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CHARLES V, KING OF SPAIN AND EMPEROR OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

FROM THE PAINTING BY TITIAN

to criticize his choice of words in such a alienate great masses of those hitherto decrisis is ridiculous. His attitude in the voted to him, without hesitating for a existing situation was essentially sound moment he spoke the word needed to unite and does credit both to his wisdom and his the forces of conservation and bring order courage. At a time when weakness and out of chaos. He was right when he dehesitancy marked the conduct of most of clared that firm and united action on the those who should have acted promptly and part of the authorities at the very beginfirmly, unblinded by sentiment and un- ning of the uprising would have spared moved by personal considerations, he came much bloodshed. He was right, too, in out boldly and decisively for the one course doing what he could to secure that action possible in the circumstances. Though he at the earliest possible moment. When knew it would cost him his popularity and the princes took the matter jointly in

LXXXII-70

575

un

were

hand, the rebellion was quickly crushed. peasantry and proletariate would certainly Here and there trouble continued for have meant its speedy extinction. months, but the movement as a whole was Upon Luther himself the effects were suppressed before the end of the summer. permanent. He was hardened and emIt was put down in many places with a bittered. He had to endure the chaheavy hand, as Luther had advised, while grin of seeing thousands of his supporters the mercy he recommended was turn away from him, many driven into fortunately not always shown to those Catholicism by the apparent demonstrawho capitulated.

tion of the destructive effects of his work, A lamentable tragedy it was. The de- many into anabaptism by what seemed his struction of prop

recreancy to the erty both at the

common cause and hands of the ma

his cruel desertion rauding

Diegrundtlihen und rechten peasants

of his own disand of the aveng

baupt Artidd/alle Baürsdrafft vnnd

byndarles der Gyskichas vnnd ing soldiery was

ciples. He ceased Weldidan berteytent/ønn

to be the popular very great. Large wddha ficfidh bachwers

hero of Germany, districts of coun

damAyna.

and became to multry devas

titudes, especially tated, and thou

in the south and sands lost their

west, an object of lives. As is apt to

hatred and execrahappen when vio

tion. He never relence and uproar

gretted his action. get control, the

He had done what general movement

the crisis demanded, toward the amelio

and would have ration of the lower

done the same classes was tem

again in like cirporarily retarded.

cumstances. It was not wholly

the tragedy sobered checked, to be sure.

him and took from In some places

him some of his great and perma

earlier buoyancy nent advances were

and hopefulness. made. And de

His confidence in spite the wide

the people was spread disrepute From the copy of the book in the Royal Library in Munich

permanently shatbrought upon the TITLE-PAGE OF THE “TWELVE ARTICLES," tered, and thencecause by the war, SETTING FORTH THE GRIEVANCES

forth it always and the strengthOF THE PEASANTS' WAR

seemed necessary ening of the ruling

to hold them firmly classes by their all too easy victory, the in check and control them with a strong uprising was undoubtedly, after all, only hand. The culminating event in a succesa step in the progress of democracy. sion of similar experiences covering more

It seems a lasting pity that by the fail- than three years, the war led him to realure of its leaders to show sympathy with ize the dangers of radicalism and to draw the peasants in their struggle the Reforma- more narrowly the bounds within which tion permanently alienated multitudes of the Reformation was thenceforth to move. them and became almost exclusively iden- We may be thankful he was able to disentified with the interests of the middle and tangle his movement from the dangerous upper strata of society. But they were alliance with radicalism and uproar and to not necessarily to blame. The class divi- carry it forward despite friends and foes ; sion was, perhaps, in the circumstances, but the disentanglement cost both him and unavoidable, and if so, the identification Protestantism dear, and we may well deof the new religious movement with the plore the situation which made it necessary.

(To be continued)

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KABYLE, SEEN FROM FORT NATIONAL AND LOOKING TOWARD BENI YENNI

MOTORING IN ALGERIA AND TUNIS

FIRST PAPER: FROM ALGIERS TO CONSTANTINE

BY ABIGAIL H. FITCH

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then the French are the most civilized wrapped in long, white burnooses, reclined people in the world. In spreading civili- in graceful attitudes before the doors of zation in North Africa by a network of Moorish cafés, drinking, smoking or idly wonderful highways, the French have fol- dreaming in the sun, or watching those lowed in the footsteps of the Romans. I who, more energetic than themselves, were have seen in the great barren plains of engrossed in games of chess. A negro, Algeria and Tunisia, leagues distant from with a face like a full-blown black poppy, native or foreign habitations, well-defined ceased suddenly his melodious shouting to traces of the old Roman roads, solidly gape open-mouthed at our red car. stone-paved, over which the French have We passed pretty villas with flowerconstructed their modern roads.1

scented gardens. The Arabs have a pasOur first objective point from Algierssion for flowers. It is not unusual to see was Fort National, built on a spur of the old men in ragged gowns, young dangrand Kabyle mountains. The country dies in exquisitely tinted burnooses, and had an air of fertility and prosperity. We half-naked workmen- the latter leisurely Aew past immense vineyards and large hammering stone on the white highwayvegetable gardens laid out like chicken- wearing clusters of orange-blossoms fastruns and inclosed by bamboo fences against ened behind their ears or hanging over their which tall flower-clustered asphodels foreheads, inhaling continuously the sweet leaned; and past great hedges of prickly too sweet - fragrance of the flowers. pears, and groves of orange- and lemon- It was late in the afternoon when we foot-hill, the red-tiled sloping roofs of the houses glistening in the sinking sunlight. Orchards of olive- and fig-trees and small Kabyle vegetable gardens clung to the sides of mountains. As our car slowly climbed the steep zigzag road, half-clad boys and girls tore down from their rocky villages and clamored loudly for sous.

1 It may be of interest to the readers of my two papers was a gallon every 8 1-2 miles. The generalissimo of to know that the gasolene on the trip was procured with- our small party speaks feelingly on the advisability of not out difficulty at most of our stopping-places, the general having radiators repaired in Tunis. He adds that a guide price being two francs per gallon, although in Timgad it is an unnecessary and useless expense in motoring, for exwas four francs per gallon. The average consumption cellent road-maps are obtainable.

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The men and women stood aloof and eyed us curiously. Some of the women were remarkably fine-looking, possessing a wild kind of beauty enhanced by barbaric jewelry.

Of all the races inhabiting North Africa-the

Kabyles, or Berbers, as A VIEW IN BISKRA

they are also called, are

the most interesting. They of steep, continuous climbing, of constant were in possession of the soil when the and rather appalling corkscrew turns, each Phenicians came into the country, and they one affording different and superb views remained more

more or less in possession over the mountains. The road built by through the successive conquests of the the French army in 1871, in the short pe- Roman, the Mussulman, the_Vandal, the riod of seventeen days, at the time of the Arab, and the Turk. The French alone great Kabyle insurrection, is a splendid have succeeded after very great difficulty bit of engineering.

in subjugating them. They are the old NuThe snowy summits of the Djura-Djura midians, descendants of the ill-fated Symountains lay to the right of us, and be- phax, and of the masterful Masinissa, who low, the fertile plains of the Sebaou. Large were rival and fickle allies of the Romans Kabyle villages occupied the crests of every and the Carthaginians.

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Fort National stands on the highest peak miles beyond Fort National and along the of the Djura-Djura foot-hills, and domi- ridge of the same mountains. Extreme nates the entire Kabyle district. We de- caution in driving is necessary on this scended at a hostelry where a very good road, which hugs the mountain on one side dinner was served, and where later we and skirts precipices on the other, and slept on beds which resembled relief maps which has innumerable blind corners, and of the Djura-Djura mountains. The vil- is narrow, and too frequently is unprolage street, long, wide and very clean, had tected by parapets. houses on one side only, the other being a In talking with groups of women and tree-bordered promenade protected by a children I found that the boys spoke stone wall, beyond which the village French Auently. They attend school, they plunges to a lower level and overlooks a told me, whereas the girls do not. The valley two thousand feet deep.

French have established schools all over A few minutes' walk brought us to the this mountainous district. There are also end of the village street. Behind the bar- technical schools where mechanical and racks, at a fountain, soldiers were washing manual trades are taught. The Kabyles, their clothes. The laundry-work was at- when sick, are cared for in hospitals, or tended with a great deal of noisy pleasantry, doctors are provided who will visit them the French soldier in Algeria being a joy- in their villages without charge. The ous creature who works hard and takes government wisely makes no attempt to his pleasures as he may.

interfere with their religious belief. The Neither the Arab nor the Kabyle is vigilant Catholic church sent missionaries permitted to carry firearms, not because here, but their efforts were unsuccessful. the French fear them, but because they Their failure stirred the Methodists to fear for them. Horrible vendettas exist action. I was told by a gentleman at Fort among the Kabyles. When a man is National, who was deeply interested in the killed, not only the slayer, but his family subject, that the Methodist bishop of and his most distant relatives are consid- North Africa was expected at the fort ered to owe a debt of blood to the family within a few days, to consider plans for of the slain.

missions in the Kabyle country. Of a morning we motored to Michelet, In truth I extracted little information a little French village twelve and a half from the natives, for though they were

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