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surement was made law, had arrived at the true form of a perfect ship, and that, if all ships were built on the principles which governed their decision, every vessel would pay its fair quota of dues, and no injustice would be done. By a perfect ship, I mean one which, as an investment, if no peculiar influences operated, a shipowner would prefer as being the most profitable, viz.-the vessel which, with the same rate per cent. depreciation for wear and tear as other vessels, would, from its sailing qualities, command the highest freight, and, in given time, make the greatest number of voyages, and from its capacity, carry the largest cargoes; the three must be taken together. Vessels are the more perfect the nearer they approach this standard; nevertheless intentional deviations occur in two directions. The first is in regard to capacity. If we increase the dimensions in those parts of a ship where the dimensions will not tell in the estimate for dues, a saving is effected to the shipowner; the possibility of doing this being known to him, he expects and requires his vessel to carry twenty per cent more than her registered tonnage; and, like other manufacturers, the shipbuilder works up to the requirements and expectations of his market. By variation from the perfect form upon which I have assumed the present mode of measurement to be based, the capacity for cargo may be increased without increasing the dimensions which regulate the tonnage dues, but this can only be done at the sacrifice of the other element of perfection speed. The second deviation is in the opposite direction. With the intention of increasing the sailing qualities, such a form is frequently adopted as necessarily reduces the space for cargo; hence some vessels pay more dues than fairly rendered liable to by the cargo. They do not carry what their register states. By the alteration of the law which is proposed, so that the actual capacity shall be taken for the calculation of the dues, the encouragement at present held out to the shipbuilder to construct illformed vessels would be removed, as he would cease to gain anything by departing from the best model.

possession of golden ore. He explained the various and improving methods of extracting it, and concluded with some remarks upon the class of persons most suitable for emigrants.

YARMOUTH (Great).-A special general meeting of the members was held on Monday fortnight, to consider a report from the Accomodation Committee, which had been appointed to enter into negociation with the directors of the Yarmouth Club-house. It appeared that by the trust deed of the company there was no power to effect a sale. Under these circumstances, and feeling the necessity for enlarged premises, Mr. James Barber, the secretary, suggested that the general committee should be empowered to raise a fund for the purpose of providing a building adequate to the daily increasing demands of the society. This proposal was cordially acquiesced in, and the committee were authorised to establish a fund by 17. shares, or otherwise.

Miscellanea.

REWARDS TO MEN OF GENIUS.-The President of the United States of America, in his message delivered to Congress, on the 6th inst. says, "I commend to your favourable consideration the men of genius of our country, who, by their inventions and discoveries in science and art, have contributed largely to the improvements of the age, without, in many instances, securing for themselves anything like an adequate reward. For many interesting details upon this subject I refer you to the appropriate reports, and especially urge upon your early attention isting laws therein suggested." the apparently slight, but really important, modifications of ex

To Correspondents.

ERRATUM, Page 27.-In the Second Edition of the Abstract of Dr. Playfair's lecture on Food, an important typographical error has been corrected. The last line of the Prison Diet, described as "solitary confinement," should be struck out, as it was a reprint of the line of diet for classes 4, 8 and 7. These classes have 229 oz. per week of food for female prisoners, but for males, 271 oz.

TUES.

WED.

MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. Royal Inst., 3.-Professor Faraday, "On Voltaic Electricity."

The subject is of great importance, both to human life and property, numbers of vessels being annually lost entirely from their bad construction; they are unweatherly, and drift to leeward and ashore, when better modelled ships keep to sea. As an illustration of the increasing attention paid by merchants to the build of ships, I may mention that of two vessels lying in the same dock, and bound to the same port, one being reputed of good build, and therefore likely to prove a fast sailer (not having made a voyage, it was entirely a matter of opinion), had more goods offered at 51. per ton than she could take; the other having a different reputation, did not succeed in ob- THURS. taining a full cargo even at the low rate of 31. per ton. I have not gone into details, my object being to suggest rather than exhaust the subject. I shall be happy to SAT. hear of the Society investigating the matter thoroughly. The views of the principal shipbuilders, shipowners, merchants, Chambers of Commerce, and scientific men might be collected, and their opinions embodied in a representation from the Society of Arts to the government, and a speedy alteration in the law would, I trust, be the result. Yours truly,

December, 19th, 1853.

Proceedings of Institutions.

W. S.

London Inst., 2.-Mr. T. A. Malone, "On Elementary
Chemistry."

Society of Arts, 8.-Soiree.

Exhibition of Recent

Royal Inst., 3.-Professor Faraday, "On Voltaic Elec-
Specimens of Chromo Printing.
tricity."

London Inst., 7.-Mr. T. A.Malone, "On Photography."
London Inst.,2.-Mr. M. T. Masters, "On Elementary
Botany.

Royal Inst., 3.-Professor Faraday, " On Voltaic Elec-
tricity.

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

From Gazette, 16th December, 1853.
Dated 20th October, 1853.

2428. J. Woofenden, Belfast-Power-looms.

Dated 1st November,1853.

2532. T. S. Bale, Cauldon place, and D. Lucas, Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire-Ornamenting articles and materials in pot

tery, etc.

Dated 2nd November, 1853.

HALSTED.-A very interesting lecture on Australia and 2542. B. Butterworth-Combining oil with other liquids for lubrica

her gold-fields, illustrated by diagrams, was delivered to
the members of the Mechanic's Institution on Tuesday
evening, the 6th of December, by Mr. W. N. Froy, of
London. He commenced with the early discovery and
history of the country, tracing its progress to the present
time so far as explored: with observations upon its fer- 2622. S. Barker, Birmingham-Sha ping metals.

ting compound. (Partly communicated.)
Dated 3rd November, 1853.
2554. P. Hindle, Ramsbottom, Lancashire-Power-looms.
Dated 4th November, 1853.
2558. J. Scott, Shrewsbury-Apparatus for shifting carriages on
railways, etc.
Dated 12th November, 1853.

Dated 15th November, 1853.

tility, the peculiarities connected with its animals, vegeta-2648. J. Fry, 19, Cannon street west-Solvents for India rubber and tion and fruits; the large quantities of sheep, and the supply of wool; and last but not least, its wonderful

gutta percha, and rendering fabrics waterproof without odour.

Dated 26th November, 1853.

Sealed December 16th, 1853.

2755. J. Wormald, Vauxhall, and G. Pollard, York road, Lambeth 1449. Charles Wye Williams, of Liverpool-Improvements in the -Pipe wrench.

2757. J. Stenson, Northampton-Manufacture of iron.

2759. H. Goutte and J. M. Hammebacher, Paris, and 16, Castle st. Holborn-Machine for washing linen, etc.

2762. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Straining mill

saws.

2763. T. and J. Chambers, Thorncliffe Iron Works, SheffieldKitchen sinks.

2765. J. M. Perodeaud, 35, Rue Godot de Mauroy, Paris-Converting peat into artificial coal, etc.

Dated 28th November, 1853.

2767. J. Walmesley, Accrington-Looms.

2769. R. H. Nicholls, Bedford-Hoeing and cultivating land. 2772. A. Macomic, 6, Percy street, Rathbone place-Furniture, forming writing or drawing case.

Dated 29th November, 1853.

2775. P. Kelly, 111, West street, Drogheda-Cultivating etc., land. 2779. J. Moore, Lincoln-Ploughs.

Dated 30th November, 1853.

2781. J. Jackson, Wolverhampton-Signalling apparatus. 2782. J. Elce, Manchester-Spinning machinery.

2783. P. A. le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4 South street, FinsburyJacquard machine. (A communication.)

2784. E. R. Davis, 1, Howley street, Lambeth-Pipes, &c., from lead and other soft metal forced through receivers, &c.

2785. J. Hewitt, Salford-Spinning machinery.

2786. J. Redford, Pilkington-Power looms.

2787. R. Balderstone, Blackburn-Spinning machines.
2788. J. Patterson, Beverley-Land rollers or clod crushers.
2789. A. Loubat, Paris-Tramways.

2790. L. Jennings-I'lain and ornamental sewing, and machinery for

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Dated 2nd December, 1853.

manufacture of sheet iron, and of iron plates used for boilers, vessels, buildings, and other like purposes.

1401. William Christopher, of Euston square, and Gustavus Gidley, of Hoxton-Improvements in abstracting sulphur and other matters from vulcanised India rubber.

1462. John Blair, of New Milns, Ayrshire-Improved mode of cutting lappet cloths, or other similar fabrics.

1464. Jules Alexis Adrien Dumoulin, of Paris-Improved instrument for measuring and tracing.

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Sealed 19th December, 1853.

1522. Frederick Ayckbourn, of Guildford street, Russell squareImprovements in the manufacture of waterproof fabrics. 1530. Thomas Weatherburn Dodds, of Rotherham-Improvements in the manufacture of files, rasps, and other edge-tools usually made of steel.

1555. John Mason, of Rochdale, and Luke Ryder, of the same place -Improvements in machinery or apparatus for preparing and spinning cotton and other fibrous substances. 1587. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar square-Improvements in magneto-electric apparatus, suitable for the production of motive power, of heat and light. (A communication.) 1591. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar square-Improvements in the manufacture of gas. (A communication.) 1596. François Mathieu de Amezaga, of Bordeaux-Method of obtaining motive power, and certain machinery or apparatus employed therein.

1715. John Robison, of Coleman street-Improved apparatus for making tea and coffee, and other infusions or decoctions for chemical and other purposes.

1726. William Thorp, of Collyhurst, near Manchester-Improvements in machinery for finishing and embossing plain and fancy woven fabrics.

2800. J.Reilly, 56, Thomas street, Manchester-Tenoning, mortising, 1910. Archibald Douglass, of Norwich-Improved machinery for and sawing machinery.

2801. A. W. Callen Peckham-Excavating machine.

stitching, back-stitching, and running.

2052. James Davis, of the Low Furness Iron Works, near Ulverstone, and Robert Ramsay, of the same place-Improved engine, to be worked by steam, air, or water.

2802. A. E. L. Bellford. 16, Castle strect, Holborn-Ships' stocks. (A communication.)

2803. H. Deacon, Widnes, Lancashire, and E. Leyland, St. Helen's -Sulphuric acid.

2112.

2804. A. Brown, Glasgow-Metallic casks, etc. 2805. G. Williamson, Glasgow-Motive power.

2806. A. Bain, Paddington-Damping paper for reception of labels, &c.

2263.

2807. J. C. Wilson, Redford Flax Factory. Thornton, KirkaldyScutching machinery.

2808. G. Collier, Halifax-Looms.

2809. R. Reybourn, Baker street, Greenock-Sugar refining. 2810. S. C. Lister, Bradford-Combing wools, etc.

2811. H. Bessemer, Baxter house, Old Pancras road-Manufacture

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Peter Rothwell Arrowsmith, and James Newhouse, both of Bolton le-Moors-Certain improvements in machines for spinning and doubling.

Henry Jacob Jordan, of Berners street-Improved medicine for the cure of venereal affections, which he denominates "the Treisemar." (A communication.)

2331. James Hall Nalder, of Alvescott, and John Thomas Knapp, of Clanfield-Improvements in winnowing or dressing corn. 2350. Charles Scott Jackson, of Cannon street-Improvements in preserving timber and other vegetable matters.

2429. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields-Improvements in apparatus for sustaining bodies in the water. (A communication. 2440. Frederick Albert Gatty, of Accrington-Improvements in printing or producing colours on textile fabrics. 2469. Edward Austin, of Pembroke cottages, Caledonian roadImprovements in surveying and raising sunken vessels, and in apparatus used therein, and lifting vessels over bars and other obstructions.

2471. Richard Heyworth, of Cross hall, near Chorley, and Thomas Battersby, of Cross hall, aforesaid-Certain improvements in looms for weaving. 2506. William Betts, of Wharf road, City road-Certain improve ments in machinery for manufacturing metallic capsules. 2515. Anthony Park Coubrough, of Blanefield, Stirling, N. B.Improvements in printing textile fabrics and other surfaces.

2538. Edward Ward, of Potton, Bedfordshire-Improvements in carriage axles. (A communication.)

Sealed 20th December, 1853. 1499. Charles Crickmay, of Handsworth-Improvements in the construction of firearms. 1500. John Paul, of Manchester-Colouring paper on the surface. 1505. John William Perkins, of Narrow street, Limehouse-Improvements in the manufacture of artificial manure. 1510. Robert Galloway, of Cartmell, Lancashire-Improvements in manufacturing and refining sugar. 1512. Joseph Skertchley, jun., of Kingsland-Improvements in the application of baths to articles used for resting the human body.

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No. 58. Vol. II.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS. [Dec. 30, 1853.

Journal of the Society of Arts. among the benefactors of mankind to which they

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 30, 1853.

MEETING OF COUNCIL.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 28, 1853.

are fairly entitled.

"Great care should, however, be taken in the selection, only to include those whose inventions have had an important and beneficial effect in improving the condition of the people generally, and in advancing science, and in whom, consequently, all should feel an equal interest.

"An attempt to form a collection of this de

AT a Meeting of Council held on the 28th inst., the following Institutions were taken into Union:scription might also prove the means of rescuing

318. Buckingham, Literary and Scientific Institution.

319. Dursley, Young Men's Society. 320. Hyde, Mechanics' Institution. 321. Louth, Mechanics' Institution. 322. Banbury, Mechanics' Institute.

323. Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales.

SWINEY PRIZE.

The Council announce that, on the 20th of January next, in accordance with the will of the late Dr. Swiney, "a silver goblet, of the value of 1007., containing gold coin to the same amount," will be awarded "to the author of the best published work on Jurisprudence."

GALLERY OF INVENTORS.

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On Wednesday evening, the 28th inst., a Conversazione took place at the Society's House, for the private view of the recent specimens of Chromo-Lithography, The Council have much pleasure in giving Printing in Colours, and Nature Printing. The Council publicity to the following letter, which has been have to thank Messrs. Jackson and Graham for the received from His Royal Highness the Presi-Bronzes and other specimens of manufactured Art ex

dent:

"Osborne, December 16th, 1853.

hibited on the tables.

The progress of illustrative Art, and the means which have been employed of late years to facilitate and

limited space it is impossible to give a complete history of its progress, a brief statement of the most important processes in use must suffice,

in effect and colour, cannot fail to excite interest. In this

"SIR,-I am commanded by His Royal High-cheapen reproduction in copying the work of the artist ness Prince Albert, to request that you will bring under the consideration of the Council of the Society of Arts, a suggestion which has been made to His Royal Highness, the adoption of which, it appears to him, may perhaps be de

sirable.

Wood-block engraving has been employed for centuries past, but Bewick may be said to have given the great impetus to the use of wood-blocks. The advantage of the wood-blocks for illustrative purposes con"Among the exhibitions of various kinds sists in the inked surfaces being raised, thus enabling which are from time to time promoted by the them to be employed in combination with the ordinary Society, it seems to His Royal Highness that it types, so that the letter-press and illustrations may be might prove useful, and could scarcely fail to be printed at one operation. In the early stages of the art, however, the works were deficient in detail and artistic highly interesting, if a series of authentic por-effect. This led to the introduction of the mezzotint traits of distinguished inventors, either in art or science, were collected for exhibition on some future occasion, and historically classified.

and aquatint processes of engraving for broad effects, and copper-plate or line and chalk-engraving for works requiring a further degree of precision. These four processes are entirely distinct from wood-block engraving, "The names of most of those who are thus and cannot be used in combination with letter-press. In distinguished, are probably familiar to the world, the mezzotint the surface of a copper-plate was scratched and nothing is needed to remind men of the re-in such a manner as to produce upon it a rough face, putation they have so justly earned, or of their forming a uniform ground for retaining the printing-ink. The lights were obtained by reducing the roughness works. Still, even in their case, it would be in-by burnishing. In the aquatint process, a rough face on teresting to present us, as it were, with their very features. But there are others who have done scarcely less for the happiness, comfort, and improvement of their fellow men, who are hardly known even by name to the general public, which is daily profiting by their inventions; and it becomes almost a duty towards them, to endeavour, in this manner, to rescue them from oblivion, and enable them to take that place

the copper was obtained by covering it with a ground which dried in reticulation. Upon this dilute aquafortis was poured, which eat into the surface of the plate wherever unprotected by the varnish, thus forming a means for retaining the printing-ink; and the lights are obtained by burnishing, as in the mezzotint. Line-engraving, however, is essentially distinct, and is directly the the print being cut in lines into the copper, more or less reverse of wood-block engraving, all the parts producing deeply, instead of being in relief, as in wood-blocks or surface printing. By this means delicacy of touch and

red, a third the yellow, &c. The power of producing graduated tints with ink and chalk combined, enabled Mr. Hulmandell to take the lead in the production of pictorial effects; and Mr. Owen Jones has carried this to a still higher point by graduating tints in ink only, by stippling on polished stones with the fine point of a camel-hair pencil, as illustrated by his work, "Flowers and their Kindred Thoughts." And this process, somewhat modified, is at present largely employed in the production of artistic effects.

precision of outline could be obtained better than by the mezzotint or aquatint process. A fourth process was, however, introduced about the same period, known as chalk engraving, and to this reference will be made hereafter. The peculiarity consisted in producing on the surface of the copper, by appropriate tools, a series of dots, giving the granulated effect of a chalk or crayon drawing on paper. Early in the present century it was discovered that steel could be employed with advantage by the line-engraver in place of copper. At this period came into notice Lithography, which was then discovered, by Sene- The next and most important improvements in the felder. Baron Aretin, of Munich, Count Lasteyrie, in art were also due to Mr. Hulmandell, namely, the proParis, and Mr. Ackermann, in London, fostered the cesses known as the lithotint and stump drawing. The rising art; and in 1819 Senefelder's account of Litho- aquatint process of engraving has already been alluded graphy appeared, with illustrations. The most strik- to. and lithotint is a modified application of the same ing plate in the work is a portrait of Senefelder, which principle to stone. Washes of a greasy liquid are apserves to show the then condition of the art. Sene-plied with a brush to the stone. As the stone imbibes felder, however, was unsuccessful in his endeavours to the liquid ink at every pore, the hollows as well as the establish lithography in England. This was accom-summits of the granulated surface of the stone alike plished by Mr. Hulmandell, who did so much towards receive the grease, and the resulting impression when improving the art, and some of whose early specimens of printed would be a mass of colour. To neutralize this printing in colours are included in the present exhibition. effect, Mr. Hulmandell made on the surface of Lithography, or printing from stone, may be described as the stone thus washed an aquatint ground, and then drawing on the smooth surface of a peculiar description of applied strong acid, which bit through the film of grease porous stone with some greasy material. The stone is then in those parts exposed through the aquatint ground to wetted, and the printers' ink, when applied, being of an the operation of the acid, and by means of the granulaoily nature, adheres to those parts only of the stone on tion thus produced the effect of gradation of tint was which the subject has been drawn; and thus the impres-obtained. The other extension of the powers of Lithosion is taken or printed on paper. The processes em-graphy was drawing with the ordinary stump on stone, ployed by Senefelder may be divided into four classes. a process which enabled artists to produce drawings on 1st. The chalk mode, or drawing with hard grease, in stone with the tools they use in drawing on paper. Such the shape of a lithographic crayon, on the granulated sur- is a resumé of the condition of the art at the time when face of stone. 2nd. The ink process, in which grease is the Society held its exhibition of lithography in 1847. applied in a liquid state, and sinks into the pores of the A consideration of the effect which this new art has had 3rd. The engraved mode, when the stone is in- upon its predecessors, shows that, owing to the facilities cised with an etching point, and the incisions are filled which lithography has afforded for obtaining broad with grease. 4th. The transfer mode, where the draw-effects in combination with printing from the surface, ings or writings are made upon paper covered with a preparation of paste and alum, which forms the vehicle for receiving the greasy ink.

stone.

It is not to be denied, that at the time of its introduction the public greatly undervalued the rough freedom of lithography; and it was not till after Hulmandell had introduced a series of improvements in the processes employed that it was favourably received by artists. The first English artist who made use of lithography in England was the late William Nicholson, who sketched landscapes on stone with great facility. Mr. Samuel Prout and Mr. J. D. Harding were also among the earliest and most successful of those who adopted lithography. In portraiture lithography was early employed; and among those portrait painters who have themselves drawn upon stone, may be mentioned Messrs. Doyle, Eddis, Hayter, Linnell, and Sir William Ross, R.A. Lithography, from having hitherto been regarded as inferior to engraving, now came to be thought of as a rival to that art; but hitherto it has been unable to produce in black and white such effects as the mezzotints of Cousins and Lewis, or the line engravings of Doo and Robinson, Heath and Finden. The Portrait of Senefelder, in his work, is one of the first specimens of printing with a tint. The drawing with chalk was first printed, and on that impression the neutral tint was printed from another stone, the parts representing the high lights being left white; but the effect of the high lights was harsh and crude. This objection Mr. Hulmandell overcame by the introduction of a drawing material between ink and chalk, which, being applied to the hard edges of the liquid ink, carried the full tint by gradation into the white lights.

The early efforts of Senefelder in printing in colours gave but a faint idea of the richness and beauty of the productions of Mr. Owen Jones and other artists. Mr. Hulmandell was the first to develope the resources of colour printing, and the method he employed was to transfer the required outline to several stones, the first stone giving the outline and black parts, a second the

the aquatint process has been entirely superseded; and although the mezzotint and chalk processes have been combined, as illustrated by the works of Mr. Wagstaff, yet the production of works of importance in those branches has ceased. Line-engraving, too, although an independent art, has, for illustrative purposes, been set aside. Wood-engraving is again rising into importance, to be found hereafter in combination with lithography and colour-printing. Of the specimens now exhibited, those by Baxter serve to illustrate the efforts which have been made to give fresh life to the art of aquatint engraving, by combining it with the chalk process before described, so as to get detail and precision of drawing in the minuter parts, at the same time that chromatic effect is obtained by the combination of a series of tints printed from aquatint grounds. The specimens by Leighton Brothers are produced by another modification of the aquatint process, in combination with wood-blocks, and are surface printed; or by a combination of wood-blocks with tints printed from lithographic stones. The process employed by Messrs. Leighton, in order to obtain their aquatint metal blocks, is the electrotype from a copperplate, the surface of which has been prepared by the action of acid and the aquatint ground; thus, by a series of blocks in relief variable effects are obtained with any required boldness or delicacy of surface. The great point to be attained is precision of drawing by a combination of tints, at the same time that the lines or vanishing points of the tints are studiously lost. The specimens of Chromo-Lithography exhibited by Messrs. Brooks, Day, Hannhart, Leighton, Rowney, &c., depend for their perfection in the production of coloured pictures and objects, on getting rid entirely of positive lines, and dispensing with what is technically called the black stone' or printing with black ink. The artistic effects are produced by the increased number of stones and the use of half tints. Thus, by combining a higher artistic power with skill in manipulation, and a greater subdivision of colour, a gradation of tone and blending of parts is obtained,

patent right in inventions in the arts and manufactures, has usually been regarded in its origin, rights, and protection, as presenting so many difficulties that the branch of jurisprudence relating thereto has been termed the metaphysics of the law. But it may be doubted whether this property, either in respect of its origin or of the principles on which it is founded, presents any difficulties not common to other species of property.

"Jurists and metaphysicians have advanced various, and in some respects inconsistent, opinions on the origin and rights of property; some treating the conception of property as an original notion inherent in the mind, others as evolved from a previous sense of justice, its protection and distribution being regarded as matter of public policy to be provided for by the laws of each particular country, "The idea or conception of property is antecedent to any notion of law; it is not the law of the land which constitutes the basis of property; neither does natural justice constitute property; justice is a virtue which presupposes property, and respects it however constituted; justice, as a moral virtue, is not the creation of property but the conformity of our actions to those views of property which vary in the various states of society (a). The universal recognition of and respect for property and the rights of its owner are not the results of the wisdom or authority of patriots and legislators deliberating on what was best for the good and order of the community, but the results of a prior wisdom employed in framing a constitution not for a state but for human nature(b).

It now remains to call special attention to the specimens which the Society has received from Councillor Auer, of the Imperial printing office at Vienna, produced by the process known in Germany as " Naturselbstdruck," and in this country as" Phytoglyphy," or the art of printing from nature. These specimens include every variety of sub ject, botanical, geological, entomological, fossil, and fabrics. Very soon after gutta percha came into use, Dr. Ferguson Branson took impressions of leaves in that substance, and it occurred to him to try the effect of printing from the sunk impression so obtained, and one of the specimens now exhibited was produced in that way in 1847. It was found impossible to print them with a clear margin from the gutta percha, and this led to the use of an electrotype fac-simile in copper, which allowed of the margin being burnished and the plate wiped clean; this succeeded well. In 1850, Dr. Branson had occasion to get an object cast in brass, and the beauty of the casting was so great that he at once determined to have a cast made from a gutta percha impression of a fern, and see the result. When every part of the brass-plate was burnished with the exception of the impression, it was tested in printing, and the result proved most successful. When a few plates had been finished the subject was brought before the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, on the 6th December, 1850, through which channel it reached the local newspapers, and was copied into various other prints. In the year 1851 Dr. Ferguson Branson communicated to the Society an Account of a Method of Engraving Plates from Natural Objects, which was read at a "The possessory feeling as the result of mere occupancy, meeting held on the 26th March in that year, and which is common to our nature and anterior to the application of was published in the Notices of Proceedings. At that any principle of natural justice or the sanction of positive time Dr. Branson only contemplated the application of the laws. The feeling derived from occupancy acquires addiprocess to ferns, leaves, sea-weeds, and other flat objects. tional strength if labour has been bestowed by the indiIt subsequently occurred to Dr. Branson that the brass-vidual on the subject of his occupancy, and is in accordance casts might be employed in place of wood-blocks in sur- with a principle which is sometimes referred to, as the face-printing, the impression on the surface of the metal-natural right of property, namely, that every man is problock being absolutely produced from nature, and he believes that this plan will become extensively used. A specimen of this process is included in the collection. The novelty in the process by which the specimens of plants, fabrics, and other flat objects received from Vienna are These two principles of ownership, by reason of occuproduced, consists in the use of lead for receiving the im-pancy or of the expenditure of individual labour, may be pression in place of gutta percha. The plants or other regarded as the origin of property. The feelings thus enobjects are laid on a steel-bed, over which is placed a sheet gendered are so natural and strong that the claim to the of lead, which is then submitted to a rolling pressure. The exclusive enjoyment of property is deferred to by others, specimens of agates are produced by applying to the po- and the occupant is allowed to remain in the secure and lished surface a weak acid, which acts with different unmolested possession of that which he rightfully claims. degrees of intensity in the various layers, causing greater The deference thus rendered to rightful claims gives rise or less indentation. The impressions of the fossils are to the sense of equity or natural justice prompting to likeobtained by covering the original with liquid gutta ness or equality between the treatment of others and the percha. In each case an electrotype plate is taken in treatment claimed from others. So that if the sense of copper, from which the impressions are printed. Messrs. property be anterior to the sense of justice, and comes from Bradbury and Evans also exhibit specimens of English an anterior and distinct source in our nature, the proprieproductions, and are now actively engaged in carrying tary feeling in the heart of individuals does not originate out the several processes described above. from a sense of justice, which only arbitrates between the proprietary claims and feelings of different individuals after those feelings have arisen by the operation of other principles in the human constitution.

PROPERTY IN INVENTION(a). Mr. T. Webster has just published a work on the right of property in inventions and designs. The subject is one of great importance generally, and has peculiar interest for the members of this Society; it has, therefore, been considered that a statement of the principles adopted by the author will not be out of place in the Journal.

Mr. Webster thus commences his work. He

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prietor of the fruit of his own labour, and that to whatever extent he may have impressed additional value on any given thing by the work of his own hands, to that extent, at least, he should be held to be the owner of it(c).

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"The principles here adopted as the true explanation of the origin and rights of property, are thus illustrated by Chalmers: Justice did not create property, but found it already created; her only office being to decido between the antecedent claims of one man and another. And, in the discharge of this office, she but compares the rights which each of them can allege, as founded either on the length of undisputed and undisposed of possession, or on the value they had impressed on the thing at issue by labour of their own. In other words, she bears respect to those two great

(a) See Dr. Thomas Brown on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, Lecture 83. (b) See Dr. Chalmers's Bridgewater Treatise, Vol. I. chap. vi. p. 228. (e) Ibid. p. 243.

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