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mental leather and paper manufacturers, book-binders, and, possibly, manufacturers of china, to the process, for it must be remembered that soap when made can be run into moulds of any form, so as to obtain curved as well as flat surfaces for the artist to draw upon. It has also occurred to me that it would prove a very ready and expeditious method of forming raised maps, pictures, and diagrams for the use of the blind. The manipulation is very simple. A lead pencil drawing, if required, can readily be transferred to the smoothed surface of the soap, by placing the face of the drawing on the soap and rubbing the back of the paper; every line of the drawing is then distinctly visible on the soap. The implements used are equally simple; all the specimens sent were drawn with ivory knitting-needles, and small ivory netting meshes for scooping out larger and deeper touches. The only caution necessary is to avoid under-cutting. Having felt the greatest interest in the establishment of schools of design, so well calculated to re-connect Fine Art with manufactures, it will afford me sincere gratification if the simple process now pointed out-and I trust its simplicity will be no bar to its being carefully testedshall be in the smallest degree instrumental in accomplishing the re-union.

Sheffield, Dec. 31st, 1853.

P.S.-The date 1850 is on some of the illustrative specimens.

VENTILATION OF FARM BUILDINGS.

manner hitherto unknown. Die-sinking is a tedious process, and no method of die-sinking that I am aware of admits of freedom of handling. A drawing may be executed with a hard point on a smooth piece of soap almost as readily, as freely, and in as short a time as an ordinary drawing with a lead pencil. Every touch thus produced is clear, sharp, and well defined. When the drawing is finished a cast may be taken from the surface in plaster, or, better still, by pressing the soap firmly into heated gutta percha. In gutta percha several impressions may be taken without injuring the soap, so as to admit of "proofs" being taken and corrections made—a very valuable and practical good quality in soap. It will even bear being pressed into melted sealing-wax without injury. I have never tried a sulphur mould, but Limagine an impression from the soap could easily be taken by that method. The accompanying specimens will show that from the gutta percha or plaster cast thus obtained a cast in brass, with the impression either sunk or in relief, can at once be taken. If sunk, a die is obtained capable of embossing paper or leather; if in relief, an artistic drawing in metal. This suggests a valuable application. The manufacturer may thus employ the most skilful artist to make the drawing on the soap, and a fac-simile of the actual touches of the artist can be reproduced in metal, paper, leather, gutta percha, or any other material capable of receiving an impression. By this means even high art can be applied in various ways not a translation of the artist's work by another hand, as in die-sinking, but the veritable production of the artist himself. One of the specimens sent is a copy of Sir E. Landseer's "Highland Piper," a rude one, I must conA short time back Mr. James D. Ferguson, of Bywell, fess, though its rudeness does not militate against the agent of W. B. Beaumont, Esq., M.P., delivered a lecture principle involved in its production. Suppose the draw-on this subject to the members of the Hexham Farmers' ing had been made by Sir E. Landseer himself; that ac- Club. He commenced by remarking that the proper complished artist's actual drawing might have been ventilation of farm buildings was embossed on various materials in common use, and hitherto, he feared, had not much engaged the attention a subject which disseminated amongst thousands, thus familiarizing of architects, for he had never observed any proper prothe eyes of the public with high art, and giving a vision made in new buildings, either for the admission of value to the embossed transcript which no translation pure air to, or the escape of impure air from, houses in by the die sinker, however skilful, could possibly give it. which cattle were confined. In old farm steadings, in all The raised gutta percha impression of this specimen is countries, scarcely any plan appeared to have been from the soap itself; the sunk impression is cast in gutta observed; the various houses for cattle were, in many percha from gutta percha. The works in metal during respects, too small in size, and bad workmanship in fitting the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, owe their excellence the doors and windows, allowed the free access of fresh in a great degree to the combination in the same indi- air at all times, while the vitiated air escaped through the vidual of artist and artisan. The metal was finished by thatched or tiled roof. Although direct currents of cold the artist himself, who left the stamp of his genius un-air should, if possible, always be avoided, yet these mistakably upon it. By the plan just explained, something like a return to this combination might be effected, and the artist would at least have the satisfaction of finding his own work accurately rendered, and not en feebled in the translation; for the art of casting in metal has of late been so much improved, that little difference can be detected between the impression on the cast and the mould which produced it. I wish to lay particular stress upon the fact that drawing touches can be thus rendered, and an effect rapidly produced, unattainable by modelling. The larger plaster casts were taken from drawings freely made-as the appearance of the touches will prove-in common brown soap. The finer kind of soap is of course better fitted for fine work; but should the process now described be adopted by the manufacturer-and I trust it may never become the subject of any patent-soap better suited to the purpose than any now made will doubtless be specially manufactured. In proof that fine lines can be drawn upon the soap as well as broad vigorous touches, I can state that one of Rembrandt's etchings has been copied on soap, the soap pressed into gutta percha, and an electrotype taken from the gutta percha cast, from which a print has been obtained very little inferior in delicacy to the original etching. Doubtless persons engaged in manufactures will see applications of the process which I have not contemplated, and I leave it to their ingenuity to discover them. I would particularly call the attention of orna

houses were generally much more healthy than the present
close confined houses under air-tight slated roofs. In old
buildings, where the roofs are covered merely with grey
sandstone slates, tiles, or thatch, he recommended that,
except keeping the roofs water tight, they should be
allowed to remain as they are; but, in order that a
good supply of fresh air might at all times be ad-
mitted in an undulating manner, air holes or vent ducts
should be made through the wall behind the cattle, at say
every ten or twelve feet, on each side of the entrance or
outside door. Into these openings, which might be made
through the wall two feet above the floor, tubes of wood
or iron should be inserted, four or five inches diameter, or
they might be made square,
end, to prevent the ingress of rats or mice. The outside
with a grating on the outside
end of the tube should be made flush with the wall, when
fixed in it, and its length should be five inches less than
the wall's thickness, in order that a groove might be cut
of that depth and width from its mouth downwards to
within six inches of the floor. On this grove a thin flag
or board of two inches in thickness should be fixed flush
with the wall inside, and the air was admitted indirectly
into the building below the end or bottom of the flag, and
about six inches from the floor, by an aperture which
would be five inches wide and three deep. Stables ought
to be kept at a temperature of about 55° in winter, and
from 600 to 65° in summer. Cow byers, however, should
be kept much cooler, and therefore ought to have more

air holes or vent ducts than stables, which would allow a temperature ranging from 55° to 60°. The dung in stables and byers should be removed every morning, and a little gypsum scattered over the channel or gutter; or, what was much better, be completely flushed out with water, and then conveyed, either in an open channel or in socketed pipes, to a tank. This prevented any injurious effects from the ammonia or emanations arising from the urine, which, in close confined stables, tended greatly to destroy the eyesight as well as the health of horses.

In respect of the size of houses for the feeding of farm stock, Mr. Ferguson said, that according to the present mode of building steadings, a feeding byre or cow house for one row of cattle when tied up, should not be less in width than 18 feet within the falls, including a passage at their heads for feeding 34 feet wide. The side walls should not be less than 10 feet in height above the floor, and ought to be made smooth with one coat of good plaster, and once at least each year should be carefully washed with hot lime, which made the atmosphere in the building sweet and healthy for the cattle confined in it. Moreover that such houses might be properly ventilated, ventilators 3 feet long by 2 feet wide, should be placed on the apex or highest part of the roof. By simply pulling a cord, the valves of these ventilators, which were fixed in a wooden box projecting above the ridge, were raised for the emission of the impure air, while at the same time, and by the same cord, the fresh air was admitted by means of air drains and chambers placed at intervals at the bottom of the building, and communicating with each other and into the external atmosphere, so as to introduce it in a diffused and undulating manner. These air chambers might be about twenty or twenty-two inches deep, by fourteen or sixteen inches square, with iron gratings over the top of them. damper worked in a groove in this box or drain, flush with the inside of the wall; and, to the upper edge of it, a cord was attached, which passed over a pulley fixed to the wall plate of the building. The cord which opened the valves of the ventilator on the ridge of the building was made to pass over a pulley fixed to one of the spar legs of the roof, and also down to the wall plate over a second pulley, and then tied to the cord of the damper below. This cord then forming one only, hung down the wall like a bell rope, and by giving it a gentle pull, the damper was raised for the admission of fresh air below, while at the same time, the valves of the ventilator at the top were opened to allow the vitiated air to escape. A ventilator of this description, with Its damper and gratings, need not cost more than from 20s. to 30s. according to size, and it was so simple in its action, that the most unintelligent boy could manage it.

Home Correspondence.

THE DECIMAL SYSTEM.

A

pound, had impressed itself on the public mind. Again, the shilling might retain its name, but be of the value of ten pence instead of twelve pence, still retaining the name penny, which could be also further decimated, and called tenths; by which a minute and fair division of the penny, and its value in commodity, could be obtained, to the advantage of the poor: a half-penny would be a five-tenth piece, and might retain its name; the rest of the coins would be named accordant with their value, such as ninetenths, three-tenths, one-tenth, &c., denoted on the new small copper coins by figures 1 to 9. No great change would thus be required; the old names being retained, and the penny slightly raised in value would be counterbalanced by advantages in the introduction of copper tenths.

The same decimal system might also be safely introduced in our standard weights and measures, all rising in ratio of advance by tenths; by which the complicated and varied weights of troy, avoirdupoise, and apothecaries' pounds, could be brought to a single uniform pound in weight, one-tenth of which would be an ounce, and any further reduction for minute weighing, below the ounce, to be by progressive tenths-of drams, scruples, or grains. The hundred weight would be 100 lbs., instead of at present 112 lbs.; and the ton would be ten hundred weight, instead of at present twenty hundred weight:—a fair and easy standard, simple and effective, would thus be obtained, and the errors and complications of the old system remedied.

Illustration of Principle:

ADDITION OF MONIES-NEW STYLE.

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ADDITION OF MEASURE IN LENGTHS-NEW STYLE OF TENTHS.

The present mile standard might be maintained; merely descending the scale by tenths-ten furlongs to a mile; ten chains to a furlong, &c.

SIR,-I am equally disappointed with your correspondent, Mr. Bevan, in the results of the government committees' determination, as to proposed mode of alteration of coinage wrongly termed "decimal coinage," as I consider that to be fairly decimal which will add collectively in tabular columns, in tenths; so that errors arising from present system of divisions--by 20, 12 and 4-is avoided, and a plain addition sum is substituted, merely requiring divisional lines, or comma points (from right to left), to mark the relative value (as shown in a column of monies on Liquids might come under similar decimal arrangethe other side. This would only involve altering the pre-ment, but would be most fairly determined, as to accusent pound value of twenty shillings (or old style) to future racy of quantity, in the same way as medicines-by pound value of ten shillings (or new style), still retaining weight, marked on the gauge or measuring vessel. the name of "a pound," and any comparison of value ascertained by merely halving new style to equal old style; for instance, a rental of 60l., new style, would be the equivalent of 301. old style; which would appear somewhat strange at first, until the new style, or standard substituted.

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RUTHVEN'S PROPELLER. is equally pressed upon in every direction by that fluid. SIR,-I feel gratified by the flattering manner in which Therefore, if a portion of that part of the bows of the "Cosmos" has, in a late number, referred to the steamer vessel which is under water be removed, the pressure just built for the Deep Sea Fishing Association of Scot-upon it will be removed, and will no longer counterland, and by his favourable mention of me as Consulting Engineer to the Association. I may, perhaps, be allowed to correct some of the statements of "Cosmos," which are, historically, not quite consistent with the facts of the rise and progress of Mr. Ruthven and his invention. Mr. John Ruthven was a printer in his father's office, and he gave up that occupation fifty years ago. In 1813, he obtained a patent for an improved printingpress, which has long been known as "the Ruthven press." About that time, the illustrious Watt invented a method of copying letters by rollers; when Mr. Ruthven, at the same time, constructed a press for copying letters into a book. This is now generally adopted under various forms, but Mr. Ruthven was the originator of the Copying press.

balance the equal and opposite pressure on the corresponding part of the stern. It will therefore communicate to the vessel a tendency to move in the direction of the bows; and this tendency will tinue, in a greater or less degree, until the level of the fluid within the vessel is the same as that without it; and if the water be forced out at the discharge pipes as fast as it enters it at the bows, the tendency to motion will always be the same. If it be objected that the vessel could not so easily go astern with the water entering at the bows as at the bottom, then there might be a corresponding aperture made at the stern, with a contrivance for preventing the water entering at the bows while it entered at the stern, and the contrary. Thus, when the hole at the stern was closed, and the water entered It is more than fifty-five years since Mr. Ruthven directed at the bows, the greater pressure would be at the stern, his attention to the propulsion of vessels by steam. In and tend to force the vessel in the direction of the bows; the end of the last century he made a small model boat when the hole at the bows was closed, and the water enwith paddle wheels, and obtained the propelliug power from tered at the stern, the greater pressure would be at the the works of a watch. Since that time he has more or bows, and tend to force the vessel in the direction of the less directed his attention to the improvement of steamstern." vessel propulsion, and his views have now been worked out by his son, Morris West Ruthven. The first steamboat he constructed larger than a model, was forty feet long, and eight feet broad; it satisfactorily proved the adaptibility of the water-jet principle for practical purposes, and he would at the time, have succeeded in getting it into general use had not the interference of the Admiralty, to whom the plan was submitted, advised perhaps by interested officials, knocked it on the head, by inducing others, who were at the time inclined to bring it forward, to abandon it.

Mr. W. Ruthven proceeded to New York, to obtain a patent for the United States, but he found that the law required that a large model should be deposited, and was engaged there in its construction for six months. He remained altogether for a year, but was unsuccessful in getting his plans taken up, because they had not been adopted in this country! It was in America, however, that he matured the improvements now successfully

carried out at home.

Messrs. Ruthven carried their plans before the British Association, on its meeting at Edinburgh, a year or two ago; they were merely advised by the President of the Mechanical Sect on, Professor Robinson, to consult some scientific friend on the matter, as he pitied their sanguine hopes of success, and doubtless considered they themselves were incapable of judging of its merits. They subsequently lodged their model at the Great Exhibition, but, strange as it may appear, there is no mention, in any way, of Ruthven or his propeller in the reports of the juries.

Proceedings of Institutions.

some

LANCASTER.-On Tuesday week the Athenæum had its annual soirée, and brought its year to a close with perfect eclat. There was an exhibition of works of art, musical performances, and a display of sleight of hand and similar feats of manual dexterity. The proceedings were opened by Mr. E. Sharpe, the chairman of the committee, who said he would first call their attention to the extremely valuable collection of sculptures and paintings which had been most liberally placed at the disposal of the committee by Mr. Rothwell, of Foxholes. The sculptures executed in statuary marble were in the very highest style of art, and might be pronounced to be unrivalled by any similar collection in this neighbourhood, and he believed in this county. The paintings were all very excellent, and some of them of great antiquity. To Mrs. Fearenside they were also indebted for six excellent paintings-four of which were by their townsman, Linton-as well as for an admirable bronze figure, which was one of the most striking objects in the room. Mrs. Rossall had also contributed several valuable paintings and water-colour drawings. To the Reverend the Vicar they were also under obligations for two excellent portraits and early sepia sketches; to the Rev. Colin Campbell and the Rev. T. F. Lee for large collections of rare engravings; to the Society of Arts for a collection of photographs, of which three from Vienna might be pronounced unequalled. Also to Mr. P. H. Delamotte, for another very beautiful series of 50 photographs; to Mr. Peacock for a carefully classified collection of ferns; to Mr. Charnley for an excellent assortment of ornaments in bronze and or molu; to Mr. Isaacs for a valuable collection of works in gold and silver; to Mr. Metcalfe for a beautiful display of works in china and porcelain; to Mr. Hardman, of Birmingham, for a small but extremely rich collection of vessels and candelabra, in gold and silver, inlaid with 14, Adelphi terrace, London, Jan. 2, 1854. enamel and jewels, of great value, as well as works of art as on account of their intrinsic worth; Mr. Coupland had Mr. J. Holden, of Halifax, in a letter to the "Times" contributed an exceedingly interesting and rare collection on this subject, suggests-"That instead of allowing the of foreign and old English weapons-three of Eastern water to enter through small holes at the bottom of the origin-beautifully worked and inlaid, being of great vessel, it should enter through two holes at the bows, of value; Mr. Seaward had contributed a few good specithe same diameter as the pipes through which it is dis-mens of hardware manufacture; Mr. Edmondson, a series charged, or through one hole of the same area as that of engravings; and Mr. Wright, of Caton, the model of of both the discharge pipes. The advantage of this plan a steam engine.

A letter from myself appeared in a late number of the "Times," in which I have communicated the leading particulars connected with the steam-vessel now constructed with Ruthven's propeller.

Thus, Sir, I have laid before you a correct outline of the history of Ruthven's Propeller up to the present time, and of the inventor himself so far as it bears upon the invention under discussion.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
D. K. CLARK.

Would be an increase of speed, which I will endeavour LIVERPOOL.-Besides private lectures on "Commercial show. As is well known, any body immersed in water Law" and "Practical Chemistry," the following public

lectures were delivered in the Collegiate Institution during the second half-year of 1853:-Two on the "Crystal Palace at Sydenham," by Mr. T. C. Archer; one on the "Life of St Chrysostom," by the Rev. V. W. Ryan, M.A., Principal of the Highbury Training College; four on the "Physiology of the Mind and Infant Education," by Mr. W. H. Bainbrigge, F.R.C.S.; two on the" Moon," and two on the "Tides," by the Rev. St. Vincent Beechy, M.A.; one on “ Heraldry," by the Rev. A. Hume, LL.D.; and one on "The Jews and Judaism," by the Rev. Hugh M'Neile, D.D.

LONDON.-On Wednesday evening a soirée and conver. sazione was held at the Mechanics' Institution, for the double purpose of celebrating its thirtieth anniversary and of rousing its friends and supporters into some new line of action, with a view to a restoration of the institution to its pristine vigour. The theatre was crowded, and the various entertainments went off with considerable eclat. The chair was taken by Mr. Grossmith, who opened the proceedings with a short address, after which there was a miscellaneous concert, supported by Miss Poole, Mr. Weiss, Mrs. Grosvenor, and Miss Collins. Mr. Weiss was encored in several of his songs, and the other singers received a just modicum of applause. Mr. Wilkinson accompanied tastefully on the piano, and Mr. Carte gave one of his popular solos on the flute. At the conclusion of the concert the "Wandering Minstrel" was performed by the elocution class, and the evening's entertainment terminated with a general adjournment to the refreshment-rooms, which had been tastefully decorated for the

occasion.

MAIDENHEAD.-At the last General Annual Meeting of the Mechanics' Literary and Scientific Institution, a suggestion was made that it would be desirable to institute during the winter months a series of evening meetings, or reunions of the members, somewhat after the manner of the conversaziones of the learned societies of London. The committee appointed to consider the subject have recommended the adoption of the plan, and consider that it should be at the option of any individual present at such meetings to deliver a short lecture, or to read a short paper, upon any subject likely to be interesting to the majority; and that, after such delivery or reading. questions, remarks, and observations upon what had fallen from the speaker should be permitted. The first of the proposed series of reunions will take place on Tuesday evening, the 10th of January inst.

MODBURY.-The annual meeting of directors was held at the Institution on Monday last, when the following gentlemen were unanimously elected to the following offices: President. Rev. Preb. Oxenham; Vice Presidents, Rev. R. West, Mr. R. Lethbridge, Sen.; Secretary, Mr. Joseph Flashman; Treasurer, Mr. Richard Sherwell. It was also resolved that the Reading Rooms should be kept open from nine o'clock, a.m., to half-past nine, p.m., when all the periodicals and newspapers now taken in at the institution are to be regularly laid on the table for the use of the members who may now avail themselves of this boon. The members hope ere long to have access to a daily newspaper as soon as the funds of the institution will admit of the same. A vote of thanks was also unanimously given to the following gentlemen on retiring from office, J. Andrews, Esq., President; Vice Presidents, Mr. Luscombe and Mr. Foale.

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Miscellanea.

THE ELECTRIC Looм.-The Piedmontese Gazette of the 12th ult. has an article on the electric loom recently invented by Chevalier Bonelli, and states that, on the recommendation of M. Beron, of Lyons, who had observed to him that he would meet at Lyons with great opposition to his invention owing to the difficulty of breaking through inveterate habits, Chevalier Bonelli has applied his invention to the old Jacquard loom, which thus remains, as it was before, merely suppressing the cylinder, as the cards are entirely done away with. By this means the manufacturer may realise immense advantages without any innovation in his factories.

GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF MINES, CORNWALL.-Energetic

That

measures are now being taken for the early establishment, on wall. An influential meeting in support of the scheme was held an extensive scale, of a school of mines for the county of CornRobartes, M.P., Mr. Kendall, M.P., and many other influential a few days since, and was attended by Mr. Williams, M.P., Mr. gentlemen. After an animated discussion it was unanimously resolved that it was desirable that a central school for mines should be established, and that local schools in connection therewith should also be established or promoted. The following scheme, proposed by Mr. Gilbert, met with general approval :— "That schools should be establised in several of the most popu. lous mining districts, at which young men might attend, out of to encourage the formation and maintenance of such schools, working hours, without interrupting their daily labour. grants should annually be made for books, models, drawing materials, &c., and, if necessary, towards the rent of the schoolrooms, on the conditions that the course of study should be of a suitable nature, and that the schools should always be open to inspection. That, for the purpose of encouraging the attendance of pupils, exhibitions at some higher school or college should be offered for competition at examinations to be held twice every year. If funds enough could be raised by Government assistance and otherwise, that a high central school should be established in the county, and teachers engaged, whose duty it should be, during the terms of study, to instruct exhibitioners and other pupils in geology, chemistry, including metallurgy, mathematics, geometry, and mechanics, with drawing; and, during the vacalocal schools, and to give lectures illustrative of the sciences intions, to hold examinations for the exhibitions, to inspect the tended to be taught at the high school. If it were not found possible to establish such a high school, it was suggested that the grants might be made to the local schools. The expense, including 20 exhibitions at £15 each, was estimated at £1.000. IRON MANUFACTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN.-Among the documents recently published, is the first part of the Report of the Commissioner of Patents. It contains among other things, a paper on the World's Exhibition, by Mr. Edward Riddle, the American Commissioner. In this many interesting facts are given. Alluding to the iron mines and manufactures of Great Britain, it is stated that the mean richness of the ores of iron These are the richest ores of England, the average in the in the South Wales coal basin, is estimated at 33 per cent. Staffordshire Districts being less than 30 per cent., and that of other districts rarely above 25. This is far below some of the ores of this country, which yield as high as 70 per cent. of pure iron. In England, every ferruginous clay stone is considered an ore of iron, when it contains more than 20 per cent. of that metal. To effect the calcination of the mineral, it is piled up in long heaps over a stratum formed of large lumps of coal. The fire is afterwards applied to the windward end of the pile, and after it has advanced a certain distance the direction. The ordinary height of such a heap is from six to pile is prolonged with the same material in the opposite seven feet, whilst its breadth at the bottom may be about fifteen or twenty feet. When the ore treated, as is not unfrequently will, when once ignited, readily burn without the addition of the case, contains a large proportion of bituminous matter, it any other material; but when it is not naturally combined with plied by the addition of a sparing mixture of small coal. Ina sufficient amount of combustible ingredients, its place is supstead of this method of effecting the calcination of the ore in open heaps, it is in many localities roasted in a sort of furnace or kiln, similar to that employed for burning lime. In this case, if bituminous, the addition of any other fuel to the mineral is unnecessary; but if not in itself combustible, it is interstratified at certain regular distances, with layers, either of coal or anthracite.-United States Mining Journal.

LARGE IRON WAREHOUSE FOR MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA. -There has just been completed for Messrs. Weatby & Co., of

London Inst., 7.-Mr. T. A. Malone,”On Photography.'
Antiquaries, 8.
Royal, 81.
Astronomical, 8.
Philological, 8.

Architectural Assoc. 8.-Class of Design.

London Inst., 2.-Mr. M. T. Masters, "On Ele-
mentary Botany."
Medical, 8.

London and Melbourne, from the designs and under the inspec- THURS. tion of Messrs. Newton and Fuller, the largest iron warehouse ever made for exportation. It is 300 feet long, by 130 feet wide, formed entirely of iron: 64 cast-iron columns support the FRI. girders, to which the roof and main ties are connected. The girders at the same time form a rain-water gutter, and conduct the water at intervals down the columns. There are six large SAT. double gates, three at each end, of corrugated galvanized iron, so formed as to slide within the building. The roof of corrugated galvanized iron, forms three bays of 43 feet each, supported by wrought iron ties and angle iron. The interior of the building will be lighted by skylights placed in the roof, formed of rough plate glass. To save colonial labour, the large foundation stones for the columns and gate posts have been prepared from the Yorkshire quarries of Messrs. Freeman and Co. Messrs. Newton and Fuller are likewise designing for the same building a large amount of steam machinery, and an iron chimney 80 feet high. The contract has been completed by 2404. E. Rider, Coleman street-Gutta Percha. (Partly a commuMr. John Walker, of Millwall, London.

PHOTOGRAPHIC LIGHT.-A novel application of the combustion of zinc has just been discovered by Mr. Wenham. He takes fine zinc parings or shavings, and forms them into a pellet, which, when ignited, affords a brilliant, and it is said, a steady light for photographic purposes.

2456.

2462.

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

[From Gazette, 30th December, 1853.]
Dated 18th October, 1853.

nication.)

Dated 25th October, 1853.

C. R. N. Palmer, Amwell, Hertfordshire-Accidents on rail

ways.

A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Railroad carriage axle. (A communication.)

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Dated 5th November, 1853.

2576. J. Barlow, and T. Settle, Bolton-le-Moors-Power looms for weaving.

Dated 17th November, 1853. 2667. W. Underwood, Handsworth, Staffordshire-Cooking stoves. Dated 25th November, 1853. 2741. A. A. V. S. de Montferrier, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-Wheels. Dated 8th December, 1853. 2847. T. Morau, Dublin-Accidents on railways. 2859. P. M. Fouque, L. R. Hébert, and V. E. D. le Marneur, Paris, and 5, Laurence Pountney lane--Rudders. 2868. J. Chisholm, Holloway-Distillation of organic substances and products. Dated 10th December, 1853.

Dated 9th December, 1853.

WRECKS.-From the summary attached to the admiralty register of wrecks just published, we learn that the casualties in each month were as follows:-January, 126: February, 77; March, 32; April, 44; May, 41; June. 29; July, 18; August, 42; September, 85; October, 164; November, 189; December, 268total, 1,115. Of these 464 occured on the east coast of Great Britain, 158 on the south coast, and 235 on the west coast. 128 wrecks strewed the coasts of Ireland, 5 were cast on shore at Scilly, 9 at the Channel Islands, 18 on the Orkneys and Shetland, and 18 at the Isle of Man; the remaining 80 occurred in the surrounding seas. The gales of January caused 126 casualties, as shown above; they prevailed during the whole month and the early part of February; the spring, summer, and autumn were moderate, but on the 26th October 2879. H. L. Du Bost, 62, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, Paris— an easterly gale begun that in six days strewed the coasts with 102 wrecks. Strong breezes, and a short lull of moderate weather, were followed by gales of ordinary force at this period of the year; but on the 24th December a heavy storm from the S.W. burst over the country, and continued to the end of the year, with such violence that by the 29th there was scarcely a vessel in the neighbourhood of the British Islands left at sea-some had found safety by running into port, while of others the returns show a list of 183 casualties, of which 102 were totally wrecked, making a daily average of 30 wrecks during this awful and destructive gale. The whole loss of life during the year, as far as has been ascertained, amounts to 920.-Life-Boat Journal.

MON.

TUES.

WED.

MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.

Locks and keys.

Dated 14th December, 1853. 2897. J. A. Coffey, Providence row, Finsbury-Evaporating liquids. 2895. P. Grant, Manchester-Printing presses. 2899. J. F. Kay, Dundee-Gas meters. 2901. J. Wibberley, Eagley, Bolton-Machinery, &c., for winding yarns, &c., on to spools, &c. 2903. R. Parrock, Glasgow-Coats.

Dated 15th December, 1853. 2905. E. H. Rascol Catherine street, Strand-Gas retorts. (A communication.) 2907. T. Pugh, and W. Kennard, King street, Snow hill-Lock and 2906. S. Messenger, Birmingham-Lamps. latch spindles.

2908. J. D. Howell, and J. Shortridge, Sheffield-Tilt hammers. 2909. J. P. H. Vivien, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn-Paper and pasteboard.

2910. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Blasting powder. (A communication.)

2912. J. B. Pascal, Lyons, and 16, Castle street, Holborn-Motive

power.

London Inst., 7.-Mr. J. Phillips, "On the Philo- 2913. F. W. Branston, Oak tree house, Clapham-Tablets, labels, &c. sophy of Geology."

British Arch., 8.

Geographical, 8.-1. Mr. A. Petermann, "Latest
Accounts of the Mission to Central Africa."-2. Mr.
T. Baines and others, "Geographical Explorations
in Southern Africa."-3. Dr. E. G. Irving, "On
his mission to Western Africa."
Eyro-Egyptian, 7.-1. Biographical Notice of Dr.
Grotefend, of Hanover. 2. Mr. Sharpe, "On a
Sculptured Slab from Khursabad, as explained by
II Kings, XIX. and Psalm XLVIII.
Civil Engineers, 8.

Medical and Chirurgical, 84.

Zoological, 9.

2914. C. J. Morris, Kirby street, Hatton garden-Bookbinding. 2915. B. Whitaker, Brighton-Toys.

2916. A. Cochran, Kirkton bleach works, Renfrew-Starch, &c., to woven fabrics, &c.

2917. F. D. Gibory, Paris-Instruments for measuring heights and distances, and for levelling.

2918. A. B. S. Redford, Albion place, Walworth road, and T. Cloake, Saville row, Walworth road-Retarding, &c., railway carriages.

Dated 16th December, 1853. 2919. W. Binnion, Birmingham-Lamps. 2920. W. G. Whitehead, Birmingham-Hats, caps, bonnets, &c. 2921. W. Tranter, Birmingham-Fire-arms, bullets, and waddings. 2922. A. Limousin, Paris, and 5, Laurence Pountney lane-Looms for pile fabrics, etc.

2923. A. Médail, Paris, and 4, Trafalgar square-Hydraulic machine. 2924. T. Williams, South Castle street, Liverpool-Revolving pistol.

London Inst., 2.-Mr. T, A. Malone, " On Elementary 2925. T. S. Truss, Cannon street-Brakes for carriages.

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2896. T. S. Truss, Cannon street-Communication between engine driver and guard.

2927. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Dyeing. (A communication.)

2928. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Treatment of wool. (A communication.)

2929. S. Norris, New Peter street, Horseferry road-Lighting and extinguishing gas lamps.

2930. S. Smith, Horton Dye Works, Bradford-Rovings and yarns of wool.

2931. A. Parkes, Birmingham-Separating silver.

2932. R. B. Hall, Whitecross street-Crushing, etc., quarts, etc.

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