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otherwise have found its way into the tirely lacking. As late as 1540 he had to pocket of some friend or stranger. On the go for weeks without his nightly glass of occasion of Agricola's marriage, he wrote beer because there was none left in the him he was sending as a wedding-present house and no money to buy more with. a vase received sometime before from an- In 1542, when he made his will, he other friend; but in a postscript he had to carefully reckoned up his possessions, and inform him that Käthe had hidden it wrote out detailed accounts covering a away, so it could not be found.

number of years.

We still have some of Curiously enough, a wedding-gift of the original pages, decorated with amusing twenty-five gulden was sent him by Arch- rhymes, ruefully lamenting his extravabishop Albert of Mayence. Luther him- gance and making sport of his lack of self declined to receive it; but the more business capacity. At his death he left a thrifty Käthe accepted it without his respectable property, perhaps amounting, . knowledge, and when he learned of it, he all told, to eight thousand gulden; but did not know whether to be more annoyed most of it was unproductive, and Käthe or amused.

found considerable difficulty in making He frequently got into trouble through both ends meet. She once complained that indorsing notes for his friends when he he might have been a rich man had he had no money of his own to lend. In wished; but wealth was the last thing order that he might not altogether impov- he cared for, and with his disposition he erish himself, Lucas Cranach and other could hardly have compassed it had he capitalists of the town finally refused to tried. honor his signature, and this way of help- Käthe was

a vigorous and efficient ing the needy was thus closed to him. He housewife. The monastery had been sadly was rather deeply in debt when he mar- neglected before she became its mistress. ried, and it took some time for Käthe, by Luther had lived very carelessly, often judicious management, to straighten out leaving his bed unmade, as he once rehis tangled affairs. In 1527, he wrote marked, for a year at a time, and tumbling Brisger that his own imprudence made it into it at night too tired from his strenuous necessary for him to plunge still deeper labors to notice the difference. His marinto debt and to pawn some silver goblets. riage brought order into the place, and A little later he could announce the pay- transformed the bare and cheerless monasment of all his debts, but he not infre- tery into a real home. In 1536, after a quently had to lament the burden of new visit to Wittenberg, Wolfgang Capito of ones. "I justly remain in the catalogue Strasburg wrote Luther: "My greetings of the poor," he once remarked, "for I to your wife, Lady Katharine, best of keep too large an establishment.” Gradu- women! When I have returned home I ally, despite his free-handedness, a certain will. send her something to remember me measure of worldly prosperity was attained by. I love her with all my heart. She through Käthe's energy and economy, and was born to look after your health, that they were able to make considerable im- you may the longer serve the church which provements in the Wittenberg house, to has come into existence through you." buy an orchard, a hop-garden, and some Luther's own personal habits changed other pieces of land in the neighborhood, little. He remained negligent about his where Käthe raised cattle and did farming dress, as he had always been, and his study on a small scale. Finally Luther pur- continued a wilderness of disorder. Desks, chased from her brother a farm at Zuls- tables, chairs, and every available spot dorf, a part of the small family inheritance, were covered with books, letters, and not far from her birthplace. In the man- manuscripts, and he often lost things altoagement of this she took particular delight. gether in the confusion of the place. Even One of Luther's letters to her opens with before his marriage he kept a dog, which the playful greeting, “To the rich wife at frequently played havoc with his papers. Zulsdorf, Frau Doctor Luther, in the He was also careless about his food. Bebody at home at Wittenberg, but in spirit fore Käthe came upon the scene he ate busy at Zulsdorf."

very irregularly, often forgetting his meals Even then petty economies were still altogether. His bodily needs, indeed, necessary, and ready money was often en- meant little to him. As he once wrote

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Melanchthon, when he could not get meat
and wine, he contented himself with
bread and water. On the other hand, he
was often as imprudent in his eating as in
his fasting. Käthe set a bountiful table,
and whatever the condition of his health,
and despite her protests, he was apt to eat
anything that seized his fancy, bad as it
might be for him. His irregular habits
His irregular habits
and his strenuous labors combined with
the ascetic practices of his early years to
undermine his health. He was a sufferer
.from severe kidney and liver trouble dur-
ing most of his life, and had to endure a
great deal from headaches, which often
completely incapacitated him for work.

A masterful person Käthe was, with a mind and will of her own. The cloister she made her particular domain, and ruled it with a strong hand. Strength and energy, indeed, were her prominent characteristics. Among her neighbors she bore the reputation of being a capable but somewhat over-thrifty housewife, and while generally respected, she was not generally liked. To many she seemed proud and domineering. As the wife of the great reformer, it was not unnatural that she should hold her head high and expect her will to count in the little university city. Luther once compared her to Moses and himself to Aaron, and he often spoke of her jestingly as "My Lord Käthe." In In October, 1535, he wrote his friend Jonas: "My Lord Käthe greets you. She rides about, cultivates the fields, raises and buys cattle, brews beer, and the like. At the same time she has begun to read the Bible, and I have promised her fifty florins if she finishes before Easter. She is very earnest about it, and has already reached the fifth book of Moses." Her reason for taking up the reading of the Bible at this particular time, it may be remarked, was the recent appearance of Luther's German version in its first complete edition.

With all his playful raillery, he valued her highly for just those practical qualities he lacked himself, and was very glad to turn the management of family affairs wholly over to her. Though we hear of her chiefly as a housewife, she was not simply that. While her tastes were not intellectual or literary, she had a fair education, and knew enough Latin to understand and bear her share in the table conversation, commonly carried on in a

curious mixture of G telligible only to one A pious woman she interested in Luther work. As his referen ecclesiastical affairs in to her show he took h and talked matters o Evidently she unders what was going on, a influence felt even in when she induced hin engage in open contr Erasmus.

Their home was th tive social life. No and neighbors were f but guests from abr for Wittenberg was Mecca of Christian Europe, and Luther

comers was generous a the regular members many university stu

custom common am

professors, Käthe beg her marriage to take the practice to the en some of them we ow ords of Luther's tabl we catch many fasci home-life. Beginni early in the thirties, boarders finally got ing down under his was talking the subs tions. At times h have presented the a with the auditors the lecturer's words seem as if the effect take all spontaneity his talk, but this was Even the most caref are full of informal sions of opinion on ject, grave and gay while some of the recently recovered s freely and unconsci scribes were waiti Often the talk, as w monplace enough, bu brilliancy and reve insight.

The records of c with caution, for

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curious mixture of German a
telligible only to one acqu
A pious woman she was D-
interested in Luther's g
work. As his references to 1-
ecclesiastical affairs in see
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and talked matters over tre
Evidently she understood : -
what was going on, and at time
influence felt even in importa
when she induced him, agains
engage in open controversy
Erasmus.

Melanchthon, when he could not get meat and wine, he contented himself with bread and water. On the other hand, he was often as imprudent in his eating as in his fasting. Käthe set a bountiful table, and whatever the condition of his health, and despite her protests, he was apt to eat anything that seized his fancy, bad as it might be for him. His irregular habits and his strenuous labors combined with the ascetic practices of his early years to undermine his health. He was a sufferer .from severe kidney and liver trouble during most of his life, and had to endure a great deal from headaches, which often completely incapacitated him for work.

****

4

Their home was the cent tive social life. Not onl A masterful person Käthe was, with a and neighbors were frequent" mind and will of her own. The cloister but guests from abroad she made her particular domain, and ruled for Wittenberg was more it with a strong hand. Strength and Mecca of Christians fro energy, indeed, were her prominent charac- Europe, and Luther's hos teristics. Among her neighbors she bore comers was generous and ab the reputation of being a capable but some- the regular members of his what over-thrifty housewife, and while many university students generally respected, she was not generally custom common among the liked. To many she seemed proud and professors, Käthe began domineering. As the wife of the great her marriage to take boarders, reformer, it was not unnatural that she the practice to the end of her." should hold her head high and expect her some of them we owe the will to count in the little university city. ords of Luther's table-talk t Luther once compared her to Moses and we catch many fascinating himself to Aaron, and he often spoke of home-life. Beginning her jestingly as "My Lord Käthe." In early in the thirties, certa October, 1535, he wrote his friend Jonas: boarders finally got into the ti "My Lord Käthe greets you. She rides ing down under his very e about, cultivates the fields, raises and buys was talking the substance t have presented the aspect of i cattle, brews beer, and the like. At the tions. At times his d same time she has begun to read the Bible, and I have promised her fifty florins if she with the auditors dig finishes before Easter. She is very earnest the lecturer's words of w about it, and has already reached the fifth seem as if the effect wo book of Moses." Her reason for taking take all spontaneity and nat are full of informal and up the reading of the Bible at this particu- his talk, but this was by sions of opinion on every cont lar time, it may be remarked, was the re- Even the most carefully e cent appearance of Luther's German version in its first complete edition. With all his playful raillery, he valued ject, grave and gar, ser her highly for just those practical qualities while some of the org he lacked himself, and was very glad to recently recovered show the turn the management of family affairs freely and unconscious 25 wholly over to her. Though we hear of scribes were waiting up her chiefly as a housewife, she was not Often the talk, as we have simply that. While her tastes were not monplace enough, but ag intellectual or literary, she had a fair edu- brilliancy and reveals rare

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MARTIN LUTHER AND HIS WORK

sure he was rightly understood or correctly reported, but frequently we run upon characteristic sayings which could have come from no one else and enrich and add to the vividness of our portrait of the man. His conversation was apt to be much freer than would be at all admissible today. In that respect he was a child of his age, for high and low alike were less careful in speech then than now. To be sure, he was often coarser than even the loose standards of the day approved. His humor was broad rather than subtle and delicate, and to men of the type of Erasmus and Melanchthon it often seemed only buffoonery. To the end of his life he retained many of the characteristics of a peasant, and he wielded in talk, as in controversy, an ax rather than a Damascus blade. But with all his lack of refinement, he was essentially a wholesome and clean-minded man. Despite the many unquotable things he said and wrote to illustrate a point or enforce an argument or give sting to his polemic, there is surprisingly little vulgarity or obscenity for its own sake either in his table-talk or in his writings.

Pure he was in life, too. Attacks of course were made upon his moral character by his enemies, and all sorts of unsavory stories were told about him. But for none of them can a shred of evidence be found, though he lived for twenty-five years in a blaze of publicity, observed of all the world and spied upon by countless critics. The most his bitter enemies, the radicals, who lived near by and knew him well, could urge against him when they tried to blacken his character was his liking for society, his fondness for playing the lute, his luxurious living, and, strange to say, his fine dressing, for on state occasions, it seems, he was fond of wearing starched cuffs and a gold chain. The radicals were the Puritans of the day, and their standards were very rigorous. Luther himself was certainly not a Puritan. He believed in innocent pleasure, and had no desire to make of Wittenberg what Calvin later made of Geneva. He liked particularly to see young people enjoy themselves. Dancing and private theatricals he approved of for them, and he played at bowls and chess himself. He was fond of pictures as well as of music, and had a Madonna in his chamber, to the great scandal of the Protestant rigorists.

insight.

The records of course

cation, and knew enough Latin to understand and bear her share in the table conversation, commonly carried on in a with caution, for we

LXXXII-90

727

His chief relaxation he always found in social intercourse. Particularly when depressed, as he often was, he sought comfort and relief in the society of others. When in the mood he could be a fascinating companion, and many were the merry hours spent at table with colleagues and friends. Speaking once of his faith in the gospel and of his confidence in his divine call, he added: "But when I consider my own weakness, how I eat and drink, and at times am merry and a good table-companion, I begin to be in doubt." On another occasion, when entertaining some of his colleagues at dinner, he called the company's attention to a large wineglass encircled with three rings. The first, he said, represented the Ten Commandments, the second the Creed, and the third the Lord's Prayer. Having emptied it at a single draft, he filled it again and passed it to Agricola, something of a fanatic on the subject of faith, who was able to get no further than the Ten Commandments, to Luther's great amusement.

Beer and wine he partook of freely, as was the custom of his countrymen, and his table-conversation may often have been less restrained in consequence; but his enemies exaggerated when they accused him of being a hard drinker. While he never criticized the moderate use of wine and beer, he always severely denounced over-indulgence in them, not sparing even his own elector, John Frederick, who, with all his piety, was prone to frequent intoxication. According to Melanchthon, Luther was always abstemious both in food and drink, and often, when absorbed in work, fasted completely for days at a time. An immoderate drinker, at any rate, he certainly was not. Had he been, he could not possibly have kept up year after year, day in and day out, to the very end of his life, his tremendous and unremitting labors. Almost superhuman they seem, as we look back upon them. Only a man of extraordinary self-control and constant concentration of purpose could have accomplished what he did.

Despite his public labors, which continued unabated, Luther showed himself no little of a family man. He did considerable gardening, and took a great interest in getting rare plants from distant parts of the country. Not long after his marriage he wrote Spalatin: "I have

a

planted a garden and dug a well, and both soul is almost like a woman's, so moved have turned out successfully. Come, and am I with misery. I could never have beyou shall be crowned with lilies and roses." lieved that the hearts of parents are so He provided himself with a carpenter's tender toward their children. Pray the bench and turning-lathe, securing Lord for me!” through his friend Link in Nuremberg The great grief of his life was the death, the best tools to be had, and he proved not in 1542, of his favorite child, Magdalen, unskilful in making useful articles for the when thirteen years of age.

She was a house. He continued to mend his own sweet and gentle character, and her parclothes, not, as he declared, for the sake ents' hearts were wrapped up in her. As of economy, but because the tailors were she lay dying, a friend tells us, Luther so poor. On one occasion Käthe had to threw himself on the floor beside her bed, complain that he had cut up one of the weeping bitterly and praying for her children's garments to patch his own trou- restoration; but she passed away in his sers with.

arms, while Käthe stood apart, overcome Instead of working night and day, as with emotion. For all his Christian faith he commonly had before his marriage, he and the consolations of the gospel he had now permitted himself more leisure of an brought to many others in similar afflicevening, and confined his study and writ- tion, he realized now, as he never had being chiefly to the daytime. It was his fore,. the clamorous insistence of human custom, so he remarked in 1537, to go to grief. “It is strange," he exclaimed, “to bed regularly at nine o'clock, an extraor- know she is certainly well and at peace, dinary contrast to the late hours he kept and yet to be so sorrowful.” Her parents in earlier years. When the children came, never ceased mourning her. Not long behe loved to spend such time as he could fore his death Luther wrote a friend: "It spare with them, and they were devotedly is extraordinary how the loss of my Magattached to him. From Torgau he once dalen continues to oppress me. I cannot wrote Käthe: “Although it is market sea- forget her." son here, I can find nothing in this city for Despite these afflictions, Luther's marthe children. Have something on hand if ried life, taking it as a whole, was genuI should fail to bring anything home for inely happy. Few of the world's greatest them."

men have been privileged to enjoy for Their marriage was blessed with six many years the solace and comfort of children, Hans, who was named after Lu- home and family as he did. It seems at ther's father; Elizabeth ; Magdalen; Mar- first almost incongruous. The modern tin; Paul, named for his favorite apostle; world's foremost prophet living the life of and Margaret. Elizabeth died in infancy. a family man and interesting himself in Immediately afterward, in a letter to a

the petty affairs of a German professor's friend, Luther wrote: “My little Eliza- home! But it helped to keep him human, beth, my wee daughter, is dead. It is won- and it should help us to realize his humanderful how sorrowful she has left me. My

(To be continued)

ness.

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planted a garden and dug a well, and both have turned out successfully. Come, and you shall be crowned with lilies and roses." He provided himself with a carpenter's bench and a turning-lathe, securing through his friend Link in Nuremberg the best tools to be had, and he proved not unskilful in making useful articles for the house. He continued to mend his own clothes, not, as he declared, for the sake of economy, but because the tailors were so poor. On one occasion Käthe had to complain that he had cut up one of the children's garments to patch his own trousers with.

The great grief of his life ap in 1542, of his favorite child when thirteen years of age. sweet and gentle character, a ents' hearts were wrapped up i she lay dying, a friend tell threw himself on the floor be weeping bitterly and prai restoration; but she passed m arms, while Käthe stood apart with emotion. For all his s and the consolations of the p brought to many others in s tion, he realized now, as he te fore, the clamorous insisten grief. "It is strange," he know she is certainly well and yet to be so sorrowful." never ceased mourning her. Ne fore his death Luther wrote is extraordinary how the los dalen continues to oppress forget her."

Instead of working night and day, as he commonly had before his marriage, he now permitted himself more leisure of an evening, and confined his study and writing chiefly to the daytime. It was his custom, so he remarked in 1537, to go to bed regularly at nine o'clock, an extraordinary contrast to the late hours he kept in earlier years. When the children came, he loved to spend such time as he could spare with them, and they were devotedly attached to him. From Torgau he once wrote Käthe: "Although it is market season here, I can find nothing in this city for the children. Have something on hand if I should fail to bring anything home for them."

soul is almost like a woman am I with misery. I could nee lieved that the hearts of pa tender toward their children. ♬ Lord for me!"

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Their marriage was blessed with six children, Hans, who was named after Luther's father; Elizabeth; Magdalen; Martin; Paul, named for his favorite apostle; and Margaret. Elizabeth died in infancy. Immediately afterward, in a letter to a friend, Luther wrote: "My little Elizabeth, my wee daughter, is dead. It is wonderful how sorrowful she has left me. My ness.

(To be continued)

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