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raised its head and resorted once more by his prudence in not speaking more to its former policy- that of urging on clearly of the cause of his exile, making Germanicus against Tiberius. The for

The for- only rare allusions to it, which may be mer was young, ambitious, bold, and summed up in his famous words, carmen would have preferred daring strokes and et error. It is for this reason that postera war quickly concluded. It is certain that there would have risen then and there a Germanican and a Tiberian party, if Augustus, on this occasion, had not energetically sustained Tiberius from Rome. But the situation again became strained and full of uncertainty.

In the midst of these conflicts and these fears, a new scandal broke out in the family of Augustus. The Younger Julia, like her mother, allowed herself to be caught in violation of the lex Julia de adulteriis, and she also was compelled to take the road of exile. In what manner and at whose instance the scandal was disclosed we do not know; we do know, however, that Augustus was very fond of his granddaughter, whence we can assume that in this moment of turbid agitation, when so much hatred was directed against his family and his house, and when so many forces were uniting to overthrow Tiberius again, notwithstanding the fact that he had saved the empire, Augustus felt that he must a second time submit to his own law. He did not dare contend with the puritanical party, with the more conservative minority in the senate,- the friends of Tiberius,- over this second victim in his family. Without a doubt everything possible was done to hush up the scandal, and there would scarcely have come down to us even a summary notice of the exile of the second Julia had

OCTAVIA, THE SISTER OF AUGUSTUS it not been that among those exiled with her was the poet Ovid, who ity has for twenty centuries been asking was to fill twenty centuries with his la- itself what was this error which sent the ments and to bring them to the ears of the exquisite poet away to die among the barlatest generations.

barous Getæ on the frozen banks of the Ovid's exile is one of those mysteries of Danube; and naturally they have never history which has most keenly excited the compassed his secret. But if, therefore, it curiosity of the ages. Ovid himself, with- is impossible to say exactly what the error out knowing it, has rendered it more acute was which cost Ovid so dearly, it is possi

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Fronu the statue in the latcran Museum, Rome

ble, on the other hand, to explain that servative and puritanical part of Roman unique and famous episode in the history society to vent upon him a long-standing of Rome to which, after all, Ovid owes a grudge the true motives of which lay much great part of his immortality. He was deeper. not the victim, as has been too often re- What was the standing of this poet of peated, of a caprice of despotism; and the gay, frivolous, exquisite ladies whom therefore he cannot be compared with any they wished to send into exile? He was of the many Russian writers whom the the author of that graceful, erotic poetry administration, through fear and hatred, who, through the themes which he chose deports to Siberia without definite reason. for his elegant verses, had encouraged the Certainly the error of Ovid lay in his tendencies toward luxury, diversion, and

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having violated some clause of the lex the pleasures which had transformed the Julia de adulteriis, which, as we know, austere matron of a former day into an was so comprehensive in its provisions that extravagant and undisciplined creature it considered as accessories to the crime given to voluptuousness; the poet who had those guilty of various acts and deeds gained the admiration of women especially which, judged even with modern rigor by flattering their most dangerous and perand severity, would seem reprehensible, to verse tendencies. The puritanical party be sure, but not deserving of such terrible hated and combatted this trend of the punishment. Ovid was certainly involved newer generations, and therefore, also, the under one of these clauses, - which one we poetry of Ovid on account of its disastrous do not, and never shall, know,- but his effects upon the women, whom it weaned error, whether serious or light, was not from the virtues most prized in former the true cause of his condemnation. It days— frugality, simplicity, family affecwas the pretext used by the more con- tion, and purity of life. The Roman ladies of the aristocracy, as we have seen, re- focus upon it the attention of posterity. ceived considerable instruction. They The greater liberty conceded to women read the poets and philosophers, and pre- thus placed upon society an even greater cisely for this reason there was always at reserve in the case of its literature. This

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THE GREAT PARIS CAMEO
This is the largest ancient cameo known, and is said to have been sent from Constantinople
by Baldwin II to Louis IX. It represents the living members of the imperial family protected
by the deified Augustus. In the center Tiberius is shown seated, as Jupiter, with his mother,
Livia, at his left, as Ceres. In front of them stand Germanicus and his mother Antonia.

Rome a strong aversion to light and im- Ovid learned to his cost when he was moral literature. If books had circulated driven into exile because his books gave among men only, the poetry of Ovid too much delight to too many ladies at would perhaps not have enjoyed the good Rome. By the order of Augustus these fortune of a persecution which was to books were removed from the libraries,

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over

which did not hinder their coming down to most critical moments of his life, the faithus entire, while many a more serious work ful companion through fifty-two years of - like Livy's history, for example— has his varied and wonderful fortune. We been either entirely or in large part lost. can therefore understand why it was that,

as the historians tell us, the last words of After the fall of the second Julia up to the old emperor should have been a tender the time of his

expression of gratideath, which OC

tude to his faithful curred August 23,

wife. "Farewell, in the year

farewell, Livia! A.D., Augustus had

Remember our no further serious

long union !" With griefs the

these words, renladies of his fam

dering homage to ily. The great

the wife whom misfortune of the

custom and the last years of his

law had made the government was a

faithful and loving public misfortune

companion, and not - the defeat of

the docile slave, of Varus and the loss

her husband, he of Germany. But

ended his life like with what sadness

a true Roman. must he have

If the family of looked back in the

Augustus had unlast weeks of his

dergone grievous long life upon the

vicissitudes during history of his fam

his life, its situaily! All those

tion became even whom he had loved

dangerous were torn from

after his death. him before their

The historian who time by a cruel

sets out with the destiny: Drusus,

preconceived noCaius, and Lucius

tion that Augustus Cæsar by death;

founded a monthe Julias by the

archy, and imagines cruelty of the law

that his family and by an infamy

was destined to enworse than death.

joy the privileges The unique gran

which in all mondeur to which he

archies are achad attained had

corded the sovernot brought for

eign's house, will tune to his family.

arrive at He was old, almost

a complete underalone, a weary sur

standing of the vivor among the

story of the first tombs of those dear to him who had been empire. His family did, to be sure, untimely lost through fate, and with the always enjoy a privileged status, if not still sadder memories of those who had at law, at least in fact, and through the been buried in a living grave of infamy. very force of circumstances; but it was His only associates were Tiberius, with not for naught that Rome had been for whom he had become reconciled; Antonia, many centuries an aristocratic republic in his sweet and highly respected daughter- which all the families of the nobility had in-law; and Livia, the woman whom des- considered themselves equal, and had been tiny had placed at his side in one of the subject to the same laws. The aristocracy

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more

never

STATUE OF A YOUNG ROMAN WOMAN

avenged itself upon the imperial family for which had made him master of the govthe privileges which the lofty dignity of ernment when Augustus died. The emits head assured it by giving it hatred in- pire was at war with the Germans, and stead of respect. They suspected and the Pannonico-Illyrian provinces were in calumniated all of its members, and with revolt, and it was necessary to place at the a malicious joy subjected them, whenever head of the empire a man who would possible, to the common laws and even strike terror to the hearts of the barbarimaltreated with particular ferocity those ans and who on occasion would be able to who by chance fell under the provisions of combat them. Tiberius, furthermore, was any statute. As a compensation for the so well aware that the majority of the privileges which the royal family enjoyed, senate and the Roman people would subthey had to assume the risk of receiving mit to his government only through force, the harshest penalties of the laws. If any that he had for a long time been in doubt of them, therefore, fell under the rigor of whether to accept the empire or not, so these laws, the senatorial aristocracy espe- completely did he understand that with cially was ever eager to enjoy the atrocious so many enemies it would be difficult to satisfaction of seeing one of the favored rule. tortured as much or more than the ordi- Under the government of Tiberius, the nary man. There is no doubt, for exam- imperial family was surrounded by a much ple, that the two Julias were more se- . more intense and open hatred than under verely punished and disgraced than other Augustus. One couple only proved an ladies of the aristocracy guilty of the same exception, Germanicus and Agrippina, crime. And Augustus was forced to waive who were very sympathetic to the people. his affection for them in order that it But right here began the first serious diffimight not be said, particularly in the sen- culties for Tiberius. Germanicus was ate, that his relatives enjoyed special fa- twenty-nine years old when Tiberius took vors and that Augustus made laws only over the empire, and about him there befor others.

gan to form a party which by courting Yet as long as Augustus lived, he was a and flattering both him and his wife began sufficient protection for his relatives. He to set him up against Tiberius. In this was, especially in the last twenty years of they were unconsciously aided by Agriphis life, the object of an almost religious pina. Unlike her sister Julia, she was a veneration. The great and stormy epoch lady of blameless life; faithfully in love out of which he had risen, the extraor- with her husband; a true Roman matron, dinary fortune which had assisted him, his such as tradition had loved; chaste and long reign, the services both real and im- fruitful, who at the age of twenty-six had aginary which he had rendered the empire already borne nine children, of whom, -all had conferred upon him such an however, six had died. But Agrippina was authority that envy laid aside its most to show that in the house of Augustus, in poisonous darts before him. Out of re- those tumultuous, strange times, virtue spect for him even his family was not par- was not less dangerous than vice, though ticularly calumniated or maltreated, save in another way and for different reasons. now and then in moments of great irrita- She was so proud of her fidelity to her tion, as when the two Julias were con- husband and of the admiration which she demned. But after his death the situation aroused at Rome that all the other defects grew considerably worse; for Tiberius, al- of her character were exaggerated and inthough he was a man of great capacity creased by her excessive pride in her virand merit, a sagacious administrator and tue. And among these defects should be a valiant general, did not enjoy the sym- counted a great ambition, a kind of harumpathy and respect which had been accorded scarum and tumultuous activity, an irreto Augustus. Rather was he hated by fective impetuosity of passion, and a danthose who had for a long time sided with gerous lack of balance and judgment. Caius and Lucius Cæsar and who formed Agrippina was not evil; she was ambitious, a considerable portion of the senate and violent, intriguing, imprudent, and thoughtthe aristocracy. It was not the spontane- less, and therefore could easily adapt ous admiration of the senate and of the her own feelings and interests to what people, but the exigencies of the situation, seemed expedient. She had much influ

LXXXII-50

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