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N the Andes, half a thousand feet In riding toward it across the pampa,
higher than Pike's Peak, is to be found more than half the distance will be covthe Peruvian "Garden of the Gods,” ad- ered before any perceptible change is noted. mired by every traveler fortunate enough A closer view discloses a vast area, fully to visit it. It is locally called the “Rock twenty miles long, by five miles wide, Forest,” though in no sense of the word thickly covered with grotesquely formed is it a forest: it simply resembles one when stones of all sizes and shapes. Some stand viewed at a distance of ten miles. The alone, like factory-chimneys; others like traveler may be forgiven the error of cathedral spires jutting out from great thinking it a forest as he sees it for the masses of rock; while others, like Cleofirst time, and forgets that he is no longer patra's Needle and the great obelisks of where trees grow, but within half an the prehistoric ruins of Copan, dot the hour's ride of the highest city in the world, valleys that reach up into the Cordillera Cerro de Pasco, perched, like a condor, on as thickly as the limbs that shoot out from the high peaks of the Andes.
the trunk of a tree. One's imagination Geographically the forest is very near need not be elastic to see in this Andean the middle of Peru, and on the eastern “Garden of the Gods" the beautiful slope of the Cordillera Real, where it façade of a Notre Dame, hundreds of petbreaks off into the plains of Junin. A rified antediluvian reptiles, or myriads of more exact location would be, Lat. 11° S., veritable monuments. By their very Long. 76° 15' W., but this is definite only proximity, the large areas covered with to the geographer. To the layman it such tall, spire-like stones stand out in would be better to define the route of sharp contrast to equal areas of low, scattravel as being over the famous Oroya tered masses of rock. Again, in any one Railroad of Peru, crossing the Andes of these areas may
of colossal through the Galera Tunnel, 15,665 feet columns, rising a hundred feet or more in above the ocean. Turning northward the air, and not infrequently on their very from Oroya, the traveler takes the Cerro summits will be seen balanced stones as de Pasco Railroad, and in less than three large as a small cottage. This grouping hours he sees, far to the westward, beyond of tombstones, columns, and cathedral the rolling pampas of the upper Andes, spires is not isolated. So thickly strewn the dim outline of what has so far ap- are they over this large area that if one peared to indicate a great forest.
particular stone is lost sight of, hours and
even days would be required to retrace date the Montaro River was many times one's steps to the object sought.
its present volume. The shrunken river Narrow, irregular lanes, like streets has left long stretches of bare rock that walled in by skyscrapers, lead back from was in past ages the bed of the river. Here the vertical walls that often face the sides the interest centers in the great number of of the valleys. These lanes join others pot-holes bored into the rock by the rotajust as irregular, and continue their course tion and grinding of small flint-like boulup the sides of the hills to the backbone of ders. In shape, the holes resemble the the ridges. Standing on the summit of old-fashioned stone churn of a generation one of these ridges, the visitor may look ago. In size they have a wide range, some down over the edge of a perpendicular being only a few inches in depth, while cliff into an open court often a full hun- others are more than twelve feet deep. dred feet below. This court will be al- The larger holes are fully five feet in most completely surrounded with stones diameter near the top, and gradually taper of every shape and size. Possibly, a break down to less than a foot in diameter at in the wall will permit the visitor to work the bottom. In all the larger holes there his way down into the open space. If so, are crevices in the rock, which permitted he will find it a wet, boggy piece of the escape of the water at the bottom as champa, from which a hundred tiny the grinding process went on. What little springs of water bubble up, cold and as is left of the boulder that started this work clear as crystal, and highly impregnated of drilling by rolling round and round in with lime. The small stream of water a small cavity of the bed-rock is interestfinds its way to a larger stream in a ing, owing to its shape and regularity. All broader valley. Out in this open valley, are spheroidal and greatly elongated. as level as a floor, and possibly a quarter The topography of this region would be of a mile wide, stand single columns of an interesting study, and to the geologist, rock, like sentinels on the outposts of a almost a complete laboratory; and if he sleeping army. Not one valley alone, but were skilled in reading the fragmentary hundreds, cut this remarkable region into records, he would have spread out before a thousand irregular plots, each vying him torn leaves from many a volume. with its neighbor in the wild beauty of There would be a fragmentary volume confused and grotesque rock formation. telling of the quartz that forms the oddThe "Garden of the Gods” in Colorado shaped stones in the forest; chapters dealboasts of a few spectacular rocks; but they ing with the limestone strata that have are few in number, and the area which been pushed up, twisted, and bent; parathey cover is not large. The Andean graphs telling the history of the sandstone "Garden” covers nearly a hundred times ledges and granite walls that are thrown the ground, and in beauty and interest together in utter confusion. A singular surpasses its Northern counterpart in the geological feature is to be seen in one of same ratio.
the level valleys, and close to a group of In many places extensive remains of columns and spire-like stones. A limestone a past civilization are to be found along stratum has been pushed up, and bent into the lower reaches of these valleys. At the a circle. The long chord of the arc, which southern end of the forest, through which is the surface of the ground, is nearly five the Montaro River flows, there is still hundred feet, while the middle ordinate is standing the abutments of what was prob- approximately fifty feet. The stratificaably a suspension-bridge. This bridge was tion is almost vertical, and is the only incrossed by a paved road, which led back dication of lime-rock in the valley. Other to a solid mountain of rock salt, less than interesting features multiply as the geoloa league away. The historic highway gist wanders through this labyrinth of from Cuzco to Quito is only a short ride stone figures. Sea-shells are found here from this bridge.
at an elevation of 14,000 feet. It almost There is still another interesting fea- seems as if Nature had purposely hidden ture, though not new, to be found in the away on top of the highest Andes a library lower end of the forest. At some remote of world history, telling of its making. 1 The Indian name given to the turf, peculiar to the high Andes, in which the roots of
the grass are thickly woven and matted together.
OT far from the banks of the Mulde, just above the town of Grimma, stand the ruins of the wealthy Cistercian convent of Nimbschen. In 1523 one of its inmates was Katharine von Bora, daughter of a nobleman, Hans von Bora, whose modest estates lay only a few miles to the west. She was born on January 29, 1499, probably in the little village of Lippendorf, where her father had a residence. Her mother died and her father married again when Katharine was but a small child, and after spending some time away at school, she was set apart for the religious life, and put into the convent at Nimbschen when only nine or ten years old.
BY ARTHUR C. McGIFFER Professor of Church History in Union Theological Seminary, Ne
Like many another, this particular convent drew its inmates chiefly from the daughters of the local nobility. At the time of Katharine's entrance, one of her relatives was abbess, and her father's sister was among the nuns. The residents numbered more than forty, and included many young girls like herself in training for the religious life. The life was not of her own choosing, but she grew into it naturally, as her companions did, and was quite ready to take the veil when she reached the age of sixteen. The discipline of the convent was not over-strict, and
Katharine and her parently happy an influence of Luther be felt. The conv ing town of Gri borders of Elector permeated with the as 1522, the pric monastery at Grin of the Nimbschen ticism with a nun was perhaps the co that led some of th convent to wish f their relatives refu them, they appeal Since they claimed enlightened by the them to remain lo felt in duty boun A To sistance. Koppe, who had the convent, was the escape. On Ea of nuns, including a sister of Luth Katharine von B cretly, and made Wittenberg, wher day of Easter wee A month later