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YOUNG fellow of two and twenty, dying for a friend, what can be nobler

Andrew Wake Holman, was a pri- than being willing to die for him?--is the vate in Company C, of Colonel Hum- bravest thing I know, or have ever been phrey Marshall's Regiment of Kentucky told of mortal man. Riflemen, which reached the scene of Wake Holman went to Cuba in the hostilities upon the Rio Grande in the Lopez Rebellion of 1851, and fought unmidsummer of 1846. He had enlisted der Pickett at the battle of Cardenas. In from Owen County, -"Sweet Owen,” as 1855-56, he was in Nicaragua, with it used to be called, and came of good Walker. He commanded a Kentucky stock, his father, Colonel Harry Holman, regiment of cavalry on the Union side in a frontier celebrity in the days of aborigi- our War of Secession. After the war, he nal fighting and journalism. Company lived the life of a hunter and fisher at his C, out “on a scout,” was picked off by the home in Kentucky, a cheery, unambitious, Mexicans, and the distinction between big-brained, and big-hearted cherub, whom United States soldiers and Texan rebels it would not do to “projeck" with, albeit, not being clearly established, a drum-head with entire safety you could pick his court-martial ordered “the decimation.” pocket; the soul of simplicity and amiabil

This was a decree that one of every ten ity. To have known him was an educaof the Yankee captives should be shot. tion in primal manhood. To sit at his There being a hundred of Marshall's men, hospitable board, with him at the head of one hundred beans, ninety white and ten the table, was an inspiration in the love black, were put in a hat. Then the com- of life and the art of living. Yet was pany was mustered as on dress-parade.

on dress-parade. there a reserve, not to say a reticence, Whoever drew a white bean was to be held touching himself. During all my intimacy prisoner of war; whoever drew a black with him, extending over thirty years, I bean was to die.

never heard him refer to any of his advenIn the early part of the drawing An- tures as a soldier. drew Wake Holman-we always called It was not possible that such a man him “Wake"-drew a white bean. To- should provide for his old age. He had ward the close came the turn of a neighbor little forecast. He knew not the value of and comrade from Owen County who money. He had humor, common sense, had left a wife and baby at home. He and courage. I held him in real affection and “Wake” were standing together. and honor. When the Mexican War PenHolman brushed him aside, walked out in sion Act was passed by Congress, I took his place, and drew his bean. It turned his papers to General Black, the Commisout to be a white one. Twice within the sioner of Pensions, and related this story: half-hour death had looked him in the eye “I have promised General Cerro Gordo and found no blinking there.

Williams,” said General Black, referring I have seen a deal of hardihood, endur- to the then senior United States Senator ance, suffering both in women and men, from Kentucky, “that his name shall go splendid courage on the field of action, first on the roll of these Mexican pensionperfect self-possession in the face of dan- ers. But,” said the General as he looked ger; but I rather think that Wake Hol- beamingly into my face, “Wake Holman's man's exploit that day-next to actually name shall come next." And there it is.




WAS a boy fourteen years of age when but without taking into calculation the

I witnessed the following deed of rare swiftness of the current in midstream. courage and bravery.

Less than fifteen minutes after they had The winter of 1878–79 was severely left the shore the men, who were waiting cold for two months prior to February, to hear the cry, “All's well,” were startled when several days of unsettled rainy wea- by agonizing shouts for help. It was surther caused a tremendous rise in the Mau- mised that Dore and Randall had been mee River. The breaking up of the two- caught by the bowstring ferry-cable and foot ice in the river was the source of their boat overturned. The cries conmuch damage for miles up and down the tinuing to come out of the blackness of valley. Among other disasters was the the night, the men on shore reasoned that demolishment of a half-mile wooden bridge the two men had caught the cable as their across the stream at Napoleon, Ohio. boat was wrecked, and were clinging to it.

As the rainy weather cleared the Maumee This was exactly what had happened, of ice, steps were taken for the building of and the swiftly running water carried the a ferry over the river, which divides the two men to the limit of tension in the rope town into two parts. A cable was firmly and then rebounded through icy water to anchored on each shore, and by means of the place of starting. Men could not long pulleys a flat-bottomed boat, capable of endure that experience. carrying a considerable load, was put in Among the men who had heard the cries use for the transportation of man and for help was a herculean woodsman by beast. This was in use only in the day the name of Allen Mann. Calling to the time.

others to help him launch another boat The waters continuing to rise, the river below the ferry-cable, he quickly divested became a mass of mad, swirling, muddy himself of superfluous clothing and pushed water. In the middle of the stream the out into the stream. water overflowed the ferry-cable for a dis- For half an hour he bravely battled tance of a hundred feet or more. Theswiftly with the current before his efforts were of running current would carry the cable to any avail and he was in a position to help its utmost tension, and, when released, it the men, whose cries were becoming fainter. would spring up-stream with a wicked Finally reaching a point just below the swish, like the snapping of a bowstring. spot where the cable left the water on its

About nine o'clock on the night of Feb- rebound, he turned his boat up-stream and ruary 15, word came to Duncan Dore, an rowed as man never rowed before. uncanny Scot, who resided on the south In the meantime Dore and Randall had side of the river, that his mother, over on worked their way along the rope until the north side, was seriously ill. Scotch they were near together, and as they were stubbornness must have had something to swept downward toward the waiting resdo with his determination to attempt a cuer, Mann yelled, “Let go!" crossing of the turbulent stream.

The two men heard him and, realizing An intimate friend of Dore's, one Ortez that help was below, obeyed his command. Randall, being the owner of a small skiff, Mann ceased rowing, reached over the Dore secured it and determined to cross side, seized the two men, worked them alone. Randall, however, begged so hard around to the stern of the boat, and by a to accompany him that Dore finally tremendous effort of strength pulled both yielded, and the two men launched their in, where they sank exhausted. They landed boat. Being extremely anxious to reach a mile below, but were quickly conveyed the other side as quickly as possible, they to anxious friends and relatives. ignored the advice of several men who This was before the day of Carnegie went with them to the bank, and launched medals, and no special attention was given their boat up-stream from the ferry-cable, to the bravery of Allen Mann.





EADING history is much like travel- notice this episode, it was a scene in which

ing through a picturesque country: were interested princes and princesses ; every one is expected to see the striking theologians and statesmen; the Protestant features, which the guide-books will not Leibnitz, at that time the greatest philofail to point out. But of the quiet places sophical mind of Europe; the Roman by the wayside, the hidden valleys, and Catholic Bossuet, the most famous orator the mountain springs-of these the tourist, of France; the Emperor Leopold, ruler of hurrying through history, will know but the Holy Roman Empire; the French little.

King Louis XIV; and two popes, InnoThere are not a few such unfamiliar cent XI and his successor. Some of the but interesting side paths in religious his- most notable women of the time were liketory. The great leaders and reformers wise so deeply interested in it that, it is we know; but besides the conspicuous ac- said, they did not find the long epistles of tors, there have been from time to time learned scholars and divines dry reading. men of moderation, fashioned in a gentler One of them, Mme. de Brinon, through mold and of lucid reasonableness, charac- whose hands many of the letters passed, ters once of much attractiveness in the was indefatigable in her zeal to bring the circles of those who felt their influence, matter to successful issue, giving the corwhose names have been almost forgotten, respondents little rest in her endeavors to and whose writings are preserved, but keep up the negotiations. It was of her rarely read, in unfrequented recesses of that Pellisson, a French Catholic, who was old libraries. Yet we owe much that is engaged in the correspondence, wrote to best and fairest in the life and ideals of Leibnitz: “Madame de Brinon finds fault our time to this succession of men of large- with me on your account. She says, and minded charity in ages of intolerance, a I believe she is right, that we think of truly apostolic succession, although un- nothing else but your dynamics, and not canonized, after the order of that great at all of your conversion, which is the one Apostle who left to his followers this in- object of her desire, as of mine." junction, “Let your moderation”-or, as This movement, though carried on for the word may be read-“Let your reason- thirty years, made little noise. The letableness be known unto all men."

ters were purposely not printed, and reOne of these byways of history well mained for many years afterward unpubworth our following is disclosed in the lished. The whole narrative of it might letters of Leibnitz, Mme. de Brinon, and well be recalled now because it contains others who in the latter part of the seven much of suggestive value in relation to teenth century were engaged in serious present questions concerning the reconciliefforts to restore the lost unity between ation of the unhappy divisions of the the Roman Catholic and the Protestant church. churches. Though our histories scarcely To this object at that time, a Roman Catholic bishop of Spanish descent, Royas in treating of lines and numbers.” Of his de Spinola, literally devoted his life. As correspondents on the other side he wrote: early as the year 1661 the Emperor Leo- “The force and beauty of their expressions pold entered into a project for the pacifi- charm me so far as to rob me of my judgcation of the troubles of religion which ment; but when I come to examine the desolated Germany, and with all the zeal, reasoning as a logician and calculator, it it was said, that could be desired of a escapes my grasp." Yet afterward this Christian prince. He commissioned Spi- same dispassionate thinker, when all his nola with full power to treat with the logic failed to reach terms of agreement, princes of Germany, charging him to make wrote to Bossuet, “I believe an overture all practicable efforts of conciliation. Spi- of the heart is necessary to advance these nola, having later been empowered, though good designs." with some secrecy, to represent Pope Inno- Bossuet's biographer, Cardinal Bausset, cent XI, entered into correspondence cannot understand why these negotiations, with leading Protestant theologians, and which had opened so hopefully and in succeeded in formulating twenty-five propo- which so much talent, learning, and goodsitions, drawn up with great moderation, will had been engaged, came, as by some setting forth the views of Protestant di- fatality, to no results. A later editor of vines, which were gravely considered, so the correspondence said "the union failed Leibnitz states, and received sanction at through the fault of men and things.” Rome. . So near, and yet so far, came the Leibnitz himself said it failed because of two main currents of modern religious “reigning passions.” He had entered into history toward meeting at that point in the effort for religious pacification because one broad stream.

he believed it to be right and that there Spinola, as we are told in the preface was nothing in the nature of things to preof an early account of these endeavors, vent it; but, besides the theological differwas well fitted for this by his “character ences which he deemed not irreconcilable, of sweetness, of piety, and of moderation were “men and things,” especially the seldom found among controversialists, French king, with his ambition to assume especially in the heat of their disputes." the same authority in the church that He maintained, on his part, that the “dif- Henry VIII had in England. Moreover, ference between the Roman Church and the Protestant world, still filled with bitthe Protestants does not consist in the ter resentments on account of the revocafundamentals of salvation, but only in tion of the Edict of Nantes, and apprehenmatters that have been added.” Un- sive for the future, was in no temper for wearied in his labors, and always pursuing the mediation of these makers of peace. his ever-receding hope, Spinola spent his Leibnitz and those pacific theologians days in ceaseless travels from court to could not foresee how the alliance of court; nor did he rest even when suffering church and state, the union of religious excruciating pains, laying down his life at and temporal powers, has rendered it imlast, without receiving the blessing prom- possible for the church to rise above all ised to the makers of peace, but worthy to political fortunes and to realize its own be remembered as "a martyr of modera- spiritual unity, as over two centuries of tion.” As this instructive episode of re- inheritance of religious divisions is at ligious history drew toward its close, it length teaching the Christianity of the lost its earlier hopefulness, and passed into present age to understand it. Though the a more sharply defined debate between hope then entertained of the reunion of Bossuet the orator and Leibnitz the phi- Protestantism and Roman Catholicism losopher. Leibnitz's description of his may still seem to be only a Christian senmethod commends itself as the method to timent and a philosopher's dream, at least be pursued in any discussion the object of the political causes of strife in religion which is not to change opinions so much are being done away with now that Italy as to reconcile them. “ "In important celebrates the jubilee of Cavour's achievematters,” he wrote to Mme. de Brinon, ment of a free church in a free state and “I like reasoning to be clear and brief, the American Catholic Church Aourishes with no beauty or ornament-such rea- in a land of democracy. soning as accountants and surveyors use When Leibnitz was disappointed in the project of reunion, he wrote to one of his gerous both to the King and Church, seekfriends: “I, too, have worked hard to set- ing to undermine them both; on the other tle religious controversies, but I soon dis- side I cannot hear what their particular covered that reconciling doctrines was a opinions or practices are that bear such vain work. Then I planned a kind of dangerous aspect. The name of Latitudetruce of God, and brought in the idea men is daily agitated amongst us both in of toleration.” This is a thought to be taverns and pulpits, and very tragical reprelaid to the heart of our common Chris- sentations made of them. A Latitude-man tianity, that toleration is indeed a means therefore (according to the best definition to a higher unity, but that a "kind of I can collect) is an image of Clouts, that truce of God” among the churches is men set up to encounter with for want of a not the full measure of peace and catho- real enemy; it is a convenient name to relicity.

proach a man with; 't is what you will, and One other reflection of Leibnitz, as he you may fix it on whom you will. reluctantly abandoned his futile correspondence with Bossuet, seems to anticipate by These men so named were the Camtwo centuries the laymen's movement, bridge Platonists, the highest-minded and which is becoming significant and power- most spiritual teachers of their age, of ful in the modern church. “That the whom Bishop Burnet in his "History of business may progress with greater justice his own Time” thus speaks: and agreement,” he said, “and be less liable to failure, I think it ought not to pass

Men who studied to examine further into through the hands of the clergy, who have the nature of things than had been done fortheir own special views, which sometimes merly. They loved the constitution of the are more allied to their own prejudices church, and the liturgy, and could well live and passions than to the good of the

under them; but they did not think it unchurch. Not that this is the case from lawful to live under another form. They any evil intent on their part, but from a wished that things might have been carried kind of necessary consequence.” So he

with more moderation. And they continued urged that “associating laymen in the en- to keep a good correspondence with those terprise might give it a character likely to

who differed from them in opinion, and alinsure success."

The lay power to which lowed a great freedom both in philosophy Leibnitz appealed failed him; but now, if

and divinity, from whence they are called the theologians and ecclesiastics fail, the men of latitude. Christian laymen may take the matter of church unity into their own hands, and Without dwelling upon their opinions, make a success of it.

we select from a somewhat earlier group In England, likewise, ever since the in this succession of apostolic reasonabletime of the Reformation there has been an ness two men of whom in their ideals and almost unbroken succession of men of efforts Matthew Arnold's words are true: irenic spirit and largeness of view even “They kept open their communication during times of civil and ecclesiastical with the future. Their battle is ours too; strife. Toward the end of this same seven- and that we pursue it with fairer hopes teenth century in which Leibnitz and his than they did, we owe to their having correspondents labored and failed, a com- waged it and fallen.” One of these, who pany of “Men of Latitude” were gathered is best known from Lord Clarendon's inat the University of Cambridge. A pam- comparable portraiture of him, was Lucius phleteer of the times describes them in this Cary, Viscount Falkland. We recall him passage, well worth quoting, for it serves to grateful memory because he was among to characterize cleverly a partizan use of the foremost in an age of mutually intolnames still employed in current conversa- erant Puritanism and Episcopalianism to tion, both political and religious:

see with clearer vision what the peaceable

unity of the church in liberty might be ; I can come into no company of late but I and his conception of it, which his time find the chief discourse to be about a new could not understand, was as the dawning sect of Latitude-men. On the one side I of that ideal of the one comprehensive hear them represented as a party very dan- church which, in the beginning of this

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