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hai there are pure Chinese factories mak- Chinese. It will take a generation or two ing glass, cigarettes, yellow-bar soap, for the necessary technical skill to become tooth-brushes, and roller-process flour. hereditary among these working people. The Han-yang Iron and Steel Works, Active China, which is about as large as with 5000 men in the plant and 17,000 the United States east of the Rocky Mounmore mining and transporting its ore and tains, has less than 7000 miles of railway. coal, is doubling its capacity, having last Owing to the thick population and the inspring contracted with an American syn- tensive agriculture the traffic potency of dicate to furnish annually for fifteen years most parts is so great that, no doubt, ten from 36,000 to 72,000 tons of pig-iron to times the present mileage, if economically a steel plant building at Irondale on Puget constructed and managed, would yield Sound.
handsome dividends on the investment. Those who judge by surfaces anticipate Now, at best, it would take China's spare a development swift and dramatic, to our capital for the next thirty years to build race a catastrophe or a blessing according the railways the country ought to have. as one cares for the millions or the million- It must be borne in mind, too, that, outaires. But, peering beneath the surface, side a few treaty ports, the new industries one descries certain factors which forbid await the initiative of the Chinese. Gone us to believe that the industrial blooming forever are the halcyon days of Li Hung of the yellow race is to occur in our time. Chang's railway and mining concessions,
Before flooding world markets the yel- when a single foreigner could obtain the low-labor mills must supply the wants of exclusive right to mine coal and iron over the Chinese themselves for manufactured
5400 square miles of the richest mineralgoods; and, even if, man for man, they bearing province. The rising nationalism have not more than an eighth of the buy- with its cry “China for the Chinese!” has ing power of Americans, China still offers
put an end to all that. The government a market more than half as large as that recovered certain of the railway concesof the whole United States. Its estimated sions and the people of Shan-si paid the annual consumption of cotton goods Peking Syndicate two and one quarter milwould carpet a roadway sixty feet wide lions to relinquish an undeveloped concesfrom here to the moon. Owing to the in- sion. China will, no doubt, block the path definitely expanding market eastern Asia of the foreign exploiter as carefully as will afford for the cheap machine-made Japan has, and her mills and mines will
utensils, implements, cutlery, be Chinese or nothing. toilet articles, and timepieces to pour forth But the courage of the Chinese capitalfrom the native factories to be established, ist is chilled by the rapacity of officials unthe evil day is yet distant when the white
checked by courts or people. One of the man's product will be driven from the directors of the Shanghai-Hang-chau RailSouth American or African fields by the
way-a purely Chinese line- tells me handiwork of the yellow man.
their chief trouble in building the road Then, production is not always so cheap
was the harassing "inspections" which as low wages would indicate. For all his obliged them to bribe the officials in order native capacity, the coolie will need a long
to go on with the work. Moreover, Pecourse of schooling, industrial training, king forced upon the company a large, unand factory atmosphere before he inches
needed foreign loan, which would have up abreast of the German or American been expended by government men withworking-man. At a railway center in
out the stockholders knowing how much North China is a government establish- stuck to the fingers of the officials. So, ininent that imports bridge materials from stead of using the money for building the Europe, builds up the beams, fits and road, the company loaned it out in small punches them, and sends them out in
amounts at a high interest, and will repay knock-down state to the place where the it as soon as the terms of the loan permit. bridge is needed. Yet, with labor five
The case of Fu-kien shows how irretimes as cheap, it cannot furnish iron sponsible government paralyzes the spirit bridges as cheaply as they can be imported of enterprise. For half a century Fu-kienfrom Belgium, which means that at pres- ese have been wandering into the English ent one Belgium iron-worker is worth five
and Dutch possessions in southeastern Asia, where not a few of them prosper as chants and bankers, they have never merchants, planters, mine operators, con- worked out a code of ethics for the stock tractors, and industrialists. Some of them company, and in such relations they are return with capital, technical knowledge, the prey of a mutual distrust which is only and experience in managing large under- too well warranted. takings. Yet, aside from a sawmill — the The taking of commissions has become only one I saw in China-I hear of not so ingrained in the Chinese that it is no one modern undertaking in the province. longer a moral fact but only an economic The coal seams lie untouched. The man
fact. Your cook takes his wages as a darins lay it to the difficulty of getting the recompense for his technical services only; coal to tide-water. The Fu-kienese rich for his services as a business man in buying from his tin-mining in Perak - there are for your household he feels himself enthirty Chinese millionaires in the Malay titled to a profit. Bray him in a mortar, States— tells you it is dread of official but you will not get the notion out of him. "squeeze."
This is why as soon as a business capital The country back of Swatow is rich in is anywhere got together it begins mysteriminerals. But what probably would hap- ously to melt away. A company formed pen to a retired Singapore contractor so to build a certain railway maintains an rash as to embark on a mining venture idle office staff of ten, and station-masters there? The tribes of Hakkas in the neigh- have been engaged and put on the payborhood of the ore deposit would demand roll, although not a rail has been laid. something for letting him work it unmo- Much of the pay of these lucky employees lested. The local mandarin would have goes, no doubt, to those who appointed to be squared. The li kin officials would them. Sleepers were bought in great quansweat him well before letting his imported tities, and after lying for a year were sold machinery go up the river. The magis- to carpenters. One of the government trate of every district his product touched railways called for tenders for sleepers. in going down the coast would hold him A German firm bid lowest and filled the up. Finally, to cap the climax, at any order. Later, when more sleepers were moment his operations might be halted by wanted, the purchasing official, instead of an outbreak of superstitious fear lest they calling for new bids, telegraphed to the were disturbing the earth dragon and spoil- firm, “Your Japanese competitor has come ing the luck of the community. Small down to your figure, but you may have the wonder a high imperial official confesses - contract for a moderate commission." The in confidence—that not one penny of his offer was ignored, and the Japanese supfortune ever goes into a concern not under plied the sleepers, no doubt after giving a foreign protection.
douceur. His Excellency Wu Ting Fang is so In a big government works the foreign impressed with the blight of insecurity expert after due tests designated a certain that he suggests that, instead of clamoring coal as the best in heating capacity. The for an early parliament, the people exact first lot supplied him by the purchasing of the imperial government a Magna agent of the works was all right. The Charta guaranteeing the following rights: second was poor, although the agent stoutly no arrest without a proper warrant; pub- insisted it was the same coal. He had lic trial within twenty-four hours; no pun- been given a commission to substitute the ishment nor fining of the relatives of a inferior fuel. The railway engineer, convicted person; no confiscation of the whether foreigner or Chinese, is continproperty of his partners or business asso- ually put out by the arrival from oversea ciates.
of machinery or materials different in kind
or grade from what he had ordered. The ALTHOUGH vast in aggregate the agri- cause is not inadvertence. There are thirculture of China is petty agriculture and teen railways now being constructed on its industry is petty industry. Its busi- the basis of "everything Chinese," and ness men are unfamiliar with the man- most of them have one trait in common: agement of large-scale enterprises, and the money goes faster than the construchave had no experience with the joint- tion. The Amoy-Chang-chau line, the stock company. Highly honorable as mer- first in Fu-kien, proceeds with disappointing slowness. Great piles of rails and ties One was purchaser of coal, another purlie deteriorating, waiting for road-bed. chaser of wood, another custodian of the The construction of the Canton-Hang- steam fittings, and so on. chau line advances at what the stockhold- At Lin-cheng a Belgian company came ers feel to be a snail's pace. The Anhui to terms with a Chinese company with a Railway Company has disbursed five mil- concession by giving them half the stock lion taels and not a mile of track is com- and agreeing to pay a Chinese director and pleted. The piers for the bridges are a Chinese engineer in addition, of course, ready, the structural iron for them is on to the foreign director and the foreign enthe ground, and thirteen miles of grading gineer. The theory is that the Belgians is completed. But the company's money
and the Chinese are partners in operating and credit are gone, the shareholders are the colliery; but the naked fact is that the disgusted, and work is nearly at a stand- latter are mere parasites on the enterprise. still. There is enough of such experiences The Chinese director lives at Tientsin on to make one call China “the land of his $700 a month, and never goes near the broken promise." Some of the trouble is mine. The Chinese engineer with his due to bad judgment, but too often the $225 a month and a fine house built him management has been pulled out of plumb near the mine gives no technical serby the itch for commissions.
vices whatever, but goes about suppress
ing the petty native coal diggings that imIn China there are few duties more sacred pair the exclusiveness of the company's than that of helping your kinsman, even at concession! other people's expense. A man regards it as right to provide berths for his relatives At the present stage the Chinese business and no scruple as to their comparative fit- man can neither get along with the forness tweaks his conscience. The manager eign expert nor without him. Four hunof a government plant, on looking into a dred miles up the West River you see tons department which was going badly, found of heavy machinery lying on the bank. It that thirty-three out of the fifty-five men was imported for smelting silver ore in the in that department were relatives of the mountains fifteen miles away. The Chiforeman. Since two years ago, when the nese found themselves unable to set up Peking-Han-kau Railway came under Chi- the smelter, so the machinery rusts while nese management, the positions along the the ore is smelted in England. An engiline have been filled on the basis of sheer neer will be given lot after lot of bad coal favoritism, with the result of loading the because his manager never thinks of fuel pay-roll with incompetents. No wonder in terms of heating capacity. To him coal the ticket-seller regards the crowd at the is coal, and the cheapest is the best. Shan-si ticket window as a nuisance, and lets them is the Pennsylvania of the Empire, and at fume while he chats with his friends. And great price the provincials regained the you may hear the track manager complain right to exploit its mineral wealth thembitterly of having to put in and retain cer- selves. Yet a certificated colliery manager tain relatives of the director who cannot has been four years at Shan-si University do the work assigned them.
as professor of mining, and not once has So desperate is the struggle to live and his professional opinion been sought on a so ingrained is the spirit of nepotism, that mining question! whenever capital is laid out by any one The Han-yang Company appreciates else than the owner, employees multiply the expert and employs twenty-two French like locusts. They drop out of the clouds and Belgians to supervise the making of and spring up from the ground. The gov- steel. But not always are the Chinese so ernment offices at Peking are clogged with fortunate. In one city an electric light useless place-holders. You marvel that company failed, it is said, for want of colleges with twenty-five or thirty teachers sufficient expert assistance. About three maintain ten officers of administration un- years ago the “Protection of Shan-si" til you realize that half of them are sine- Mining Company undertook to develop curists. In one plant the foreign expert coal-mining in the province. The first found thirty-six parasites sucking the expert they employed was to reconnoiter water-pipe all day and drawing good pay. and report. He spent several months go
ing about, but as he failed to map his wan- eign cement. The officials thought that derings and finds his reports were worth the people would beg for “imperial celittle. Then a great English expert was ment" regardless of price. engaged, but when, on reaching Tientsin, The fact is the faulty past lies too he learned that he was expected to spend heavily on the mind and the character of months in the field instead of a few weeks, contemporary Chinese. The real strength he took his expenses and went home. of the race will not generally declare itself When, finally, a twenty-foot vein of coal till another generation is on the stage, was attacked, expert after expert quit be- bred in the new education and enforcing cause he insisted on having things done a higher code. Perhaps the moral atmoright, and the company would not follow sphere will not clear till there has come a his advice. It is plain that both the native marked let-up in the struggle for existence. capitalists and the imported experts have At the back of the business man's mind grievances. The situation is unfortu- lurks, I fancy, a dim sense of a myriad nate, and cannot but retard development clutching hands. People do not judge one until China has good engineering and tech- another very strictly when each acts with nical schools for training experts of her the abyss ever before his eyes. The excelown.
lent reputation enjoyed by the Chinese The inefficiency of the management of business men in Malaysia suggests that Chinese undertakings is heartrending in only in a land of opportunity does the natits waste of sweat-won wealth. The super- ural solidity of character of the yellow intendent of construction of a railroad race show itself. will be a worthy mandarin, without technical knowledge or experience, who has to It is not likely, then, that the march of rely wholly on his subordinates. Or the industrialism in China will be so rapid prominent financier chosen president of and triumphant as many have anticipated. the company feels himself quite above the Jealousy of the foreigner, dearth of capivulgar details of management, and so dele- tal, ignorant labor, official “squeeze," gates the task to some one of lesser conse- graft, nepotism, lack of experts, and inquence. This gentleman, too, feels above efficient management will long delay the the work, and passes it down to some one harnessing of the cheap-labor power of else. So the big men become figureheads China to the machine. Not we, nor our and little men run the enterprise. Any children, but our grandchildren, will need government undertaking suffers from the to lie awake nights. It will be along in conceit and unpracticality of the manda- the latter half of this century that the rins. The initial price of the cement from yellow man's economic competition will a government plant was fixed at a dollar begin to mold with giant hands the polia barrel more than the cost of good for- tics of the planet.
ON THE STAGE
THIRD PAPER: RICHARD THE THIRD
BY WILLIAM WINTER
OR about four centuries the memory
without conscience and some of the usual of King Richard the Third has been attributes of humanity. It is desirable, persistently blackened by the ascription though perhaps it is not essential, that the to him of a sinister character, a malig- actor of Richard should be acquainted nant will, and the ruthless commission with every fact ascertainable relative to of infernal crimes. An occasional word, the actual character, aspect, and conduct indeed, has been spoken in his vindica- of the man; for the reason that such comtion, but historians in general, in their prehension of him might tend to augment narratives of his life, have followed, as weight, authority, and sincerity in an emShakspere did, in his play on that subject, bodiment of even a wrong conception of the authority of the chroniclers Hall and him. It certainly is essential that every Holinshed, who followed that of Sir student of Shakspere's play should bear in Thomas More; and it is incontrovertible mind its gross inconformity to ascertained that More's account of King Richard the facts of Richard's life. Third was inspired, if not actually in Bacon, although he wrote in the time of great part written, by Morton, whom Queen Elizabeth, granddaughter of King King Henry the Seventh, Richard's suc- Henry the Seventh, and wrote like the cessor, made Archbishop of Canterbury, servile courtier that he was, nevertheless and who was one of the most inveterate declared of King Richard the Third that of Richard's foes. More was a boy five he was "jealous of the honor of the Engyears old when Richard fell, at Bosworth. lish nation, and likewise a good law-maker In youth he became a member of Mor- for the ease and solace of the common peoton's household at Canterbury, and he was ple," adding, however, in the mean spirit educated virtually under the supervision of political detraction, that Richard's moof that primate. It is possible that Mor- tive was not the purpose of doing justice ton may have told him, and that he be- to his subjects, but of winning popularity. lieved, a story of Richard's career. There The fact is that Richard relieved the Engis authority for the statement that Morton lish people of an unjust, extortionate taxawrote, in Latin, a narrative of Richard's tion; caused the laws of England to be life, which at his death in 1500 fell into printed in the English language, and thus the hands of More. The “Tragical His- made them accessible for the first time; tory” which has served to make Richard's abolished all imports on books; fostered name infamous was begun by More in the arts, particularly the arts of printing 1513, and he left it unfinished at his death and of music; and throughout his career
strove to advance civilization. For the actor the text of Shakspere is This is not the place for a minute exthe arbitrary guide in undertaking to amination of the history of King Richard impersonate Richard the Third as drawn the Third, but it will not be amiss to say in Shakspere's play, and in Shakspere's that such an examination educes material play Richard is represented as an incar- facts tending to show that Shakspere's nation of craft, treachery, cruelty, and portrayal of that prince is a fabric of the heaven-defying wickedness, not, however, imagination, reared on a basis of calumny.