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ence over her husband, whom she accom- pinnacle of glory and power. It did not panied upon all his journeys; and out of please the pushing and eager youth Gerthe great love she bore him, in which her manicus, who was anxious to distinguish own ambition had its part, she urged him himself by great and brilliant exploits, and on to support that hidden movement which who had at his side, as a continual stimuwas striving to oppose Germanicus to the lus, an ambitious and passionate wife, suremperor.

rounded by a court of flatterers. GerThat two parties were not formed was manicus, on his own initiative, crossed the due very largely to the fact that Germani- Rhine and took up the offensive again all cus was sufficiently reasonable not to allow along the line, attacking the most powerhimself to be carried too far by the current ful of the German tribes one after the which favored him, and possibly also to other in important and successful expedithe fact that during the entire reign of tions. At Rome this bold move was natuTiberius his mother Antonia was the most rally looked upon with pleasure, especially faithful and devoted friend of the empe- by the numerous enemies of Tiberius, ror. After his divorce from Julia, Tibe- either because boldness in politics rather rius had not married again, and the offices than prudence always pleases those who of tenderness which a wife should have have nothing to lose, or because it was felt given him were discharged in part by his that the glory which accrued to Germanimother, but largely by his sister-in-law. cus might offend the emperor. And TibeNo one exercised so much influence as An- rius, though he did disapprove, allowed his tonia over the diffident and self-centered adopted son to continue for a time, doubtspirit of the emperor. Whoever wished less in order that he might not have to to obtain a favor from him could do no shock public opinion and that it might not better than to intrust his cause to Antonia. seem that he wished to deprive the youthThere is no doubt, therefore, that Antonia ful Germanicus of the glory which he was checked her son, and in his society counter- gaining for himself. balanced the influence of his wife.

He was nevertheless resolved not to alBut even if two parties were not low Germanicus to involve Rome too formed, it was not long before other diffi- deeply in German affairs, and when it culties arose. Discord soon made itself seemed to him that the youth had fittingly felt between Livia and Agrippina. More proved his prowess and had made the eneserious still was the fact that Germanicus, mies of Rome feel its power sufficiently, who, after the death of Augustus, had been he recalled him and in his stead sent Drusent as a legate to Gaul, initiated a Ger- sus, who was his real, and not his adopted, man policy contrary to the instructions But this recall did not at all please given him by Tiberius. This was due the party of Germanicus, who were loud partly to his own impetuous temperament and bitter in their recriminations. They and partly to the goadings of his wife and began to murmur that Tiberius was jealthe flatterers who surrounded him. Tibe- ous of Germanicus and his popularity; rius, whom the Germans knew from long that he had recalled him in order to preexperience, no longer wished to molest vent his winning glory by an immortal them. The revolt of Arminius proved achievement. Tiberius so little thought of that when their independence was threat keeping Germanicus from using his brilened by Rome they were capable of unit- liant qualities in the service of Rome that ing and becoming dangerous; when left to shortly after, in the year 18 A.D., he sent themselves they destroyed one another by him into the Orient to introduce order continual wars. It was advisable, there- into Armenia, which was shaken by interfore, according to Tiberius, not to attack nal dissensions, and he gave him a comor molest them, but at the proper moment mand there not less important than the to fan the flames of their continual dissen- one of which he had deprived him. At the sions and wars in order that, while de- same time he was unwilling to intrust stroying themselves, they should leave the things entirely to the judgment of Gerempire in peace. This wise and prudent manicus, in whom he recognized a young policy might please a seasoned soldier like man of capacity and valor, but, nevertheTiberius, who had already won his laurels less, a young man influenced by an impruin many wars and who had risen to the dent wife and incited by an irresponsible court of Alatterers. For this reason he However that may be, the dissension placed at his side an older and more ex- between Germanicus and Piso filled the perienced man in whom he had the fullest entire Orient with confusion and disorder, confidence-Cnæus Piso, a senator who and it was early echoed at Rome, where belonged to one of the most illustrious the party hostile to Tiberius continued to families in Rome.

son.

accuse him, out of motives of hatred and It was the duty of Cnæus Piso to coun- jealousy, of forever laying new obstacles sel, to restrain, and to aid the young Ger- in the way of his adopted son. Livia, too, manicus, and doubtless also to keep Tibe- now no longer protected by Augustus, berius informed of all that Germanicus was came a target for the accusations of a doing in the East. When we remember malevolent public opinion. It was said that Tiberius was responsible for the em- that she persecuted Germanicus out of pire, no one will deny him the right of hatred for Agrippina. Tiberius was much setting a guard upon the young man of embarrassed, being hampered by public thirty-three, into whose hands had been opinion favorable to Germanicus and at intrusted many and serious interests. But the same time desiring that his sons though this idea was warrantable in itself, should set an example of obedience to the it became the source of great woe. Ger- laws. manicus was offended, and driven on by A sudden catastrophe still further comhis friends, he broke with Piso. The lat- plicated the situation. In 19 A.D., Gerter had brought with him his wife Plan- manicus was taken ill at Antioch. The cina, who was a close friend of Livia, just malady was long and marked by periods as Germanicus had brought Agrippina. of convalescence and relapses, but finally, The two wives fell to quarreling no less like his father and like his brothers-infuriously than their husbands, and two law, Germanicus, too, succumbed to his parties were formed in the Orient, one destiny in the fullness of youth. At thirtyfor Piso and one for Germanicus, who four, when life with her most winning accused each other of illegality, extortion, smiles seemed to be stretching out her and assuming unwarranted powers; and arms to him, he died. This one more uneach thought only of undoing what the timely death brought to an abrupt end a other had accomplished. It is difficult to most dangerous political struggle. Is it to tell which of the two was right or in how be wondered at, then, that the people, far either was right or wrong, for the whose imagination had been aroused, documents are too few and the account of should have begun to murmur about poiTacitus, clouded by an undiscerning an- son? The party of Germanicus was driven tipathy, sheds no light upon this dark se- to desperation by this death, which virtucret. In any case, we are sure that Ger- ally ended its existence, and destroyed at manicus did not always respect the laws a single stroke all the hopes of those who and that he occasionally acted with a su- had seen in Germanicus the instrument of preme heedlessness which now and then their future fortune. They therefore forced Tiberius to intervene personally, eagerly collected, embellished, and spread as he did on the occasion when Germani- these rumors. Had Agrippina been a wocus left his province with Agrippina in man of any judgment or reflection, she order that, dressed like a Greek philoso- would have been the first to see the abpher, he might make a tour of Egypt and surdity of this foolish gossip; but as a see that country, which then, as now, at- matter of fact no one placed more implicit tracted the attention of persons of culture. faith in such reports than she, now that But at that time, unlike the present, there affliction had rendered her even more imwas an ordinance of Augustus which for- petuous and violent. bade Roman senators to set foot in Egypt It was not long before everyone at without special permission. As he had Rome had heard it said that Germanicus paid no attention to this prohibition, we had been poisoned by Piso, acting, so it need not be astonished if we find that was intimated in whispers, at the bidding Germanicus did not respect as scrupu

of Tiberius and Livia. Piso had been the lously as Tiberius wished all the laws tool of Tiberius; Plancina, the tool of which defined his powers and set limits to Livia. The accusation is absurd; it is his authority.

even recognized as such by Tacitus, who was actuated by a fierce hatred against the party of Germanicus worked upon the Tiberius. We know from him how the senate and the people, and when Piso araccusers of Piso recounted that the poison rived at Rome he found that he had been had been drunk in a health at a banquet abandoned by all. His hope lay in Tibeto which Piso had been invited by Ger- rius, who knew the truth and who cermanicus and at which he was seated sev- tainly desired that these wild notions be eral places from his host; he was supposed driven out of the popular mind. But to have poured the poison into his dishes Tiberius was watched with the most painsin the presence of all the guests without taking malevolence. Any least action in any one having seen him! Tacitus him- favor of Piso would have been interpreted self says that every one thought this an as a decisive proof that he had been the absurd fable, and such every man of good murderer's accomplice and therefore sense will think it to-day. But hatred wished to save him. In fact, it was being makes even intelligent persons believe fa- reported at Rome with ever-increasing bles even more absurd; the people favora- insistence that at the trial Piso would show ble to Germanicus were embittered against the letters of Tiberius. When the trial Piso and would not listen to reason. All began, Livia, in the background, cleverly the enemies of Tiberius easily persuaded directed her thoughts to the saving of themselves that some atrocious mystery Plancina; but Tiberius could do no more was hidden in this death and that, if they for Piso than to recommend to the senate instituted proceedings against Piso, they that they exercise the most rigorous immight bring to light a scandal which partiality. His noble speech on this occawould compromise the emperor himself. sion has been preserved for us by Tacitus. They even began to repeat that Piso pos- “Let them judge,” he said, "without resessed letters from Tiberius which con- gard either for the imperial family or for tained the order to poison Germanicus. the family of Piso." The admonition was

At last Agrippina arrived at Rome with useless, for his condemnation was a forethe ashes of her husband, and she began gone conclusion, despite the absurdity of with her usual vehemence to fill the im- the charges. The enemies of Tiberius perial house, the senate, and all Rome wished to force matters to the uttermost with protests, imprecations, and accusa- limit in the hope that the famous letters tions against Piso. The populace, which would have to be produced; and they admired her for her fidelity and love for acted with such frenzied hatred and exher husband, was even more deeply stirred, cited public opinion to such a pitch that and on every hand the cry was raised that Piso killed himself before the end of the an exemplary punishment ought to be trial. meted out to so execrable a crime.

The violence of Agrippina had sent an If at first Piso had treated these absurd innocent victim to follow the shade of her charges with haughty disdain, he soon per- young husband. Despite bitter opposition, ceived that the danger was growing seri- the emperor, through personal intervenous and that it was necessary for him to tion, succeeded in saving the wife, the son, hasten his return to Rome, where a trial and the fortune of Piso, whose enemies was now inevitable. One of Germanicus's had wished to exterminate his house root friends had accused him; Agrippina, an and branch, and Tiberius thus offered a unwitting tool in the hands of the em- further proof that he was one of the few peror's enemies, every day stirred public persons at Rome who were capable in that opinion to still higher pitches of excite- trying and troubled time of passing judgment through her grief and her laments; ment and of reasoning with calm.

(To be continued)

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CAN INVENTION BE TAUGHT?—HIS METHODS OF WORK-
VIEWS ON THE MATERIAL UNIVERSE-WAYS OF STIM-

ULATING THE IMAGINATION-HIS HUMILITY

AN INTERVIEW BY WALDO P. WARREN

HEN I stepped into the library of This impressed me as being the germ

Thomas A. Edison, in one of the of a great idea, and I wished to see it degroup of buildings comprising the great veloped. Who knows, thought I, but the plant at Orange, New Jersey, it was to day may come when our educational sysmeet and talk with a man whose many tems will more adequately recognize the wonderful achievements had fired my im- importance of the creative faculty, and agination since my childhood days.

will be keyed to develop the individual To talk with Edison, and ask him ques- mind, instead of forcing the mind to lose tions, and try to grasp some secret of the much of its individual initiative by being mental attitude which has kept his mind passed through a mold of a dead-level averopen to the reception of many great age intelligence? If Edison, the acknowfundamental ideas — that was my desire. ledged "king of inventors," declares that And the pleasure is doubly mine in being inventiveness can be learned and develable to share some of those ideas with the oped the same as any other faculty of the world--that world every inhabitant of mind, what an interesting thing for our which in this and future ages is or will be initial educators to ponder over! Perhaps, a beneficiary of the genius and labor of even, some of our moneyed men whose one of the most prolific inventors the fortunes have been made from the ideas of world has ever known.

the inventors might make endowments to The immediate object of my visit was further such instruction. At any rate, it to get Mr. Edison to express more at was an interesting thing to think and talk length his views in regard to the possibil- about, and would afford an opportunity ity of teaching men how to develop their to meet Mr. Edison on a matter that allatent inventive instinct. It was a subject ready commanded his interest. that had long engaged my interest, and I The Edison plant is composed of a numhad only recently read this statement: ber of large buildings, similar to those of

"Edison regards the art of inventing hundreds of other factories, and, like them, very much in the light of a profession filled with odd, intricate, and noisy mawhich may be ‘learned' almost as success- chinery and busy workmen. The library fully as soldiering or acting or even 'doc- building is at one corner of the grounds, toring. Thousands of men, he thinks, a little apart from the factory buildings. might have become inventors had they but Here, in a large room filled with books cultivated their ideas, for the creative and statuary and various bits of paraphergerm lies hidden in most minds."

nalia which doubtless belong somewhere else when not in use, I found Mr. Edison Q. Do you consider the end for which sitting at a flat-top mahogany desk, which an instrument is designed or the immediwas covered with the usual array of office ate effect you wish to produce? papers.

A. Consider always if the public wants After explaining more fully the object the invention-its commercial value. of my visit, I asked him a number of ques- Q. What is an inventor's chief inspirations calculated to engage his thought tion? upon matters of general interest. Having A. If he is a good inventor, it is to heard of his deafness, and not knowing make his invention earn money to permit how difficult it might be to talk with him, him to indulge in more inventions. If he I had prepared a number of questions is a one-idea inventor, the incentive is along the line of the intended interview. generally money only. These I handed to him in type-written When he had finished writing these anform.

swers he leaned back in his chair and beHe looked them over and remarked, gan to talk over the subject in general. "You have some hard ones here.” Then One of the first things he said was: he reached for my fountain-pen, which he “Do you want to know my definition saw sticking out of my coat-pocket, and, of a successful invention? It is something picking up a pad of yellow paper, began to that is so practical that a Polish Jew will write down numbered answers to my buy it.” written questions.

This I found was to be a sort of keyThe list of questions, and his answers, note to his whole attitude-a consideration are as follows:

of the practical. He said that he just Q. Do you believe that inventiveness works along, feeling after results, to find can be taught?

the right tack, but is not much given to A. Yes, if the person has ambition, en- reducing his experiments to generalizaergy, and imagination.

tions. He seemed at least to have attained Q. At what age is one most likely to a working hypothesis in the belief that the respond to such instruction?

open mind was better than making broad A. About twelve years.

generalizations from fragmentary experiQ. What method of instruction would ments. This was not exactly the kind of be most valuable ?

psychological secret I had expected to find A. Problems to be solved.

to account for his deep insight into things, Q. Should it be done through schools but it explained more than the most cherand books?

ished theory would have done. A. Books and actual demonstration. But I was interested to know what kind

Q. What of the advantage of ordinary of ideas he would have about big thingsshop experience ?

the laws of the universe and our relation A. Great advantage to have actual per- to them. For surely a man whose life had sonal knowledge of how things are done. been spent working with fundamental

Q. What do you think of instruction laws would have some interesting impresby correspondence?

sions about them. To open up the converA. The cheapest and best way for a sation on such things, I asked: poor man, if the college is reputable. “ Is a settled concept of the universe im

Q. What frame of mind helps to bring portant as a background for deep thinkideas?

ing?" I had heard it said that a man A. Ambitious.

needs to have his mind fairly at rest on the Q. Is it true that an inventor has to be big points of life before he can do much more or less abnormal ?

sound creative work. A. Abnormal persons are

He waved the question aside with a mercial inventors.

gesture of head and hand, and smiled as Q. What of intuition and technical he said: “No; I always keep within a few training? Which is the most prolific of feet of the earth's surface all the time. At ideas?

least I never let my thought run up higher A. Imagination supplies the ideas, and than the Himalayas. All my work is technical knowledge helps to carry them rather earthy." out.

He soon contradicted this limitation,

never com

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