and Europeans likely to be employed in the work, twenty years more than 100,000 lives lost by famine while officers from all parts of India, whose tastes or would have been saved by it. There is no principle more talents lay that way, were encouraged to resort to Roorkee generally allowed than this—that Governments should for instruction. confine themselves, as far as possible, to the administration Full particulars of the establishment and its arrangeof the affairs of the country, committing public works to ments have been published by Government, and it seems the hands of private enterprise. so ofteu as this can be to be answering to admiration all the ends expected to be made available for the object desired to be fulfilled. A fulfilled by it. The Museum and School of Industry at joint stock company is now in process of organisation, for Madras seem to owe their existence to the zeal and ability the promotion of artificial irrigation in India on the same of an individual officer, Dr. Hunter, of the Madras Medigeneral principle on which railways have been promoted. cal Establishment, assisted by a brother medical officer To meet the want of confidence of capitalists where in- of no less distinction- Dr. Balfour, and cordially patronised vestments in India are required, a minimum guarantee by Government. Instruction is given at the school in draw. will be asked for, and a restriction placed on the dividends, ing, modelling, copper, wood, and lithographic engraving, 80 that profits exceeding say 10 or 20 per cent. shall be in pottery and the plastic arts, sculpture, and carving in made over to Government. The revenues will be looked wood and stone, and a vast variety of other branches,
Government liberally assisting with European workmen, familiarize themselves with any variety of goods or of and permitting their establishments to be laid under manufacture, without relation to the country from whence contribution for tools and other assistance. The Museum they came, might do so at once; and persons from one is on the same general plan as that of Calcutta. I am not part of India might carry home with them the improveprepared to enter into details. ment, and familiarize themselves with the processes found In 1844, an establishment was projected at Bombay, to prevail elsewhere. Native dealers were to be enunder the name of the Polytechnic Institute, having couraged to bring specimens of everything they sold for three great objects in view; first, the reformation, train- exhibition to the museum; the prices, and all that was ing, and maintenance of pauper children and juvenile known regarding each individual article was to be written delinquents taken up by the police-somewhat on the upon it. In each division a book was to be placed, wherein plan of the ragged schools afterwards brought into was to be written all the information already possessed, or existence in this country; secondly, the instruction of which in process of time could be gathered in reference to native workmen in the use of improved tools and implements, the locality, the qualities, the value, and the uses of each and the practice of the arts and manufactures, as known in individual commodity, in the hopes of producing a Europe; and, thirdly, for the establishment of an Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures for the East, such as economic museum, on a plan embracing the general might remedy the deplorable ignorance from which we features of the Adelaide Gallery, as it existed in 1840, at present suffer, in reference to almost everything that the School of Design and Museum of Economic Geology, most concerns commercial men trading with India. and the Great Exhibition. These things were intended The building was to be surrounded by a park and to be worked out by a private co-partnery, Government, gardens, planted with exotics or productions of economic in consideration of the reformatory part of the plan, value, and filled with models of steam-engines, hydraulic charging itself with the expense of the European super-machines, water and wind mills, telescopes, microscopes, vision and instruction. So desirable and so promising was and other scientific instruments, the inspection of it considered that native princes and noblemen from all which would afford amusement, arouse curiosity, parts of India contributed to its funds, and, long before it and impart information; so promoting the great subwas in full operation, workmen from the remote provinces stantial ends of education amongst a people nine-tenths of Rajpootana, Goozerat, and Kotah, in defiance of the of whom had no chance of obtaining it by other means. apathy and prejudices usually ascribed to them, resorted This scheme, though at present in abeyance, has never to it from places many weeks' journey off, and exhibited been lost sight of, and the slightest stimulant from home while they remained-which some of them did more than would, I feel confident, at present speedily bring it into twelvemonths- the utmost anxiety for instruction and activity. We should then, besides the other more imaptitude for improvement. A series of those delays and portant tasks we should be able to accomplish, be prepared interruptions known only to India, but which there are to supply the Society of Arts, or the Museum of Economic of ince sant occurrence, here made their appearance, and Geology, at a moment's notice, with any specimen of so wearied and disgusted the original subscribers, that Oriental produce, or any information regarding our prothey broke up the co-partnery, and divided the funds, ductions that might be desired; while we should obtain not, however, until the foundation had been laid for the from them in return information as to what was required reformatory school, as originally proposed as a fragment for the home market, and how we should best proceed to of the plan. The establishment, which is maintained by make what we had to dispose of known and acceptable. public charity, has been four years under my charge, and When these projects were first brought forward at is now eminently flourishing. In 1848, the plan of the Bombay, it was not known that plans for Museums, to a Economic Museum, to be found in the Transactions of the considerable extent similar to that described, though less Bombay Geographical Society for that year, and of the ambitious in their aspirations, unless perfect and systeAnnals of India for 1849, was laid before Government, and matic in their arrangements, had been under the conit was stated, that should it be favoured with an expres- sideration of the Royal Asiatic Society of London, and had sion of cordial approval from them, such as to signify an been strongly recommended for establishment in all the appreciation of its value, it would be brought into exist- districts to the Madras Government by General Cullen, ence and maintained by private contribution, without any resident at Travendrum; and I entertain no doubt that demands upon the public purse; the answer received was both Schools of Industry and Museums may be brought so frigid and disheartening that the whole was laid aside into existence, without material charge on the public until more auspicious days should arrive, and I have still purse, and with inconceivable advantage to the comin my possession a collection of several thousand speci-munity, were Government to take the matter in hand. mens awaiting some future time and opportunity for being turned to account. It was proposed to construct a spacious but inexpensive building, capable of indefinite extension and improvement, should circumstances and funds permit; in this were to be arranged specimens of all the raw produce, animal, vegetable, and mineral, of all the manufactures, and of all the tools, implements, and contrivances for conversion from a raw into a manufactured state, which the East supplied; these were to be arranged under a double system of classification, geographical and specific. Under the division, say of China, Bombay, Scinde or Zanzibar, the whole of the productions that any one of these localities supplied were to be arranged, so that any traveller proposing to visit the countries just named, might, by resorting to the museum, familiarize himself with all the products to be looked for there. The articles in the other sub-division were to be arranged in classes, somewhat in the following manner, viz.:— Pottery Tools and Materials.-Granites, felspars, alkalis, glazing, and colouring materials.
In March, 1853, Sir Jimsetjee Jhejheboy proposed to Government to make over to them a sum of £10,000 for the endowment of a School of Industry, to instruct natives in the higher departments of arts and manufactures, on the condition that Government should bring the establishment into existence, and provide for its superintendence; and I have strongly recommended that this be made the means of restoring the Polytechnic Institute to its integrity as originally intended, the whole divisions of the establishment being placed under one common head, the salary being kept conterminus to each other. The matter was still under consideration, and will remain such, until Sir Jiusetjee Jhejheboy, now betwixt 70 and 80 years of age, is gathered to his fathers, and his grant becomes beyond the reach of Government.
Potters' wheels and other tools, models of kilns, &c., &c.
As a single illustration of ten thousand that may be offered, the present state of the paper market may be taken. Within the past few months the price of paper has risen one halfpenny per pound, and this, it is said, will occasion for the Times newspaper alone a loss of 10 or £12,000 per year. As there appear to be upwards of 150,000,000 lbs. of paper consumed annually in the British Empire, the increase of price, small as it appears, will amount to
upwards of 312,5007. It is said to arise solely from the scarcity of rags, the raiment wearing not providing exuviæ rapidly enough for the supply of printing material to provide intellectual food for the reading portion of the population. In India we have short staple flax, and cotton to any amount, almost worth'ess for the purposes of ordinary manufacture, but perfectly fitted for the paper market. We have cheap. neat handed, and ingenious workmen, abundance of pure water, smokeless skies, and sunshine of unsurpassable b ightness; the means, in short, of providing the world with unlimited supplies of paper, if we were only taught how to make it. The coir mat manufacture, as far as Europe is concerned, has already passed away from us, but we have the markets of India, Australia, and America still open to us.
The CHAIRMAN observed, that although they all understood the subject, and, looking at the vast resources of India, must feel proud that so small a territory as England should hold sway over so amazing an extent of country as the Indian empire presented, still they could not but regret that they had not better fulfilled their mission as governors of that dependency. With the enormous revenues of India, it was almost incredible that she should have only 22 miles of railway constructed, while in the United States, where there were no such facilities, there were 12,000 miles of railway open. What advantages would not accrue to us if we had only a tithe of that railway communication, and consequent economical transit in India. We could send iron to India as cheaply as we could send it to America, and with the forests of India there was no reason why iron should not be made there. But even if they could not make it there, we could supply them with an unlimited quantity; and, notwithstanding this, year after year passed away, and at the end of 16 years there were only 22 miles of railway open in India. It was said, as an argument against their construction, that the natives would not travel on them; but so far from this being the case, experience proved that the natives availed themselves largely of the only railway there, and that, short as it was, it paid a dividend of 54 per cent. They were now also proceeding to lay down telegraphs, but this might have been done many years ago. He feared there was a long catalogue of misdeeds against the government of India, and the Society could not do better than bring the subject before the public, and by discussion endeavour to show not only that much might have been done, but that much still remained to be done.
Mr. MACLACHLAN said that he had been one of the first who had laboured to improve the present means of transit, and to do what lay in his power for the welfare of his fellow-countrymen in Bengal. In the year 1842, the subject of the want of proper means of transit had come under his notice. He then proposed to open up a line of road 1,100 miles long. When he first broached the subject, he was regarded as a lunatic, and as a man who spoke of being able to accomplish impossibilities; but with an expenditure not greater than 10,000l. he had succeeded, within six months, in reducing the time occu pied in travelling a certain distance from twenty-nine days to six days. This undertaking was called The Inland Transit Company of Bengal," and employed 600 horses. It was now in active operation, and through its instrumentality a means of transport had been opened to Delhi, diverging to the seat of Government at Agra. It was a matter of deep reflection to him, looking at the vastness of India, her noble rivers, that proceed down to the sea, and her immense producing powers, that means were not taken, by cutting canals, to double her produce and to cheapen it, not only for our people but for those of other countries. The means of effecting this object were in the hands of the Government, who had only to give their sign manual to have it carried out. The money of the Government was not wanted, all that was wanted was their security, and if they would issue paper money, or
promissory notes, similar to the 50 millions' worth in circulation at the present moment in this country, ten millions of money could be raised within a few months to carry out great public works. But this sum was not necessary. If only 1 millions of money could be had, it would be sufficient to make a canal from Calcutta to Benares, and thus open up the distriet of Upper Bengal. There were many important cities along the Ganges, including Patna, Benares, Cawnpore. Juttighan, and others, which contained a population of 60,000,000. In fact, all the wealth of the country lay along the rivers, for as there were no roads it was impossible to have cities in the interior of the country. On the line of country which he had opened up he found only wild beasts and untutored savages. In many cases he had travelled for 180 miles without seeing a single village, the government po-t being carried on relays of horses. India was possessed of immense wealth, and the balance of trade was still in its favour notwithstanding the heavy annuities and subsidies which she had to pay. We had been in communication with India for upwards of two centuries, but all the wealth of the people was locked up among themselves, because they had no confidence in us, and had no means of communicating with us. Although we governed the natives of India they were still much separated from us in feeling and sympathy.
Mr. FRITH expressed his regret that Dr. Buist was not in the room, as no one could have entered into a discussion of this sort with greater ability. With regard to railways, he (Mr. Frith) was one of the originators of the Bombay line, and he could state that Dr. Luist's remarks were born out by the facts of the case. He was not, however, inclined to attach too much blame to the Indian Government, for they had obstacles to deal with from the nature and habits of the prople, which it was extremely difficult to surmount. The physical condition of the country on the Bombay side of India was opposed to the construction of railways, but he believed that in the course of the next half-century we would see railways in the cotton districts. In Bengal the land was low and level, and greater progress might be made. He considered the chief resources of India to be her population and the patient endurance of the natives, combined with their willingness to work for a very small stipend.
Mr. G. F. WILSON observed that in consequence of the difficulty of transit, the valuable oils and greases to be found in Central India, and which would find a ready market here, could not be brought to this country.
Mr. TWINING inquired how far the agricultural resources of India could supply this country, in case we were shut out from the trade of the Black Sea and the Ealtic.
Mr. MACLACHLAN said that at present any prospect of a supply from India was quite out of the question, as the failure of the crops at Madras and Bengal had been so general that corn was at famine prices at Delhi. If, how ever, capital were introduced into the country, he saw no reason why it should not supply the world, as it was as fertile as the valley of the Rhine.
Mr. C. WENTWORTH DILKE inquired of Mr. Frith to what extent " broach," or soft corn, could be procured from India. Having seen some of it, in the year 1851, he had inquired of Messrs. Forbes, Forbes, and Co., and they had informed him that a very large quantity could be introduced into this country. Freights were then only 31. 10s. per ton, which would have left a fair margin of profit at 127. 10s. per ton. He presumed that this description of corn could be brought to this country, if carefully cleaned so as not to deteriorate on the voyage. Mr. FRITH could not say in what quantities the particular grain alluded to by Mr. Dilke could be procured, but the corn-growing capabilities of India were immense. He apprehended, however, that corn from the Cape of Good Hope and South America would successfully com pete in this market with the produce of India.
Mr. LowE said, that with respect to cotton cultivation