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4000 persons, and the receipts netted £80, which sum was carried to the credit of a fund for a new building, which the Institution hoped to be able to erect on a scale commensurate with the rising prosperity of the town. Valuable results are looked forward to from the union with the Society of Arts. The president then addressed the meeting, and was followed by the president of the Hastings Mechanics' Institution (George Scrivens, Esq.), the Rev. W. W. Hume, Mr. Selway, Mr. Banks, Mr. Ward; and by Mr. Tufnell, the Government Inspector of Schools, who was a visitor on the occasion. A vote of thanks to the chairman was proposed by Sir Woodbine Parish, K.C.H., and seconded by P. O'Callaghan, &c.
WARMINSTER.-The first lecture of the season at the
by this and the printing-presses of Caxton. Then Spenser delighted by his sweet imagery; and that mighty bard appeared who wrote "not for an age but for all time." of whom the lecturer said, quoting the language which Shakspeare puts into the mouth of Antony, "he makes hungry where most he satisfies." The lecturer also referred to the poets of the 17th century, passing a glowing eulogy on Milton, and specially commending Pope's "gems of wisdom." The peculiarities of subsequent poets were adverted to, and Burns and Cowper, and Crabbe, and Moore, were passed in review. Scott's marvellous powers of dealing with the legendary and the chivalrous were enforced, and Byron's magical genius received due recognition. The lake poets were reviewed; Wordsworth receiving special reference and Athenæum, was delivered on Tuesday, the 4th Oct., by homage. The poets, male and female, of the present Mr. Ansell, on the "Electric Telegraph." The lecturer did day, were glanced at; the lecturer leaning to the notion not confine himself to the mere exhibition of an instrument, that the female poets have the supremacy in inspiration. and of those aerial highways of words--those mysterious The concluding portion of the lecture was an elaborate threads-which we see at railway stations and along the vindication of poetry from the attacks of its detractors.lines of our chemins de fer-our iron roads. He went back far There are some who detest "ballad-mongers; " who re-into antiquity, to give, historically, an account of all the gard them as merely frivolous and useless writers. If successive modes of signals which nations have adopted; they are correct in their opinion, the lecturer said, the commencing with the Siege of Troy, and ending with Homers, and Virgils, and Wordsworths, and Cowpers, and the era of railroads-embracing beacon fires, semaphores, Miltons, and Shakspeares lived in vain; and the man who could seriously assert this would display not his under whatever mode of operation they might have and all the various modes of telegraphic communication wisdom, but his eccentricity and temerity. He dwelt on been in use-showing their greater or lesser value in the good that results from emotional appeals, and from simplicity and intelligence-their sufficiency or insuffithe merely beautiful. He showed the poetical in nature ciency through gloom and fogs, by land and sea. around us, insisted upon its utility, and with considerable lecturer brought a staff of operators, who communicated warmth and energy compared and contrasted natural with artistic beauty. Poetry, he believed, meets a requirement messages from the lecture-desk to the gallery. The lecin the nature of man; and will last as long as man has ture was highly appreciated.-On Monday the 16th, Mr. spiritual thoughts, as long as he is influenced by hope stars." The lecturer discussed the theories of the most Asteroids, and luminous and shooting and love, as long as he owns bright anticipations, as long eminent astronomers who have written upon that branch as he is surrounded by suggestive solemnities, and as long of astronomical science of which his lecture treated. The as he is the participator of "the mystery" of existence. theory of Obers, in particular, as to a lost world was SEVENOAKS.-On Thursday, November 10th, a lecture noticed, and its probabilities presumed. was delivered by Dr. Vesalius Pettigrew, at the Literary and Scientific Institution, on "The Advantages of the Lower Animals to Man." To illustrate this lecture those animals were chosen whose province it is to clear away all decayed animal and vegetable matter-" scavengers," as the Doctor humourously called them-the worm, the beetle, the fly (blue-bottle), the star-fish, the adjutant, the hyena, &c., &c. This is the third lecture the Doctor has given to this Institution, all of which have been numerously and respectably attended. The Marquis of Camden has taken the chair on each occasion.
SHREWSBURY.-On Tuesday, November 8, Mr. Elsmere delivered his first lecture on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, to the members of the Shropshire Mechanics Institution. The subjects of the lecture were--The Nature and Uses of Botany; the Germination of the Seed; the Root, and its various Uses; the Stem, its Functions and Anatomy. In conclusion, the lecturer remarked that the vegetable world afforded us satisfactory proof of the existence and goodness of God, and furnished unanswer. able arguments to atheistical sophistries. At the close of the lecture a vote of thanks was proposed by the president, and carried by acclamation.
Bird lectured on "
WHITCHURCH.-On Tuesday evening last, a lecture "On the Life and Writings of Cowper," was delivered to the members of the Mechanics Institute, in their readingroom in the Town Hall, by the Ven. Archdeacon Allen, vicar of Prees. The Rev. W. H. Egerton, President of the Institute, introduced the rev. lecturer to the audience, and at the close of the lecture proposed, on behalf of the officers and members of the institute a vote of thanks, which was most warmly responded to.
NOTICE.-The Council desire to call the attention of the Members and others to the increase which has been made in the size of the Journal, by the addition of four pages of matter. This addition will be given every week during the session, when the papers read at any of the ordinary meetings run to such a length as would preclude, under other circumstances, the publication of shorter articles and letters of general interest on the subjects embraced within the Society's operations. The Council trust to receive the cordial support of the general body, to enable them to carry out, with increased and increasing interest, this feature.
ST. LEONARD'S-ON-SEA.-The annual soirée of the Mechanics' Institution was held on Tuesday week in the Assembly Rooms, and was very numerously attended. The president of the Institution, Mr. Alfred Burton, occupied the chair, and was supported by many of the leading residents of the place. Mr. S. Putland, jun., read the report, from which it appeared that the number of subscribing members was 184, having been 170 at the corresponding period last year. In addition to these there were ten life members. The library consists of about 850 vols. The reading-room is supplied with three daily and three weekly newspapers, and five weekly and one monthly pe- WED. riodicals. The Local Exhibition, held in the same rooms in January and February last, was visited by upwards of
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
CAPT. PEACOCK'S PATENT BELL BUOYS.-Three of these buoys are now in the Southampton dock, which the Mexican government have ordered for a part of the coast in the Gulf of Mexico. They are enormous buoys, with large bells, and their use is in thick and foggy weather, when the buoys cannot be seen. The surging of the waves causes the bells to ring, which gives information of the locality of the buoys. The apparatus is such also as to answer the purpose of life buoys, where several persons can be sheltered until they are rescued. The Russian government recently ordered one of the patentee for Riga. One is placed off Calshot Castle, near the entrance of the Southampton Water, and it has been proposed to place one near the entrance of the Solent, which would afford great assistance to the pilots and commanders of the Southampton mail packets. Colonel Facio visited Southampton on Monday, to inspect the buoys for the Mexican government. Captain Peacock has recently submitted models of his very useful invention to the Admiralty and Trinity Board.
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE GUARD AND DRIVER OF A RAILWAY TRAIN.-Captain Norton proposes that a Whistling Bolt or Arrow, without feathers, should be shot from a steel cross-bow by the guard of the train, a few yards in a direct line over the head of the engine driver, who should have a shield or a screen behind, reaching a foot above his head. The guard could place the bow on the roof of the carriage in his front-in a position marked out, so that every shot would follow the same tract, without the necessity of raising the bow to his shoulder or taking any aim. Captain Norton has also invented a new Fog-signal. This apparatus consists of a small piece of seasoned wood, such as ash or elm, which has a chamber drilled into it, to receive about three drachms of Hall's rifle-powder: this hole is stopped with a wooden plug, glued in. A small touch-hole on the side receives a quill, charged like that for firing a cannon by percussion, but more simple in its construction-being without the transverse quill. The fault of the fog-signal at present in use is, that the tin case containing the charge of percussion powder, is crushed by the wheel of the engine: the percussion powder is in consequence not confined when the explosion takes place.
Dated 25th October, 1853.
2465. W. Bottomley, North Brierly, Bradford, Yorkshire-Improved
2469. E. Austin, Pembroke cottages, Caledonian road-Surveying
2479. R. Joly, Gaillon, France-Improvements in dyeing.
Dated 27th October, 1853.
2482. A. F. Rémond, Birmingham-Manufacture of metallic vessels.
CONSOLIDATED SODA WATER.-A curiosity in saline drinkstermed by the inventor, M. Lamplough, consolidated soda water"-has just made its appearance. Aerated, or gassed, water is common enough, but not so real soda water. M. Lam-2485. plough, however, now gives us the true article, in the very portable condition of a ready prepared powder, from which we can 2487. always obtain an "effervescing pyretic saline" draught of unvarying quality. A small bottle, with a cork-fitted stopper, holds twenty-four such draughts, in the shape of a powder, a teaspoonful of which, mingled in a glass of water, disengages a greater amount of carbonic acid gas than is producible by any ordinary means. The powder is, indeed, carbonic acid gas solidified, a substance being added for the perfect preservation of the So convenient a means of obtaining a cool effervescing fluid carries its own recommendation with it.
OYSTER FISHING IN THE BAY OF LUCE.-Two years ago a discovery was made of extensive oyster beds in the Bay of Luce. The oysters proved to be of a large and superior quality -one of them being equal to three of the Lochryan oysters. The constant annual dredging of the Lochryan beds necessarily deteriorated the size and quality of the oysters; and the large rent payable to the proprietor make the fishings not a very profitable business for those engaged in it. The discovery in the bay of Luce was, therefore, looked on with much satisfaction by the fishermen and the public; but it was no sooner made, than it brought forward Patrick Maitland, Esq., of Freugh, to claim an exclusive right to the whole oysters in the bay, and in the seas below the bay-rather an extensive boundary, which might include, the bay, properly so called, from the foot of the River Luce to the Mull of Galloway and the Burghhead, and also the Solway Frith and the Irish Channel to the Isle of Man. He founded on a Crown charter and sasine, and issued printed notices, intimating his alleged right, offering to grant licenses-and threatening legal proceedings against those who should disregard it. Mr. John M'Clelland,
be worn as a garment.
W. Vaughan, Stockport, Cheshire, J. Scattergood, Heaton
2488. R. Bishop, Edinburgh-Steam and water valves.
tem of weaving by hand.
2492. E. Loysel, 2 Rue de Gretry, Paris-Improved coffee pot.
Dated 29th November, 1853.
2502. P. O. Bernard, Rood lane-Hamper for wine, &c., in bottles.
Dated 31st November, 1853.
2507. J. T. Wright and E. P. Wright, and W. Ashbury, Birmingham-Improvements in mill banding.
2508. J. Haley, Manchester-Machinery for cutting, boring, &c., 2097. Robert Trouson, of the Chamber of Commerce, Liverpoolmetals, &c.
2509. E. G. Banner, Cranham hall, Essex-Motive power.
2510. C. Goethel, and C. M. Zimmerman, Philadelphia - Stereoscopes.
2511. F. P. Rovère, 4, Wellington street, Strand-Joints for tubular drains.
Improvements in ventilating and preventing spontaneous combustion in ships and other vessels laden with coal, culm, or cinders.
Thomas Metcalfe, of High street, Camden town-Improvements in portable chairs and tables. 2100. John Ward, of Saville House, Leicester square, and Edward Cawley, of Stanley street, Chelsea-Improvement in chairs, couches, and tables.
2512. P. M. Parsons, Duke street, Adelphi-Switches.
2516. J. Brown, Darlington-Waggons.
Joseph Marks and John Howarth, of Massachusetts-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for operating the brakes of a train of railway carriages.
2108. Joseph Maudslay, of Lambeth-Improvements in boilers and furnaces for generating steam.
2120. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire-Improvements in the manufacture of zinc. (A communication.) 2122. Emerson Goddard, of New York-Improvements in machinery for cutting stone.
2528. J. Chesterman, Sheffield-Hardening and tempering steel, and grinding, glazing, &c., steel, &c. 2530. Captain J. Bauer, Vienna - Steam-digging and harrowing Dated 2nd November, 1853. 2534. W. Taylor, Newport Pagnel Stopping bottles of ærated liquids. 2536. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford street, May-fair-New buffer-break. 2538. E. Ward, Potton, Bedfordshire-Carriage axles. (A communication.)
1314. George Harriott, of Islingham, Frindsbury, Kent-Improvements in agricultural implements employed in crushing and rolling land, and in frames for the same. 1336. George Goodlet, of Leith-Improvements in engines to be worked by steam, air, or water combined. 1348. William Knowles, of Bolton le Moors-Improvements in machinery for warping and beaming yarns or threads.
Moses Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements in apparatus and means for removing matters or heat from cur-▾ rents of air, gases, or vapours from liquids, and for communicating matters or heat to the same. (A communication.) Richard Dugdale Kay, of Bank terrace, Accrington-Improvements in block printing.
Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements in machinery for separating flour, shorts, and dustings from bran, as it comes from the bolting apparatus. (A communication.) 2137. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire-Improvements in generating steam in steam boilers. (A communication.) 2148. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements in distributing printers' type. (A communication.) 2180. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Imptovements in life preservers. (A communication.) 2185. Joseph Gibbs, of Abingdon street-Improvements in the treatment of minerals, for the purpose of separating impurities therefrom. Sealed 11th November, 1853.
1167. Edmund Whitaker, of Rochdale, and James Walmesley, the younger, of Smithy Bridge, near Rochdale-Improvements in the manufacture of pipes, tiles, bricks. and slabs, ftom clay. George Bell, of Powell street, Goswell street-Improvements in obtaining liquid cement and pigments or paints. Stephen Garrett, of Taunton place, Bermondsey-Improvements in the preparing and tanning of skins, hides, or felts of animals.
William Edward Maude, of Liverpool-Improved apparatus for steering ships. (A communication.)
William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane.-Improvements in locks and latches. (A communication.)
John Carvalho de Medeiro, of Passy, near Paris-Improvements in the means or processes for preserving metals from corrosion. (A communication.) Thomas Bollman Upfill, and William Brown, both of Birming- Improvements applicable to metallic bedsteads, couches, chairs, and such other articles as are or may be used for sitting, lying, and reclining upon.
Sealed 12th November, 1853.
Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square, and Edward Taylor Bellhouse, of the Eagle Foundry, ManchesterImprovements in pressing and in extracting fluids.
1377. Henry John Beljemann, of New Oxford street-Improvements 1188. John Knowles, of Manchester, and Edward Taylor Bellhouse,
Robert Boyd, of Paisley-Improvements in weaving.
John Thornbarrow Manifold, Charles Spencer Lowndes, and
William Wolfe Bonney, of West Brompton-Improvements in
1329. Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square-Improvements in obtaining differential mechanical movements. 1370. William Edward Maude, of Liverpool-Improvements in carriages. (A communication.) 1541. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields-Improvements in the production or manufacture of flour. (A communication.)
Robert Anderson Rust, of Regent street-Improvements in pianofortes.
2002. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of FinsburyImprovements in apparatus for heating. (A communication).
No. 53. Vol. II.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
[Nov. 25, 1853.
in what form the metal presented itself, or whe
Journal of the Society of Arts.ther the diggers of those ancient days reduced it
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 25, 1853.
SECOND ORDINARY MEETING. WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 1853.
by means of crushers, cradles, or long-toms.
In later times, Africa was long a noted source of gold, which gave a name, indeed, to a large portion of its coast. The metal was found in small particles, known in commerce as" gold dust," collected, no doubt, by some rude process of washing, from the sands in the beds of the interTHE Second Ordinary Meeting of the One Hun-mittent streams. The region on the south of the dredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 23rd Sahara, as also Sofala and Kordofan, were prolific instant, THOMAS HOBLYN, Esq., F.R.S., in the sources of the precious metal. Sofala has, indeed, and was long the chief emporium of the gold by some been supposed to be the ancient Ophir, brought from the interior. But Africa is now entirely eclipsed by our modern Eldorados. It is said to yield about 5,000 lbs. weight annually.
The following Candidates were balloted for and duly elected :
William Henry Absolon; Rev. Henry Baber, M.A.; Henry Blundell; John Calvert; John Moxon Clabon;
Robert Dawbarn; Samuel Holme; W. S. Northhouse; John Henry Pepper; Osman Ricardo, M.P.; R. A. Slaney George Spottiswoode; William Staniland; and Lord Wharncliffe.
The paper read was
ON MACHINES FOR REDUCING AND
Before proceeding to discuss the more prominent means now in use, for extracting the noble metal from the substances with which it is found associated, it will be well (very briefly) to consider the conditions in which gold presents itself in the various localities where it is found.
It has often been remarked, as an evidence of he wise care of Providence, that while gold, which possessed a comparatively artificial value, existed but in small quantities and in few localities, iron, the most useful of metals, was distributed in vast quantities in every quarter of the globe, and was everywhere accessible to man. The present appearance of things would seem to throw some doubt over the truth of this remark, which would appear to be more pious than just. The fact is that gold is found in every quarter of the world, and every day's research opens new fields to the enterprise of the gold-seeker. The authority of a year on this subject is already out of date. California, whose gold fields were opened only six years ago, had hardly successfully asserted its claim to the title of the Eldorado, before she found a powerful rival in your own Australia; and even this seems destined to share attractions with Devonshire and Wales.
The most ancient source of the precious metal mentioned in the sacred writings, is "the land of Havilah, where there is gold," and of which it is said" the gold of that land is good." Of Ophir, we are told that " they fetched from thence gold and brought it to Solomon," and that "Jehosophat made ships to go to Ophir for gold;" but we know not with certainty the situation of Ophir; nor have we the means of ascertaining
Asia has long been, and still continues to be, an important source of gold; indeed it was brought from the Indian Islands in remote times, and more recently gold deposits have been extensively worked in the Siberian and Ural districts. the Ural it is found in small pieces, embedded in coarse gravel, and in veins of quartz in hard rocks. It is sometimes found associated with platinum.
America, too, has made her full contribution to the stock of the noble metal. Brazil, Chili, Peru, Ecuador, New Granada, have all yielded rich supplies. The streams which run from the mountains bring down their precious freight in their pebbly beds. These were for a long time the chief sources of Brazilian gold, but it is also found in veins in the rocks, which modern capital. is making available and profitable. The quantity yielded in Mexico is comparatively small, and it is always found there associated with silver. The Apalachian chain of the United States sends downs in some of its streams quantities of auriferous deposits, which have been worked with advantage in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. But all the gold fields of America sink into comparative insignificance before the immense yield of the single state of California; which, in six years, has transformed a wilderness into a populous and wealthy state, with agriculture, arts, and commerce. The gold discovery here took the usual course. It originated in accident, got wind against the will of the first discoverers, was kept alive by rich findings in alluvial deposits, and at last subsided into something like a regular branch of industry, into which more perfect methods were introduced, as the eagerly sought wealth began to demand for its attainment a more steady and laborious industry. Rich sands and nuggets gave place to quartz ore, which required to be mined with great labour-crushed by heavy machinery, and amalgamated by careful and expensive processes.
In Europe, gold is found in many localities; the principal of which are Hungary and Transyl
vania. But England and Wales seem, from recent events, to bid fair to take their place among the most important gold-producing countries of the world. The precious metal occurs here in a state of minute division in quartz rock. In Devonshire the red and brown gossans contain a per centage which will amply repay the cost of reduction, by the best methods now known. The following statement of the results of eight recent experiments with some auriferous quartz from Merionethshire, Wales, will show the grounds of the opinion above expressed:
consisting of nearly a hundred weight of gold, in a quartz-ridge near Bathurst, called attention to the parent rock; and the subsequent researches of the Government geologists brought to light veins of auriferous quartz so extensively diffused, that quartz mining must soon become one of the chief industrial employments of South-Eastern Australia. Notwithstanding this extensive distribution of gold, and the great desire of man to become possessed of it, the methods which human invention has hitherto devised for the purpose of obtaining it, have been but partially successful. Oz. dwts. grs. There is abundant evidence to show that, up to the present time, no method that has been applied has succeeded in extracting all the precious metal from auriferous ores. A friend of my own, who has travelled extensively in Russia, states that a very large proportion of the wealth of the
The Britannia gossan from Devonshire yielded, Russian ores is lost-by confession of the mining by recent experiments
A specimen of Cornish ore yielded at the rate of 11 oz. 13 dwts. and 8 grains to the ton. The Poltimore gossan has yielded from 17 to 32 dwts. to the ton, and other Devonshire ore 9 ounces to the ton. These results have been obtained within the last month, and go to show that the long-cherished dream of finding gold in profitable quantities in England is about to be realized. The experiments just mentioned have all been made at an expense not exceeding 5s. the ton for the reduction. The same ores have been smelted at a cost of 30s. per ton.
A word on the subject of England's great gold producing colony, will conclude these hasty preliminary observations.
Australia has only been known as a goldproducing country since 1851; for although shepherds and others were known to have picked up stray pieces of gold-bearing quartz for some years previously, it was not suspected to exist in quantities sufficient to repay the labour of collection, until Mr. Hargreaves, a practical miner, who had gained his experience in the Californian gold-fields, showed that the metal could be obtained in large quantities on the western slopes of the Blue Mountain Range. Subsequent researches have proved the metal to exist in larger or smaller quantities throughout the settled districts of South-Eastern Australia; and, from the character of the ranges to the north of New South Wales, it is suspected that they will prove equally prolific. Hitherto the metal has been obtained solely by the simple process of washing; for, although machinery has been introduced by public companies for the purpose of extracting it from the quartz rock, no important results have yet been attained. Indeed, in the first instance, the metal appears to have been sought for only in the alluvium, until the discovery of a monster nugget,
men themselves-in the process of reduction now employed, and which has been cited, by an eminent geologist and mining engineer, as the most perfect process now in use.
In California, too, the loss of gold has long been loudly complained of. Mr. Collins, of Grassvalley, in that state, says :-" Our present mode of operating is very rapid, but the process of saving the gold is very imperfect, not saving from ordinary rock more than one-fourth or one-third of the gold which it contains."
The Phoenix Gold Mining Company of New York, in their report, make the following remarks :-" The difficulty hitherto in gold mining from quartz has not been chiefly in breaking, grinding, and pulverizing the rock, that is in itself a very simple process, and one which can be effected in a variety of ways, with a per centage of difference in rapidity; but, after the rock is pulverized, the great desideratum is to separate the whole of the gold from the powder. The old process is so incomplete in its results that not more than one-sixth to one-third of the gold is saved in practice, as shown by the more thorough assay of the chemist."
Volumes of evidence might be added on this subject, all of the same tenor, but the simple fact that there has been so much inventive ingenuity applied in the last few years to the production of machinery for extracting gold from its ores, is sufficient to show that a machine for the purpose of doing this work effectually, remained a desideratum.