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In all this weird ceremony there is much their bare legs. They were now almost crude philosophy and some wisdom, as will afraid to stop at any point for fear of anbe admitted. The primitive savage has a other attack. As we saw no more of the sense of justice and right. The Anda- natives for some time, their fears subsided manese even give a very good reason for somewhat, and we continued to pick our their hostility to strangers, namely, that way through the thickets and jungle. they were once friendly, but have been un- Sleeping, eating, and tramping, the bearers mercifully treated in the past by Chinese carrying the outfit, of which the most cumand Malay traders. A semblance of poetry bersome parts were the curios we had colis also to be found in some of their customs lected and the photographer's parapherand ceremonies. Such, for instance, as the nalia, occupied the next few days. naming of girls by what they term “Flower I shall never forget the ever-changing names." The natives of the Andamans beauty of the forests. Here and there seldom use names when directly addressing flourishing creepers festooned the trees, one another, and only the simplest names while rare orchids swung from the limbs suffice to indicate a person not present. of others, and the evergreen trees laden These are very much alike, and no dis- with climbers were cooling to look upon. tinction is made between sexes in common Occasional groves of bamboo and valuable names, which are usually taken from some woods stretched for miles. And I shall physical characteristic. Young girls, how- never forget the beautiful, silent nights. ever, are given additional names, taken The moon was at the full, and as the silfrom the names of trees and plants, which very rays sifted through the branches they are often musical in sound. It is a sad re- brought out weird shadows, which took flection that the better instincts of these strange shapes. people are never to come under the influ- After supper the bearers would smoke, ence of a higher civilization than their chew betel-nut, and tell ghost stories in own, for they are fast dying out. Diseases, their strange tongue, then fall into dreammostly brought to the islands by the pris- less sleep, except one or two, who were on oners, are responsible for this, and soon, guard. The silence of the night in the perhaps, the race will be gone.

Andaman jungle, aside from innumerable We were resting in the shade of the hut insect life, is broken by the screech of the eating our rice and fish when suddenly one owl and the cry of the köi. This latter of the bearers, who was some distance bird has a most humanlike note, not unaway, cried out, “Sahib, baibo, jarawas tir like a boy, lost in the woods, whistling to marto hai,” which was a timely warning to keep up courage.

Its strident notes conthrow myself down; the Jarawas were tinue night and day, and when they are shooting. This was a complete surprise, about at night it is, to say the least, very for, as has been said, we supposed that all distracting. the warriors were at the extreme northern The köi is very cunning, and the tenend of the islands attending the funeral of dency to get something for nothing is so a chief. We were, nevertheless, being at- strongly developed as to have warranted tacked by a party of natives, and were soon its appearance as a trickster in the recent on the defensive. I experienced the un- drama in which birds were used with sympleasant sensation of feeling an arrow whiz bolic significance. One of its little tricks by me and seeing it imbed itself in a tree. is to lay its eggs in the nest of a crow,

The party of Jarawas, mostly old men, which it very much resembles in color and women, and boys, as we discovered later, shape. The fraud is not discovered until had established itself in a cleared place the fledgling has been hatched out by the some distance away. A few shots from the mother crow and is ready to fly, when disrevolver soon had them on the run, how- cord reigns. ever, as they probably mistook our party As our supplies were beginning to run for the posse known to have been sent out low, we attempted to quicken our advance, from Port Blair after them.

Often we The incident served thoroughly to would find what appeared to be a path, frighten my bearers, who up to this time only to have it end in jungle and be had been kept busy cutting out, or trying forced to retrace our steps, which was parto cut out, the pestiferous little ticks from ticularly hard on the bearers, who were anything but strong. Their accustomed came frantic with fear and prostrated himslight diet had undermined their vitality self, begging me not to kill him. until they could go only a short distance There is a superstition among the over rough country without rest. Kumali Hindus that dwarfs have supernatural and Subodha, nevertheless, were always powers. A legend to the effect that alert and lent valuable assistance.

but with disastrous results.

Vishnu, the Hindu god, becoming jealous As we were picking our way through of man, came to earth in the form of a the tangle of underbrush one day in an dwarf, and that henceforth all dwarfs beeffort to reach a comparatively clear space, came possessed of all the power of the I heard a slight noise. As I was some dis- gods, is commonly believed in. As a contance ahead, I turned aside to investigate. sequence of this belief, Hindu women, at I could see what appeared to be a small the sight of Cocos, would immediately animal moving about near the base of a prostrate themselves in prayer, which scrub-palm, and naturally concluded it seemed to please him after he became acwas a wild pig, and cautiously approached, customed to it. as a tree was between me and the object. On the fifth day, the bearers being ex

Finally, the animal, as I supposed, re- hausted, when we came upon a small clearmaining perfectly quiet, I stepped out into ing near nightfall we encamped for the the slight clearing.

night. We had passed a few natives, The pig was a human dwarf, and we mostly old men and women, so guard was interrupted just as he was settling down kept as usual, though it was changed freto a full meal of cocoanuts. I have never quently that all might rest. Supper of tea seen such an expression of mingled sur- and cold rice was eaten in silence, and at prise, fear, and rage in my life as was in dawn we were aroused by the bearer on the face and eyes of that creature as it guard, who had found a trail which led looked up at me. We captured the little down a slope to the coast. Quickly gatherfellow without trouble, and I brought him ing up the outfit, we moved cautiously back to India.

down the trail. It was thorny and rough, Cocos — for that was the name we gave but at last, about 11 A.M., we came in him-was a real dwarf. The natives of sight of the water. The coast was bare the Andamans are not in any sense dwarfs, and desolate, and the loose stones made though undersized. There are probably a walking difficult; but it was a great relief great many dwarfs sitting down to feasts

to see it. of cocoanuts on the islands every day, but We looked eagerly for the launch which they are not a race, or missing links in the was to meet us, but it was nowhere to be human chain. According to the certificate We camped under some bamboos of measurement, Cocos is a cross between near the water, and Kumali and two beara Chittagongese and Burmese, and his ers were sent up and down the beach to height is two feet, nine inches. As he was look for the boat. After five hours of being measured, Cocos was extremely ner- anxious waiting, they returned with the vous, and I repeatedly put my hand to his news that the launch was coming. Needforehead to quiet him. When the calipers less to say, we soon had our stuff aboard were applied to his head, however, he be- and steamed back to Port Blair.

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3

SHAKSPERE ON THE STAGE

FIFTH PAPER: KING HENRY VIII

BY WILLIAM WINTER

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CONJECTURE has long been busy, There is no reason to suppose that Eliza

and it will continue to be so, with beth would have resented Queen Kaththe play of “King Henry VIII." That arine's eminently queenlike statement of play was first published in the first Shak- her position or been displeased by a represpere folio, 1623. The date of its compo- sentation of the gallant behavior of King sition is not known; neither is the date of Henry the Eighth, her father, on the occaits first presentment on the stage. Some sion of his meeting with the fair Anne Shakspere editors, among them Theobald, Boleyn. She knew the reason why her Malone, and Dr. Johnson, maintain that father had desired and procured the anit was produced before the death (1603) nulment of his marriage to Catharine of of Queen Elizabeth; other Shaksperean Aragon, and though the demeanor of editors, among them Collier, Dyce, and King Henry toward Anne Boleyn in the Knight, contend that it was not produced masque scene is that of a bold and expeuntil after the accession of King James the ditious wooer, it is not such as Elizabeth First. A favorite belief is that it was per- would have regarded as unseemly. formed, under the title of "All is True," On the other hand, King James had no on June 29, 1613, at the Globe Theater, reason to revere the memory of Queen London, on which occasion the discharge Elizabeth, who is specifically honored in of small cannon,– perhaps in the corona- Shakspere's play, that sovereign having tion scene, Act IV, Scene 1, or, more prob- kept his mother, Queen Mary of Scotland, ably, in the scene of King Henry's en- for eighteen years incarcerated in prison, trance, as a masker, at a festival in the pal- subjected her to indignity, and finally ace of Cardinal Wolsey, Act I, Scene 4,- sent her to death on the block; and it is set fire to the theater and caused its de- known that, in fact, he abhorred her memstruction. Controversy on this subject ory. The speech which is delivered by the hinges mainly on the prologue to the play Archbishop of Canterbury in the scene of and the speech delivered by Cranmer at the christening was well calculated to please the christening of the royal infant.

Queen Elizabeth, but it does not contain Two plays relative to the story of Car- anything, aside from the lines of homage dinal Wolsey, one of them being ascribed to her successor, likely to have gratified to Henry Chettle, a dramatist of Shak- King James. Those lines, seventeen in spere's time, of whose biography scarcely number, beginning, "Nor shall this peace anything is known, were acted in London sleep with her," and ending, “Thou speakin 1601, and Malone assigns Shakspere's est wonders,” break the continuity of the “King Henry VIII” to that year. The address; but they serve the purpose of play is one that would have pleased Queen adulation of a vain monarch, notoriously Elizabeth more than it could be supposed susceptible to flattery. They probably, as likely to please her successor, King James was suggested by Theobald, were interpothe First. That queen delighted in ser- lated into Cranmer's encomium, some time vile adulation, and she exacted abject def- after the first presentment of the play, erence to her authority; but her sense of when Elizabeth had died and James had delicacy was not such as is easily shocked. ascended the English throne. Shakspere himself might have inserted them, or they made to the burning of the Globe Theamight have been inserted by another hand. ter: "No longer since than yesterday,

It has been surmised that the revival of while Bourbage his company were acting the play in the summer of 1613 was at the Globe the play of Henry VIII and prompted by the wish to profit by con- there shooting of certain chambers in way tributing to the general public rejoicing of triumph, the fire catch’d." The impliincident to the marriage of the Princess cation would seem to be that Burbage parElizabeth, daughter of King James, to ticipated in the representation. If so, he Frederick, the Elector Palatine. That would have played one of the principal marriage occurred about the middle of the parts, -either King Henry or Cardinal previous February, and it is hardly rea- Wolsey,- for he was then in the prime of sonable to suppose that the production of

his renown.

Contemporary reference to an "historical masque or show play” “All is True" sometimes calls it by that (Coleridge) intended as a spectacle appo- name and sometimes by the name of site to that occasion would be deferred till "Henry VIII.” the end of June, a period of more than No mention is made of any presentment four months. The conjecture put forth of this drama in the interval between 1613 in 1850 by that respected scholar Sped- and 1663, the interval, roughly speaking, ding, to the effect that, in writing his play between the period of Burbage and that of of “King Henry VIII," Shakspere had pro- Betterton. Shakspere's manuscript receeded "as far, perhaps, as the third act, mained in possession of the managers, who when, finding that his fellows of the owned it from the time when the play was Globe were in distress for a new play, first performed (whatever time that may with which to honor the marriage of the have been) till the time of its first publiLady Elizabeth, he handed them his manu- cation. To what extent or by what hand script,” and that they intrusted it to John it may have been altered after the death Fletcher, "already a popular and expedi- of Shakspere in 1616, and before it was tious playwright,” to be completed, is in- published in 1623, investigation has failed genious, but also it is unwarranted. “Ex- to discover. Modern scholarship assumes peditious” Fletcher may have been, but that, because of certain peculiarities of the there is abundant reason to believe that versification, notably the use of “double Shakspere was at least quite as energetic, endings,” much of the play must have and could himself have finished his play been written by some hand other than that with equal despatch.

of Shakspere, possibly or probably that of In the absence of definite, decisive in- Fletcher, whose use of “double endings" formation, it seems, on the whole, proba- was habitual. That theory, however, like ble that Shakspere's “King Henry VIII” other theories which, resting on surmise was first presented toward the end of the and not on evidence, would discredit Shakreign of Queen Elizabeth, and that the spere's authorship of his writings, is merely play called “All is True," acted in 1613, conjectural. It would be amusing, if it with disaster to the Globe Theater, was were not painful, to observe the assurance Shakspere's play, revived for an with which theories about Shakspere are sion, and altered in such a way as to make adopted and proclaimed as fact, sometimes it acceptable to the time of King James. by thoughtful commentators, from whom The compliment to that royal person, sup- a larger measure of discretion might reaposing it to have been then first inserted sonably be expected. in the text, miscarried, because the The first positively recorded representheater caught fire before the perform- tative of King Henry the Eighth was John ance had reached the christening scene, Lowin, one of the best actors of Shakand Cranmer's honeyed words, occurring spere's time, and, in contemporary favor, in the last act, were not spoken. No second only to Richard Burbage. Aurecord has been discovered of the cast thentic assurance is furnished by Downes of “All is True," but among the Har- that Lowin was instructed by Shakspere leian Manuscripts there is a letter, ad- himself as to the performance of this part. dressed by the Rev. Thomas Lorkin to Lowin, born in 1576, lived to be eightySir Thomas Puckering, dated “this last two years old, became very poor in his of June, 1613,” in which a reference is latter days, kept an inn, called The Three

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Pigeons, at Brentford, and died there in carded the usual wig when playing that 1658. Sir William Davenant ( 1605-68)

Davies declares that King Richard was acquainted with the acting of Lowin, the Third and King Henry the Eighth and when, in 1663, he cast the part of were garbed in something like appropriate King Henry the Eighth to Thomas Better- costume, while suitability of attire, in preton, he instructed that actor relative to the sentment of the coöperative characters, method of his admired predecessor. Bet- was for the most part disregarded.

In terton's performance was accounted essen- England, the chronicle of notable pertially royal, and the example of stalwart formers of King Henry the Eighth inpredominance, regal dignity, and bluff cludes the names of Mathew Clarke, John humor thus set has ever since been fol- Palmer, Joseph George Holman, Alexlowed. Barton Booth imitated Betterton, ander Pope, Francis Aickin, Thomas Aband when Quin assumed King Henry, he thorpe Cooper, George Frederick Cooke, avowedly, but not successfully, imitated George Barrett, John Ryder, Walter Booth. In this part, Quin is described as Lacy, William Terriss, and Arthur Bourhaving been ungraceful in manner, de- chier. ficient of the requisite facial expression, On the occasion (1663) when for the and vocally weak. Booth seems to have first time Betterton acted King Henry satisfied every requirement of it. There the Eighth, his associate and competitor was grandeur in his personality, vigor in Henry Harris acted Cardinal Wolsey, his action, and at times a menace in his doing it,” says Downes, "with such just look which inspired terror. In life, King state, port, and mien that I dare affirm Henry, as the reader of the excellent none hitherto has equaled him.” The word memoir of Wolsey by George Cavendish "hitherto" refers to the period of about clearly perceives, was essentially selfish, sixty years immediately prior to 1663, as despotic, tyrannical, capricious, and capa- to which period theatrical history affords ble of cruelty. In Shakspere's delineation comparatively little exact and particular of him, the rigor of his character and the information. Harris was a painter and a harshness of his temper have been much singer as well as an actor. He led a proflisoftened; and while he is shown as ego- gate life, but he is accredited with postistical, haughty, arbitrary, impetuous, session of dramatic talent of a high order, self-willed, and sternly regal, he is accred- and it is certain that his ability was versaited with a certain amiability, a sense of tile, for he excelled equally as Romeo and justice, good humor, and geniality of dis- Sir Andrew Aguecheek. He was one of position. It appears that he was thus the intimate friends of Samuel Pepys, the represented, with admirable fidelity and quaint diarist, and a portrait of him as effect, by Barton Booth. That actor's Wolsey is in the Pepys Library at Camenunciation of "Go thy ways, Kate," after bridge, England. Detailed description of the Queen's majestic exit from the trial his performance of the Cardinal has not scene, is mentioned as exceptionally ex- been found. He was prominently sucpressive of the King's character and hu- ceeded on the old London stage by John

Verbruggen, 1706; Colley Cibber, 1723; Specific information as to details of the Anthony Boheme, 1725; Lacy Ryan, dressing of King Henry the Eighth by the 1743; West Digges, 1772; Robert Bensactors of old cannot be obtained. Kings, ley, 1772; John Henderson, 1780; Alexon the stage, wore scarlet cloth ornamented ander Pope, 1786; John Philip Kemble, with gold lace. Sometimes an opulent 1805; Charles Mayne Young, 1844; nobleman, patron of the drama, would William Charles Macready, 1823; and give to a favorite actor the costume that Samuel Phelps, 1844. On the Dublin he had worn at the coronation of the stage Wolsey was acted by Henry Mosreigning monarch, and that was consid- sop in 1751. ered and used as an appropriate garb for Opinion as to the diversified representheatrical majesty. Burbage, if he acted tations of Wolsey that were given by King Henry, wore robes of red and gold. those actors, long past away, must necesBetterton and his followers continued the sarily be somewhat vague. Such records custom; but as it was well known that of them as exist are in almost every case King Henry wore his hair short, they dis- meager. Authorities are often misleading.

mor.

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