Puslapio vaizdai

and many

tropolis forever and retire to an existence Caius and Lucius Cæsar, Julia's two on a barren island. She was cut off by youthful sons, of whom Augustus was very the implacable hatred of a hostile party fond, were the principal instruments with and by the inexorable cruelty of a law which the enemies of Tiberius fought framed by her own father!

against the influence of Livia over AugusThe exile of Julia marks the moment tus. Every effort was made to sow hatred when the fortunes of Tiberius and Livia, and distrust between the two youths and which had been steadily losing ground for Tiberius, to the end that it might become four years, began to revive, though not so impossible to have them collaborate with rapidly as Livia and Tiberius had proba- him in the government of the empire, and bly expected.

. Julia preserved, even in that the presence of Julia's sons should of her misfortune, many faithful friends and necessity exclude that of her husband. A a great popularity.

further ally was For a long time

soon found in the popular demonstra

person of another tions were held in

child of Julia and her favor at Rome,

Agrippa, the daughbusied

ter who has come themselves tena

down into history ciously to obtain

under the name of her pardon from

the Younger Julia. Augustus, all of

Augustus had conwhich goes to prove

ceived as great a that the horriblein

love for her as for famies which were

the two sons, and spread about her

there was no doubt were the inventions

that she would aid of enemies. Julia

with every means had broken the lex

in her power the Julia,-so much is

party averse to Ticertain,—but even

berius; for her if she had been

mother's instincts guilty of an unfor

of liberty, luxury, tunate act, she was

and pleasure were not a monster, as

also inherent in her enemies wished

her. Married to L. to have it believed.

Æmilius Paulus, From a photograph. Copyright by Anderson She was a beauti

the son of ful woman, as there NAZIONALE, NAPLES

of the greatest Rohad been before, as

man families, she there are now, and as there will be here- had early assumed in Rome a position after, touched with human vices and with which made her, like her mother, the human virtues.

antithesis of Livia. She, too, gathered As a matter of fact, her party, after it about her, as the elder Julia had done, a had recovered from the terrible shock of court of elegant youths, men of letters, the scandal, quickly reorganized. Firm in and poets, Ovid was of the number, its intention of having Julia pardoned, it and with this group she hoped to be able took up the struggle again, and tried as to hold the balance of power in the govfar as it could to hinder Tiberius from ernment against that coterie of aged senareturning to Rome and again taking part tors who paid court to Livia. She, too, in political life, knowing well that if the took advantage of the good-will of her husband once set foot in Rome, all hope grandfather, just as her mother had done, of Julia's return would be lost. Only one and in the shadow of his protection she of them could reënter Rome. It was displayed an extravagance which the laws either Tiberius or Julia; and more furi- did not permit, but which, on this account, ously than ever the struggle between the was all the more admired by the enemies two parties was waged about Augustus. of the old Roman puritanism. As though




openly to defy the sumptuary law of Au- mere permission that Tiberius might regustus, she built herself a magnificent turn to Rome, under the conditions, howvilla; and, if we dare believe tradition, it ever, that he retire to private life, that he was not long before she, too, had violated give himself up to the education of his the very law which had proved disastrous son, and that he in no wise mingle in pubto her mother.

lic affairs. The condition of the empire Thus, even after the departure of Julia, was growing worse on every side; the fi

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her three children, Caius, Lucius, and nances were disordered, the army was disJulia the Younger, constituted in Rome organized, and the frontiers were threatan alliance which was sufficiently power- ened, for revolt .was raising its head in ful to contest every inch of ground with Gaul, in Pannonia, and especially in Gerthe party of Livia; for they had public many. Every day the situation seemed to opinion in their favor, they enjoyed the demand the hand of Tiberius, who, now support of the senate, and they played in the prime of life, was recognized as one upon the weakness of Augustus. In the of the leading administrators and the first year 2 A.D., after four years of exhaustive general of the empire. But, for all Livia's efforts spent in struggle and intrigue, all insistence, Augustus refused to call Tibethat Livia had been able to obtain was the rius back into the government. The Julii


[graphic][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small]



were masters of the state, and held the race in history. All ancient families at a Claudii at a distance.

certain moment exhaust themselves. This Perhaps Tiberius would never have re- is the reason why no aristocracy has been turned to power in Rome had not chance able to endure for long unless continually aided him in the sudden taking off, in a renewed, and why all those that have restrange and unforeseen manner, of Caius fused to take in new blood have failed and Lucius Cæsar. The latter died at from the face of the earth. There is Marseilles, following a brief illness, no serious reason for attributing so horshortly after the return of Tiberius to rible a crime to a woman who was venRome, August 29, in the year 2 A.D. It erated by the best men of her time; was a great grief to Augustus, and, twenty and the fables which the populace, always months after, was followed by another faithful to Julia, and therefore hostile to still more serious. In February of the Livia, recounted on this score, and which year 4, Caius also died, in Lycia, of a the historians of the succeeding age colwound received in a skirmish. These two lected, have no decisive value. deaths were so premature, so close to each The death of Caius and Lucius Cæsar other, and so opportune for Tiberius, that was therefore a great good fortune for posterity has refused to see in them simply Tiberius, because it determined his return one of the many mischances of life. Later to power. The situation of the empire generations have tried to believe that Livia was growing worse on every hand; Gerhad a hand in these fatalities. Yet he who many was in the midst of revolt, and it understands life at all knows that it is was necessary to turn the army over to easier to imagine and suspect romantic vigorous hands. Augustus, old and irresopoisonings of this sort than it is to carry lute, still hesitated, fearing the dislike them out. Even leaving the character of which was brewing both in the senate and Livia out of consideration, it is difficult to among the people against the too dictaimagine how she would have dared, or torial Tiberius. At last, however, he was have been able, to poison the two youths forced to yield. at so great a distance from Rome, one in The more serious, more authoritative, Asia, the other in Gaul, by means of a more ancient party of the senatorial nolong train of accomplices, and this at a bility, in accord with Livia and headed by moment when the family of Augustus was a nephew of Pompey, Cnæus Cornelius divided by many hatreds and every mem- Cinna, forced him to recall Tiberius, ber was suspected, spied upon, and watched threatening otherwise to have recourse to by a hostile party. Furthermore, it would some violent measures the exact character have been necessary to carry this out at a

of which we do not know. The unpoputime when the example of Julia proved to larity of Tiberius was a source of conall that relationship to Augustus was not

tinual misgivings to the aging Augustus, a sufficient defense against the rigors of and it was only through this threat of a the law and the severity of public opinion yet greater danger that they finally overwhen roused by any serious crime. Be- came his hesitation. On June 26, in the sides, it is a recognized fact that the people fourth year of our era, Augustus adopted always incline to suspect a crime when- Tiberius as his son, and had conferred ever a man prominent in the public eye upon him for ten years the office of tridies before his time. At Turin, for ex- bune, thus making him his colleague. Tiample, there still lives a tradition among berius returned to power, and, in accordthe people that Cavour was poisoned, some ance with the wishes of Augustus, adopted say by the order of Napoleon III, others as his son Germanicus, the elder son of by the Jesuits, simply because his life was Drusus and Antonia, his faithful friend. suddenly cut off, at the age of fifty-two, He was an intelligent, active lad of whom at the moment when Italy had greatest all entertained the highest hopes. need of him. Indeed, even to-day we are On his return to power, Tiberius, toimpressed when we see in the family of Au- gether with Augustus, took measures for gustus so many premature deaths of young reorganizing the army and the state, and men; but precisely because these untimely sought to bring about by means of new deaths are frequent we come to see in marriages and acts of clemency a closer them the predestined ruin of a worn-out union between the Julian and Claudian branches of the family, then bitterly di- fondness for pleasure, gave evidence that vided by the violent struggles of recent he possessed the requisite qualities of a years. The terms of Julia's exile were statesman- firmness, sound judgment, and made easier ; Germanicus married Agrip- energy. The policy which dictated these pina, another daughter of Julia and marriages was always the same—to make

of the family of Augustus one formidable and united body, so that it might constitute the solid base of the entire government of the empire. But, alas! wise as were the intentions, the ferments of discord and the unhappiness of the times prevailed against them. Too much had been hoped for in recalling Tiberius to power. During the ten years of senile government, the empire had been reduced to a state of utter disorder. The measures planned by Tiberius for reestablishing the finances of the state roused the liveliest discontent among the wealthy classes in Italy, and again excited their hatred against him. In the year 6 A.D., the great revolt of Pannonia broke out and for a moment filled Italy with unspeakable terror. In an instant of mob fury, they even came to fear that the peninsula would be invaded and Rome besieged by the barbarians of the Danube. Tiberius came to the rescue, and with patience and coolness put down the insurrection, not by facing it in open conflict, but by drawing out the war to such a length as to weary the enemy, a method both safe and wise, considering the unreliable

character of the troops at his From the statue in Naples


once the fear had subsided, the long duration of the war

became a new cause for disAgrippa, and a sister of Julia the Younger; satisfaction and anger, and offered to the widow of Caius Cæsar, Livilla, sister

many a pretext for venting their longof Germanicus and daughter of Antonia, cherished hatred against Tiberius, who was given to Drusus, the son of Tiberius, was accused of being afraid, of not knowa young man born in the same year as ing how to end the war, and of draw'Germanicus. Drusus, despite certain de- ing it out for motives of personal ambifects, such as irascibility and a marked tion. The party averse to Tiberius again



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