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GELLIVARE Iron Mines

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MALMBERGET Farthest North

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ooze and treacherous morass and swamp, to find nothing save the foundations of some peasant houses cluttered with the charcoal of roof-tree and wall, and all about them a fire-swept forest. Had we cared to venture on foot, we might have come across the Lapps, with their wander

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HEDEN

It was here that the Northern road came to an end. Beyond lay the wilderness, across which, when the sun is beating down, even the nomad Lapp would be hard put to it to find a path. All bird life has perished or fled. The winged creatures which hold possession are the horsefly and the mosquito. Farther our car could not have gone, for we had heard of travelers venturing afoot into those wilds, scrambling for days through the slimy

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MAP OF THE JOURNEY "FARTHEST NORTH BY MOTOR-CAR"

GULF

ing herds of reindeer feeding on the yel low mosses of the dreary earth-patches of the Lapp mark. Also we might have seen something of those battered, shaggy semiwrecks of men and sallow, pigeon-chested women of that far Northland, the victims of generations of inbreeding, existing in veritable wallows, amid toil and starvation, the strain of the wilderness, and the fever from insect bites and wretched food.

But we preferred civilization, and so

returned to Gellivare, with that pleasant As we drew near our Southern goal, sense of relaxation which comes of a deed the Finnish capital, the days became peraccomplished. We had broken away from ceptibly shorter; but there was no cessaonly a few of the things associated with tion of the heat, and our enemies, the mosthe complex fabric of highly organized quitos and Aies, were still with us, so that society, but as before going southward we we had to take refuge beneath veils. At halted there at the frontier of human in- all hours the insects swarmed about us, dustry and habitation, we could look ahead eagerly seeking the slightest opening in and see where the trail, leaving the bounds our veils. We were told that the only of exact ownership, frayed like a rope's- fortification against these thirsty enemies end and Auttered across the wastes of the of man in the Northern summer is to satufrozen North.

rate the head in the smoke of young twigs,

very much as a ham is cured; but, needless It was in the evening that we reached to say, we preferred hand-to-hand conflict Heden, and six hours after leaving Malm- to a procedure which savored of suicide. berget we again put up at the posting- The Finnish peasant we found to be station. From Heden our route took us unpicturesque, a figure in strong contrast back to Moriary, and there the road

to his country, which, in its alternation forked to the left for Haparanda and the of lake and stream and hillside, was a land of the Finns. We were rapidly for- rare delight to the eye. The deep green getting our Northern experiences and the of boundless forests accorded a sharp but belated exhilaration over our accomplish- not unpleasant note to the red which domiment in the eagerness with which we con- nates Finnish architecture and is the offitemplated making the acquaintance of the cial color of the country. It was in these race which, though subject to a Russian Northern forests that we obtained a lively yoke, has strange kinship with the Magyar conception of the old Norse gods' habiof Hungary. At first the roads were none tation-Vidar's impenetrable, primeval of the best, but after six hours of contin- woods, where reigned deep silence and uous running we managed to make the solitude. We saw stretching before us frontier at Haparanda and once more to boundless expanses of lofty trees, almost catch a glimpse of the Gulf of Bothnia. without a path among them, regions of There we stopped and recovered the monstrous shadows and cloistered gloom, money which we had deposited as duty and we felt the grandeur of the idea which upon entering Sweden. The Russian duty forms the basis of Vidar's essence. It we paid at the neighboring Finnish town seemed as though we were amid the beof Tornea, where we enjoyed the rare ginning of all things, in the very presence spectacle of a beautiful sunset at half-past of the Norseman's All-father. eleven at night. The following day we And as we look back now upon the days had the unique experience of crossing we passed deep in the solitudes of the from one town to the other by sail-ferry. North, we feel that it was a wonderful There were several more ferries to be world the fringe of which we crossed. We crossed in that long run down the superb had come into touch with strange and Finnish coast and through the country, wonderful people, living in days that had over a good post-road at twenty-five miles no end-a people whose minds have conan hour all the way to Helsingfors. Occa- ceived of a world created from a strange sionally we saw two-wheeled carioles tak- admixture of fire and ice, wherein the ing the steep pitches in the roads at full forces of nature, the good and the bad, gallop behind the sturdy Finnish horses. are ceaselessly struggling.

Note: Readers will recall two unique records of motor-experiences which have appeared in The CENTURY: “Motoring in a Cactus Forest” in March, 1910, and “A Motor Invasion of Norway" in December, 1909. The present paper will soon be followed by others on trips by automobile in Tunis and in Algiers, and we shall take pleasure in giving consideration to accounts that may be offered of similarly novel trips in out-of-the-way regions.—The Editor.

"THE BRAVEST DEED I EVER KNEW"

I. WILLING TO DIE FOR A FRIEND

BY HENRY WATTERSON

and

Andrew Wake Holman, was a private in Company C, of Colonel Humphrey Marshall's Regiment of Kentucky Riflemen, which reached the scene of hostilities upon the Rio Grande in the midsummer of 1846. He had enlisted from Owen County,-"Sweet Owen," as it used to be called, and came of good stock, his father, Colonel Harry Holman, a frontier celebrity in the days of aboriginal fighting and journalism. Company C, out "on a scout," was picked off by the Mexicans, and the distinction between United States soldiers and Texan rebels not being clearly established, a drum-head court-martial ordered "the decimation."

for a friend, what can be nobler than being willing to die for him?-is the bravest thing I know, or have ever been told of mortal man.

Wake Holman went to Cuba in the Lopez Rebellion of 1851, and fought under Pickett at the battle of Cardenas. In 1855-56, he was in Nicaragua, with Walker. He commanded a Kentucky regiment of cavalry on the Union side in our War of Secession. After the war, he lived the life of a hunter and fisher at his home in Kentucky, a cheery, unambitious, big-brained, and big-hearted cherub, whom it would not do to "projeck" with, albeit, with entire safety you could pick his pocket; the soul of simplicity and amiability. To have known him was an education in primal manhood. To sit at his hospitable board, with him at the head of the table, was an inspiration in the love of life and the art of living. Yet was there a reserve, not to say a reticence, touching himself. During all my intimacy with him, extending over thirty years, I never heard him refer to any of his adventures as a soldier.

.

This was a decree that one of every ten of the Yankee captives should be shot. There being a hundred of Marshall's men, one hundred beans, ninety white and ten black, were put in a hat. Then the company was mustered as on dress-parade. Whoever drew a white bean was to be held prisoner of war; whoever drew a black

bean was to die.

In the early part of the drawing Andrew Wake Holman-we always called him "Wake"-drew a white bean. Toward the close came the turn of a neighbor and comrade from Owen County who had left a wife and baby at home. He and "Wake" were standing together. Holman brushed him aside, walked out in his place, and drew his bean. It turned out to be a white one. Twice within the half-hour death had looked him in the eye and found no blinking there.

I have seen a deal of hardihood, endurance, suffering both in women and men, splendid courage on the field of action, perfect self-possession in the face of danger; but I rather think that Wake Holman's exploit that day-next to actually

It was not possible that such a man should provide for his old age. He had little forecast. He knew not the value of money. He had humor, common sense, and courage. I held him in real affection and honor. When the Mexican War Pension Act was passed by Congress, I took his papers to General Black, the Commis sioner of Pensions, and related this story. "I have promised General Cerro Gordo Williams," said General Black, referring to the then senior United States Senator from Kentucky, "that his name shall go first on the roll of these Mexican pensioners. But," said the General as he looked beamingly into my face, "Wake Holman's name shall come next." And there it is.

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II. A BRAVE RESCUE FROM DROWNING

BY C. S. REX

I

WAS a boy fourteen years of age when but without taking into calculation the

I witnessed the following deed of rare swiftness of the current in midstream. courage and bravery.

Less than fifteen minutes after they had The winter of 1878–79 was severely left the shore the men, who were waiting cold for two months prior to February, to hear the cry, “All's well,” were startled when several days of unsettled rainy wea- by agonizing shouts for help. It was surther caused a tremendous rise in the Mau- mised that Dore and Randall had been mee River. The breaking up of the two- caught by the bowstring ferry-cable and foot ice in the river was the source of their boat overturned. The cries conmuch damage for miles up and down the tinuing to come out of the blackness of valley. Among other disasters was the the night, the men on shore reasoned that demolishment of a half-mile wooden bridge the two men had caught the cable as their across the stream at Napoleon, Ohio. boat was wrecked, and were clinging to it.

As the rainy weather cleared the Maumee This was exactly what had happened, of ice, steps were taken for the building of and the swiftly running water carried the a ferry over the river, which divides the two men to the limit of tension in the rope town into two parts. A cable was firmly and then rebounded through icy water to anchored on each shore, and by means of the place of starting. Men could not long pulleys a flat-bottomed boat, capable of endure that experience. carrying a considerable load, was put in Among the men who had heard the cries use for the transportation of man and for help was a herculean woodsman by beast. This was in use only in the day the name of Allen Mann. Calling to the time.

others to help him launch another boat The waters continuing to rise, the river below the ferry-cable, he quickly divested became a mass of mad, swirling, muddy himself of superfluous clothing and pushed water. In the middle of the stream the out into the stream. water overflowed the ferry-cable for a dis- For half an hour he bravely battled tance of a hundred feet or more. Theswiftly with the current before his efforts were of running current would carry the cable to any avail and he was in a position to help its utmost tension, and, when released, it the men, whose cries were becoming fainter. would spring up-stream with a wicked Finally reaching a point just below the swish, like the snapping of a bowstring. spot where the cable left the water on its

About nine o'clock on the night of Feb- rebound, he turned his boat up-stream and ruary 15, word came to Duncan Dore, an rowed as man never rowed before. uncanny Scot, who resided on the south In the meantime Dore and Randall had side of the river, that his mother, over on worked their way along the rope until the north side, was seriously ill. Scotch they were near together, and as they were stubbornness must have had something to swept downward toward the waiting resdo with his determination to attempt a cuer, Mann yelled, “Let go!" crossing of the turbulent stream.

The two men heard him and, realizing An intimate friend of Dore's, one Ortez that help was below, obeyed his command. Randall, being the owner of a small skiff, Mann ceased rowing, reached over the Dore secured it and determined to cross side, seized the two men, worked them alone. Randall, however, begged so hard around to the stern of the boat, and by a to accompany him that Dore finally tremendous effort of strength pulled both yielded, and the two men launched their in, where they sank exhausted. They landed boat. Being extremely anxious to reach a mile below, but were quickly conveyed the other side as quickly as possible, they to anxious friends and relatives. ignored the advice of several men who This was before the day of Carnegie went with them to the bank, and launched medals, and no special attention was given their boat up-stream from the ferry-cable, to the bravery of Allen Mann.

APOSTLES OF REASONABLENESS

THE LEIBNITZ-BOSSUET EFFORT TO REUNITE CATHOLICISM AND PROTESTANTISM-SPINOLA, THE CATHOLIC "MARTYR OF MODERATION”—THE ENGLISH LATITUDE-MEN-FALKLAND AND HALESEXAMPLES OF TOLERANCE FOR OUR DAY—THE ACCELERATED MOVEMENT TOWARD CHURCH UNITY

BY THE REV. NEWMAN SMYTH, D.D.

:

EADING history is much like travel- notice this episode, it was a scene in which

ing through a picturesque country: were interested princes and princesses ; every one is expected to see the striking theologians and statesmen; the Protestant features, which the guide-books will not Leibnitz, at that time the greatest philofail to point out. But of the quiet places sophical mind of Europe; the Roman by the wayside, the hidden valleys, and Catholic Bossuet, the most famous orator the mountain springs-of these the tourist, of France; the Emperor Leopold, ruler of hurrying through history, will know but the Holy Roman Empire; the French little.

King Louis XIV; and two popes, InnoThere are not a few such unfamiliar cent XI and his successor. Some of the but interesting side paths in religious his- most notable women of the time were liketory. The great leaders and reformers wise so deeply interested in it that, it is we know; but besides the conspicuous ac- said, they did not find the long epistles of tors, there have been from time to time learned scholars and divines dry reading. men of moderation, fashioned in a gentler One of them, Mme. de Brinon, through mold and of lucid reasonableness, charac- whose hands many of the letters passed, ters once of much attractiveness in the was indefatigable in her zeal to bring the circles of those who felt their influence, matter to successful issue, giving the corwhose names have been almost forgotten, respondents little rest in her endeavors to and whose writings are preserved, but keep up the negotiations. It was of her rarely read, in unfrequented recesses of that Pellisson, a French Catholic, who was old libraries. Yet we owe much that is engaged in the correspondence, wrote to best and fairest in the life and ideals of Leibnitz: “Madame de Brinon finds fault our time to this succession of men of large- with me on your account. She says, and minded charity in ages of intolerance, a I believe she is right, that we think of truly apostolic succession, although un- nothing else but your dynamics, and not canonized, after the order of that great at all of your conversion, which is the one Apostle who left to his followers this in- object of her desire, as of mine." junction, “Let your moderation”-or, as This movement, though carried on for the word may be read-“Let your reason- thirty years, made little noise. The letableness be known unto all men."

ters were purposely not printed, and reOne of these byways of history well mained for many years afterward unpubworth our following is disclosed in the lished. The whole narrative of it might letters of Leibnitz, Mme. de Brinon, and well be recalled now because it contains others who in the latter part of the seven much of suggestive value in relation to teenth century were engaged in serious present questions concerning the reconciliefforts to restore the lost unity between ation of the unhappy divisions of the the Roman Catholic and the Protestant church. churches. Though our histories scarcely To this object at that time, a Roman

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