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he was.

As twilight was purpling on the his people whose lives have been modified by toric hills of Kioto, fragrant with the the life of Nishima do not even know memory of a thousand years of culture, the difference between the Congregational Viscount Tanaka rose. He had reached and the Unitarian churches. the end of his patience. He was a simple- What I do know is that Onchi Seiran hearted man.

He was a patriot; he could was in no way connected with the Chrisnot understand the language of the man of tian church. At the time of Mr. Niireligion. How could he? Without the

Without the shima's death he was one of the shining slightest hesitation, he would have sacri- lights of the Buddhistic sect called Shinficed all the Buddhas in the world and his shu, in the city of Tokio. To the students life as well if they could but add even a and the family of Mr. Niishima he wrote: trifle to the prestige and power of the state. He was disgusted with the attitude of Nii- Having been informed in the newspaper shima. He was “mad, clean mad.”

of the death of Mr. Niishima, president of “Well, Niishima,” he said, “I'm your school, I am full of heartfelt grief. going. I am sorry. You are indeed the Since I am a believer in the faith of Budslave of Jesus Christ. Good-by.”

dhism, I stood opposed to him . . . but in And years ago, when I was a school-boy regard to his stirring the religious heart of in Tokio, I heard Professor J. D. Davis our people with his zeal I have no doubt. I say, telling this story, that it was "the was especially impressed with this when I proudest title ever given to man."

once called on him ... it seemed to me at The cottage in which the two men

that time that if I was not a believer in talked became the foundation of the Do

Buddhism I should have become his friend shisha University of to-day, away and be

and accepted Christianity. All who are the yond the greatest Christian university in

ministers of any religion must become as the Far East.

And Dr. Niishima lived a Christian life. It stamped the age in which he lived; Inspiring the imagination of the new it colored the history of his country. Nippon with the charm and nobility of the

Tokutomi lichiro, the editor and foun- character of Jesus— that certainly was the der of the “Kokumin," one of the leading greatest achievement of Mr. Niishima. metropolitan dailies in Tokio to-day, is He made his countrymen fall in love with one of the Doshisha boys who has always the life of Jesus as Niishima himself lived carried the moral crest of the Nishima it out in the Kioto of the seventies. clan. At the death of Niishima he wrote: Niishima and his fellow-workers, nota

bly Professor J. D. Davis, upon whom Individually, we have lost him to whom Mr. Nüshima was wont to lean as upon we looked, as to a father and teacher, for

the very staff of life, gave Japan a new strength and light and love. . . . As a so- national ideal. No achievements of man ciety we have lost the leader of the cause

can be greater, more ambitious than this. of moral reformation in Japan. . . . An In this the missionaries succeeded. Here, elaborate eulogy, a magnificent funeral, a

then, is the great fruit of the Christian splendid monument-these would not please missions in Japan. him. Far better is it for us to do our daily When our foreign friends came to us duty, to help forward little by little, with

and told us to open up the country for inour whole heart and life, the moral regenera- ternational intercourse of all sorts, the tion of society, that our land may be the elders of the shogunate did not like it. home of men and women loving liberty, When Commodore Perry told us to open truth, charity, and God.

our country whether we wished to or no,

some of our forefathers lost their temper. I do not know whether the name of We have changed our mind a good deal Tokutomi lichiro is on the membership on that point. We look back upon the list of a Christian church, and it matters day when the black ships of the American little. I do not know whether Tokutomi navy got on the nerves of our old foreunderstood the Christian creed as Mr. fathers so dreadfully as the day of glorious Niishima did; this also matters not so fortune. And the thing which made us much. For it is true that many of the change our mind was the life lived among us by the gentlemen who came to us in the and work of just such men as Count name of Jesus, their laster.

Okuma have told on the life of the nation And for this reason: many of the mis- in a much more potent fashion than figsionaries who came to Japan in those early ures and adjectives know how to show. days were scholars long before they were The "Kokumin," the prominent Tokio missionaries, and they were MEN (and daily to which I have referred before, deall the capitals in the language can not voted almost two columns and a half to possibly do them justice) long before they the editorial comment on the “Semi-Cenwere scholars.

tennial Celebration" of the missionary Take Dr. Verbeck, Dr. Hepburn, work in Japan in its issue of October 5, Bishop Williams, Professor J. D. Davis,

1909. It said: Dr. S. R. Brown of Yokohama, Bishop Harris and the Rev. J. H. DeForest of

In this world there is nothing that is as Sendai, Professor Clark of Supporo Agri- big as the power of character. Especially is cultural College, Professor William Elliot

it so in religion. The propaganda of the Griffis of Fukui Gakko and the author of Jesuits of the Genki and Tensho Periods the "Mikado's Empire," and Captain

(1570–91) has not left even a shadow on Janes of Kumamoto Ei-gakko.

the Japan of to-day. But the life influences Perhaps this is not a long list. It

of the one great, brilliant star of the moveshould not be. Great men never did grow

ment, Francis Xavier, is still seen here and like weeds anywhere at any time. The

there like a mountain rill sparkling from wonder is that so many of the really great

under the heaps of dead leaves. I myself of earth should have found their way into

know [the editorial was evidently written the then almost unknown land of Nippon.

by Mr. Tokutomi himself] that the influAnd it was the Christlike life of these

ences of such men as Brown of Yokohama

and Janes of Kumamoto in the education of men, not their theology, which told so

our people . . . was by no means light. stupendously for the cause of the Christian missions in Japan.

On the fifth of October, 1909, in the Some missionaries can not understand city of Tokio, a number of Christians, and why the Christian speculative philosophy a number of those who were not, gathered and systematic theology are not as popular to celebrate the "Semi-Centennial of Prot- among the Japanese as the "stove-pipe estant Christianity in Japan.” Count hats" of the year-before-the-last season, Okuma was one of the many non-Chris- which are the chief features of all the tians present. As usual, what he said had social functions in Japan of the transition. a national and a world-wide significance: Some people think this is because the

Japanese do not have a speculative turn of I came in contact with and received great mind. They are wrong in that. We do impulses from some of the missionaries of that

not admire the patient work of the schoolearly period. Particularly from Dr. Verbeck.

men of the Dark Ages who tried to figure He was my teacher in English and history and

out how many angels could stand on the the Bible. I can never forget the great and point of a needle. Our reason for this is virtuous influence of the man. At that time entirely different, however, from that of a Dr. Verbeck could do but little direct evan- Wall Street man. We are not too busy, gelical work, but all his work was Christian. but we find the Occidental speculative phiIn everything he did his Christlike spirit was

losophy too tame and colorless. Compared revealed. ... Only by the coming of the West

to the depth of the Hindu philosophy, it in its missionary representatives and by the spread looks like a “tea-pot tempest.”. Compared of the Gospel did the nation enter upon world

with the Hanayana Sutras, the transcenwide thoughts and world-wide work.

dental idealism of Bishop Berkeley sounds

like a lot of nursery rhyme. That is the Here, then, is Count Okuma's answer real reason why the Japanese do not rave to the question, What is the greatest fruit over the profundity of Christian thought. of the Christian missionary work in Japan? Also there are people who say that the Count Okuma is not a professing Chris- Japanese nature is essentially non-relitian or a member of a Christian church. gious. That our attitude toward all the There are others like him. And the life gods and all things religious is “politeness toward possibilities.” Anybody can bor forever famous in history, for it is see that that is wrong, -anybody who has the place from which thousands of the read the story of the Christian persecution native converts were thrown into the sea. in Japan and heard of the men and women Oh, yes, the Japanese nature is highly who marked the blood-trail and charred religious. Both in the number of shrines trail (for there were many native converts and of gods, we beat the Athenians upon who preferred to be burned at the stake whom we have St. Paul's pronouncement. rather than renounce their faith in Jesus Christian missionary work did not deepen Christ, their Saviour) which led to the the religious nature of the people, but it horrible struggle of Shimabara and which gave a new star to which it might aspiremade Pappenberg Rock in Nagasaki Har- the life and character of Jesus.

COMMENT ON THE FOREGOING PAPER

BY WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS

Mode Duimness to the Japanese mind communicants

.

R. ADACHI KINNOSUKE bears the catchpole and jailer for the native

of forty years ago and that of to-day con- In the new hope kindled and new nacerning Jesus. Living in the far interior tional outlook given, as Count Okuma of feudal Japan, in 1871 I found the acknowledges, through the teachings of anti-Christian edicts everywhere in evi- the American missionaries, other bands dence. The very name of “Yaso" made beside that of Kumamoto (of 1874) went a peasant's face blanch. Inquisition into forth as torch-bearers. The pupils of Dr. family life was rigid. "On the true faith S. R. Brown in religion, journalism, and of a samurai," every householder must re- literature, and of Dr. J. C. Hepburn in port annually that no kinsman or servant science, healing, and diplomacy (1858– of his was of "the accursed sect called 76), took notable part in the making of Christian." The ban lay also on the the new Japan. Yet, however important graveyard, controlled by Buddhist priests, the forces of intellect, these, after all, and it was not until constitutional times form only part of the potency of national (1889) that a Christian could be buried renascence. Even Christianity has many as such. In old Japan tradition and cus- forms, some more disturbing and yet retom made law, since no code for the com- constructive than others. No view of the mon people was known until 1880. To potentially Christian Japan can overlook us, in 1870, it was an awful revelation of what the churches of the Roman and the depths of tradition that even the gov- Greek order have accomplished. Enterernment of Meiji (enlightened civiliza- ing after the Townsend Harris treaty of tion) was republishing the ancient ban of 1858, the Roman Catholics had the ad1614, intimating that Christianity was vantage of continuity of tradition and lathe black art and Jesus a devil of some bor as well as the obstacle of prejudice to sort. Deaf to all foreign pleas and warn- confront them. Quietly and with little ings, they tore from their home four thou- observation, and not antagonizing the sand peasants holding to the ancestral government administration, as in China, “Yaso" faith and imprisoned them in the Roman Catholics in Japan have minmountain craters and other isolated places. istered most effectively to the bodies and In 1871, in Echizen, I saw one party of souls of the humbler classes. As for the these, men, women, children, and infants, work of the Russian priest Nicolai, dating dressed in the criminal robes of red, roped from 1860, it is scarcely less wonderful together by their wrists, and marched un- than that done by a primitive apostle, his der guard northward. In the first Chris- effort being to establish a truly Japanese tian church formed at Yokohama, in 1872, church, of the Greek Catholic order, yet I was present, expecting every moment introducing no foreign element, and changing no custom except as it pertains to uni- less earnestly strive to live after his examversal Christianity to do. His success in ple. The Japanese as a nation will never vocal music in the Cathedral of the Resur- become Christians by multiplication of inrection in Tokio has been amazing. dividuals, but rather of families; for Nip

Of the Protestant Christians to-day, pon's life and civilization, as all her hisnine tenths are away from home, from the tory shows, is a matter of families, the village priest and the graveyard. Rural units of society. Japan is hardly touched. Yet apart from Is Japan becoming a Christian nation? the church, a quiet and sure work is pro- If the answer must be given to mean the ceeding among the Japanese themselves, acceptance of the theology made in Eunot by individuals, but by families. Harsh rope, I reply, “Never." Christianity in native critics of missionaries who refuse Japan will develop without our traditions, dogmatic Christianity declare that there classifications, and controversies.

If anare more Christians without than within swer must be by statistics, in terms of the churches. My own view is that at mustard-seed phenomena, I answer, “Perleast five million Japanese see in Jesus haps.” If in terms of leaven and transtheir Master and in pure Christianity the formation, there can be no other answer only hope for Japan, and they more or than an emphatic “Yes."

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THE

'HE cremation of the remains of the are as follows: a crematorium, or phra

late King of Siam took place at inoro, or premane, as it is sometimes called, Bangkok on March 16, amid circumstances is erected, and decorated in lavish fashion. of pomp and splendor that were probably The site of the phra moro is a large plot without precedent in a land that is accus- of land in front of the palace at Bangkok tomed to pageants of semibarbaric mag- that is known as the Premane Grounds. nificence.

Ordinarily the ground is used by foreignIn Siam, as the reader may or may not ers as golf-links, cricket-grounds, and for know, cremation is general, the interment other sports. Around the crematorium, of the dead taking place only when certain which is of wood, are built other wooden diseases are responsible for the demise. structures, to be used by the priests and The higher the rank of the deceased, the for the shows and festivities, secular and more impressive are the appointments and religious, that form an important part of the mise en scène of the cremation. Where the total function. royalty furnishes the silent principal to The ceremonies last several days. Each the solemn function, the incidentals are as morning begins with religious rites, hunelaborate as they are costly. So it was in dreds of priests conducting the services. the present instance.

Following these come theatrical shows, The death of King Chulalongkorn took the Siamese equivalent for vaudeville, place just a year ago. In accordance with wrestling-matches, and so forth; and at the etiquette of the Siamese court, the em- night there are fireworks in profusion. balmed body has been kept in the palace in The new king, the royal family, the nobles, the interval, surrounded day and night by and the court officials are among the speca guard of honor. Incidentally it may be tators from the beginning to the end of remarked that the elapsing period between the daily functions. the deaths of royal personages and the On the last day of the religious observlighting of their funeral-pyres has been ances, usually lasting a week or ten days, gradually reduced within recent years. the remains of the deceased are placed in a The remains of the grandfather of the jeweled urn, which is placed on a pyre of present king were kept nearly two years dried fagots. The king starts the fire, before being consigned to the flames. specially invited spectators throw holy canThose of the then crown prince, who died dles and sandalwood on the flames, and the in 1895, were not cremated until 1901. priests chant prayers meanwhile until the

The preparations for a royal cremation body is consumed.

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