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begin. All, however, agree in the opinion, that a seventh portion of time ought to be kept holy.* Q. 13. How should the Sabbath be kept? A. It should be kept in a holy manner. should prepare for it when approaching, and com


It is reasonable to conclude, that if God has consecrated a day to be kept holy, He has pointed out the time of beginning it. Most assuredly the God of order, who sees all things from the beginning to the end, would not leave the time of beginning the sabbath to the arbitrary will of man. For, if this were the case, complete disorder and confusion would ensue.- -The argument that the sabbath begins in the morning is, the supposition, that Christ arose from the dead at this time. As the day is designed to commemorate this event, so, it is said, the day should commence at the time the event took place. But that Christ arose from the dead in the morning is mere supposition. When Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary went to the sepulchre, Christ was not there. But how long He had been risen, the Scriptures do not inform us, neither can any person inform us. He might, for aught we know, have been risen one, two, or six hours before. So that the time of the resurrection of Christ can be no guide, in regard to the beginning of the sabbath.- -The argument for beginning the sabbath at midnight is, that civil days begin at this time. But this is no argument at all. Civil days are merely human appointments, and may be made longer or shorter, and may commence at one time or another, as the dominant authority shall say. Besides, it is not in the power of all the poten tates on earth, nor all the men in the universe to make time holy, or say when holy time shall commence. ————— -The following are the evi-. dences that the sabbath commences at evening. The sabbath originally began at evening. Gen. 1. 5. "And the evening and morning were the first day.' The evening and morning, or the preceding darkness and the succeeding light were, or constituted, the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth day. It must have been so in regard to the sevenththe sabbath, else there was a portion of time that belonged to no dayThe sabbath under the Jewish dispensation began at evening. Neh. 13. 19. "And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded, that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath; and some of my servants sat I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day. Lev. 23. 32. From even unto even shall ye celebrate your sabbaths." By sabbaths in this last passage is intended the yearly days of atonement. But it is reasonable to conclude, that these commenced at the same time their weekly sabbaths did. While the Saviour was on the earth, the Jews did actually begin and end their weekly sabbaths at evening, and this is their practice in the present day. And the Apostles would of course begin the Christian sabbath at evening, unless commanded otherwise. It then follows, that they did begin it at this time. And the learned Dr. Macknight says, that it was the practice of the ancient Christians to begin their sabbath on the evening of Saturday. In addition, the rising and setting of the sun is the natural division of days seen and known by all people, and God would be likely to fix upon one of these as a dividing line.Further, to begin the sabbath at sunsetting would be very impressive. and much more suitable, than to begin and end the day when all the world is asleep.

mence it with prayer. On it we should avoid servile labour, all works of vanity, pride, and luxury, all slothfulness and stupidity, travelling on journeys, visiting from house to house, strolling the fields, walking the streets, conversation upon worldly concerns, reading irreligious books, or even books on ordinary subjects. Keeping the Sabbath holy implies, also, that the day be spent in public, private, and secret devotion, or religious exercises generally.(8)

Q. 14. May not works of necessity and mercy be performed on the Sabbath?

A. They may, if they cannot be properly deferred, such as healing the sick, administering to the relief of the distressed, and other works of mercy and necessity.(")

(g) Ex. 20. 8-11. Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day, wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. Jer. 17. 21, 22. Thus saith the Lord; Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem. Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work, but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers. Neh. 13. 15. In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day; and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. Isa. 58. 13, 14. If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words; then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.

(h) Mark 2. 27. And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath. Luke 13 15,

Q. 15. By what name ought the Christian Sabbath to be called?

A. It is appropriately called the Lord's day, or the First day of the week. It may also with great propriety be called Sabbath, but not Sunday.

Q. 16. Is the Sabbath an important institution? A. It is; for it has been of more utility in preserving the knowledge and worship of God, and hereby promoting the temporal and spiritual happiness of man than all other institutions.

Q. 17.

17. Should the Sabbath be highly prized? A. It should; for with it is connected our prosperity as individuals and as a nation, and the happiness of the present and future generations. Consequently every exertion should be made to prevent its violation.

16. The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall and lead him away to watering? And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?




Q. 1. How is the Church of God to be regarded in its distinctive character?

A. It is to be regarded as catholick or particular, visible or invisible, militant or triumphant.

Q. 2. What is meant by the catholick Church? A. It has a two-fold sense. It means, either all the professed friends of Christ, who dwell on the earth, that have entered into covenant with God and His people; or all those, who shall finally be sanctified and saved.(^)

Q. 3. What is meant by a particular Church?

A. By it is meant a body of professing Christians, who, embracing the great and essential truths of Christianity, and living in some good measure agreeably to them, covenant to walk together according to the laws, institutions, and ordinances of Christ. Such were the Churches at Rome, Corinth, Galatia, Ephesus, Philippi, Colosse, and Thessalonica.(b)

(a) Eph. 1. 10, 22, 23. That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth, even in him. And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.

(b) Rev. 2. 7. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

Q. 4. What is intended by the Church visible? A. By it is intended all those, who have, openly and freely, professed the religion of the Bible, and entered into covenant with God and His people, according to divine prescriptions.(c)

Q. 5. What is meant by the Church invisible? A. By it is meant all those, who have really experienced religion, or who love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity and truth, whether they belong to the visible Church or not.(d)

Q. 6. What is to be understood by the Church militant?

A. By it is to be understood all true Christians upon the earth, who, while here in probation, are conflicting with self, sin, Satan, and the world.(*) Q. 7. What is meant by the Church triumph


A. By it is meant all true Christians, who are in a glorified state, or are confirmed in holiness and happiness in heaven.(f)

Q. 8. What particular act constitutes, or embodies a Church particular?

(c) 1 Cor. 1. 2. Unto the Church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both their's and our's.

(d) 2 Tim. 2. 19. Nevertheless, the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, the Lord knoweth them that are his. 1 Cor. 12. 12, 13. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptised into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

(e) 1 Tim. 6. 12. Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou art also called, and hast professed a good profession before many witnesses. Rev. 21. 7. He that overcometh shall inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.

(f) Rev, 5. 9. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof, for thou wast slain; and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation,

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