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The Honorable Percy's pictures really cable message to his company in New made a big hit next day. I was almost York. sorry that he could n't be there to see. Four days afterward Señor Ortega They passed from hand to hand, even to sailed into Gonaives again with a smile the captain, who pretended to look at them almost as wide as his schooner, and carelessly. Later the executive officer brought another letter from Bob. asked me privately: “How did you get “It worked! It worked !” he wrote. hold of them? Can't you get at some of “The company telegraphed to Washingthose poor devils on the rock and help 'em ton for a war-ship, and Washington calay a complaint before a Federal Court?" bled to Guantanamo, and this morning To which I replied that the Blancomar our dear friend Oklahoma arrived in front was a ship according to legal fiction, and of the rock, full of smoke and trouble. that the Oklahoma would better seize the They sent a boat ashore, and the officers rock and tow it in as a prize. “Hanged stopped for a while on the trail up the if I would n't like to,” said the executive. cliff to engage in literary recreation. We From this I judged that perhaps I had not had a sign there saying: 'These Phosphate made the Oklahoma's mess love the Blan- and Vayhem Works Closed Till Further comar Phosphate Works Company. Notice. Admission by Ticket Only. Beware

Next evening La Pez slam-banged in of the Dog. I went aboard the ship and from sea, and Señor Ortega, a gentle crea- showed the captain the printed copies of ture with a piratical cut and an amiable the decision that the company so thoughtsoul, brought me a letter. Over the top of fully provided us with. Told him we the sheet was printed the heading in ink: had a perfect right to hold a rock for sal

vage as long as the courts called it a ship. International Salvage Company He sat thinking for one hundred years.

My watch said fifteen minutes, but it was It was dated : “On board the American a hundred years, just the same, because I ship Blancomar, abandoned in mid-sea could never have pictured so many differand seized for salvage by Robert McAllis- ent kinds of jails to myself in less than ter, Richard Sutton, and Lindon Spencer, that space of time. At last he opened his representing the I. S. Co."

marine mouth and instead of saying jail, “We 've landed all right, I mean it said that he was n't inclined to take boarded her," wrote Bob. “Have hoisted hasty action in such a fine question of stars and stripes right side up again on her marine law. The Blancomar, he thought, main truck, and at the fore the house-flag was likely to stay put until the company of the International Salvage Company, could settle it in court. Then he steamed being a white table-cloth with a device in

seemed to me as if the whole black (out of Dick's coat lining) showing Oklahoma was grinning, even the guns. the ace of clubs. Very fetching. You are That dear captain-man's cable to the pahereby officially empowered as the shore ternal government will be all right. Now representative, power of attorney, prime you play trumps! Show Weeks the phominister, and anything else that 's legal of tographs you hold, and tell him he can pay the I. S. Co., to ship yourself on schooner us a reasonable sum for salvage or go to La Pez to Gonaives and serve notice on court and there tell the sad story of his Brother Weeks. Hope he'll be angry company's phosphatic life. I think he'll enough to give you an

scald the cables when he sees those pichim like an egg-beat him up. Get busy. tures. So be good, and, remember! no Be as painful as possible and then sit reasonable offer refused! We don't want tight."

to take root here. Continued association Mr. Weeks at Gonaives carried on ex- with phosphate will undermine even the travagantly. He did not really get into loftiest principles." a condition of mind wherein he could There was a P.S. saying: "For goodunderstand business till I offered him a ness' sake send some mineral water over little of Bob's prescription. Then he saw by the schooner. And some brevas, black a great light, or even more; and when we and extra strong. Also a pair of scissors. got through he went sputtering to the tele- I 'm going to cut Dick's hair." graph bureau and sent a ruinously long More than a year afterward, Bob and

away, and

excuse to treat

LXXXII-18

I were at Hampton Roads when a battle- $25,000 in genuine money, and the Intership named Oklahoma came in. A native national Salvage Company retired in good of the ward-room country came ashore on order. That made a little over $6000 for business, sighted us in the offing, and took Bob, Dick, Lindon, and me. The Honorus aboard as lawful prizes. The ward- able Goldilocks declined to share. “I room country few friendly signals, and don't call that settling my accounts with we knew that there was no feud between the company, old chaps,” said he. “Thanks them and us. However, there was no awfully, just the same.” mention made of a derelict named the He borrowed a few hundred and left Blancomar. Before we left, the captain us, and we did n't see him again for quite took us aside and said: "Never fail to a while. But about two months after he make yourselves at home aboard the Okla- borrowed the money, he sent it back from homa while I 've got her.

New York; and about the same time Bob But, take my word for it, some day a toy saw an item in a stray New York paper government below the tropic will stand that told how an unknown ruffian, eviyou two gay philosophers against a wall dently of great strength and ferocity, had and—”

mauled the president of the well-known However, that was only his little joke. Blancomar Phosphate Works Company He knew that Bob and I never mix in and nearly cut him in two with a rawhide, politics or meddle with legal things, ex- after which he made his escape and recept in this case where we simply applied mained escaped. marine law practically and followed the Somehow, Bob and I suspected that rulings of an American court like good maybe the unknown ruffian was the Honcitizens.

orable Percy Algernon Sydney Blake CaOh, the salvage? The company paid rothers.

I like you.

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THI "HE Tariff will not down; on the unwholesome appetites, both demoralizing

contrary, it is to-day the foremost to their victims. Our Government obtains domestic question and promises to remain the enormous sum of, say, two hundred so through the next presidential campaign. millions of dollars revenue annually upon

No issue arouses so much discussion these superfluities,- foreign silks, satins with so little practical result, and yet it is and linens, fashionable attire, jewelry, fora perfectly simple subject, with nothing eign wines, cigars, etc. The lives of the obscure about it; the wayfaring man, the rich would be improved, and more truly humblest toiler, can readily understand it refined, were these abandoned, for they are and form a correct judgment. Let us try either vulgar or unsalutary. Therefore, to give the ABC of it.

the tax upon luxuries should always be First: There are two kinds of tariff: that rate of duty which is found to yield one for Revenue, one for Protection. In the greatest revenue and it should be reneither of these should food or the neces- membered that it is because these luxuries saries of life be taxed, because these are are costly that they are fashionable; hence consumed by rich and poor alike and the tax can be raised from time to time Adam Smith's doctrine should never be until a higher civilization is reached, when lost sight of,—“Taxes should be paid by men will neither smoke nor drink and people in proportion to their ability to women discover that they are most refined pay.” The toiling masses, the people, have when simply dressed, not when they renot the ability to pay which rich people semble Indian squaws laden and bedecked have; therefore, the necessaries of life with vulgar ornament. Meanwhile it is should always be free of taxation. This is to be regretted there is no need for reducfundamental, whether the tariff be for ing duties at present upon deleterious and revenue or protection.

fashionable luxuries. As the demand is Let us first consider the tariff for Rev- not lessening we can keep the taxes high. enue. The Government must have rev- On the other hand, duties should not be enue, and because tariff duties can easily levied upon art treasures imported, bebe collected upon articles of luxury im- cause these tend to gravitate to public galported, it is wise, very wise, to avail our- leries and thus become the priceless posselves of this source of revenue, because sessions of the people. Although held for the few rich who have the ability to pay a time by their owners, a generation comes should be made to pay heavily upon luxu- when an owner bereft of family, perhaps, ries, which the masses do not consume. or for other reasons, bequeaths them to the Luxuries are superfluities, not necessaries, city. They are not "consumed” as luxuand mostly articles for foolish fashion or ries are. So much for the revenue tariff.

re

Now for that of Protection. Here the plates for the Pennsylvania Railroad, subject is also simple, though not so en- Baldwin Locomotive Works, etc. In those tirely one-sided. We must begin with new days we made no steel plates nor steel rails nations, and here we find that there is no in our country, but were dependent upon exception. All aim at producing certain Europe. Finally, it was seen that we must articles at home, and Protection seems to have a supply of that indispensable article, be a law of their being. Our own coun- steel, within our ownlines. Several attempts try, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, had been made to introduce the Bessemer have protection and already even the steel process, at Troy, New York, on South African republic announces its in- Lake Michigan, and at other points, but tention to “protect" certain industries. It the result was failure. Most, indeed I may is a natural national development and can- say all, of the pioneers failed or became not be crushed. Adam Smith approved embarrassed. The Joliet Steel Co., Illithe navigation laws because these encour- nois, The Freedom Iron Co. of Pennsylaged the growth of trained seamen vania, The Cambria Iron Co., had all to quired for the British navy, which were be reorganized. Even the Pennsylvania then essential for the country's safety- Steel Co. was only saved from ruin by the but in one paragraph Mill may be accepted Pennsylvania Railroad Co. advancing six as having settled that question in our day. hundred thousand dollars, equal to-day to Many years ago the writer attended an several millions. After the Civil War interesting dinner in Birmingham, at Congress sent for the manufacturers and which John Bright was present. He asked explained that it was ready to "protect" if I would give our friends the explanation steel, and thirty per cent. duty was imwhich men of knowledge really had to posed. Steel rails, all imported, then cost offer for protection. I illustrated it by say- $90 per ton. The duty was $28. To-day ing I had just visited an old English fort the price is $28 per ton home production, where I found a well many hundred feet and the duty $4. No foreign supply is deep which centuries ago a wise com- needed. mander had sunk because he wished a sure The writer has been before several consupply of that indispensable article within gressional committees upon the tariff questhe walls. A beautiful stream ran down tion, but never to ask an increase, always the valley from which an ample supply stating that reductions in duty could be could easily have been obtained, and then made. Testifying before the present tarI quoted the paragraph from Mill to the iff was passed, I stated that the steel duty effect that though it was always wise to could now be abolished, which gave many buy in the cheapest and sell in the dearest people the impression that I had changed market, yet we did not know which my views because I was no longer an incountry would prove the cheapest pro- terested party. On the contrary, I may ducer until its resources were tested. Mr. cite a letter that appeared in the “New Bright promptly responded, “Mill has York Times” of December 28, 1908, done more mischief by that one paragraph from Charles Stewart Smith, ex-president than all the good his other writings will of the New York Chamber of Commerce, ever do.” Laughter ensued and the sub- saying that he heard me "tell President ject was dropped.

McKinley during his first term that steel Let me illustrate protection, from my no longer needed protection." The infant own experience. Our country made no industry has grown to be a giant. Protecsteel until Mr. Park of Pittsburg im- tion has done its work. Thus, steel vinported some hundreds of English steel dicates the policy of protection and the workers from Sheffield. As a boy I saw rule for new countries is - encourage new them shooting quail and rabbits around industries when there is a prospect of fiPittsburg. They even imported their nally getting thereby in due time a surer dogs with them. Mr. Pitcairn followed, supply cheaper at home than the foreigner importing a full staff of window-glass can give. If after proper patient testing workers from Belgium, at wages three it is clear that our domestic supply of any times the Belgian rates. When the Civil article cannot be obtained except at a War broke out, Mr. Gilead A. Smith was higher price than the foreign, which has promptly sent to Britain to buy up steel always to pay transportation to our shores, then we should not pursue the experiment, a disadvantage from which only articles unless the article is essential for our defense. kept in stock here are exempt. There is

We are now experimenting with our also the danger of mistakes in the manubeet sugar supply. The Secretary of Agri- facture-wrong sections, patterns misculture, probably the ablest who has ever placed, etc., etc.,-which can be more filled that position, thinks he can develop promptly remedied by the home producer. a home supply cheaply. Let us hope so, Equally, or even more important, is the but should he be disappointed, then it be- preference which the home producer has comes a question for consideration whether as a rule over the distant and unknown forthe protective duty should be maintained. eigner. Men naturally wish to favor with

To-day no new “infant industries” are their orders neighbors who may have orapplying for protection. The country, and ders to give in turn, and, finally, there is the protected manufactures generally, have an office force to be maintained by the forattained to manhood, but there has been eigner or a commission to be paid sale perfected in almost every industry, includ- agents. Truly, the foreign invader has a ing railways, a system of combination sea of troubles to encounter, amounting in which maintains standard prices, even the aggregate to a pretty fair measure of when combination has not taken legal protection, even when the government adform, – understandings exist both national mits foreign products duty free. and international which practically pro- It has been held that the protective duty duce the desired result and the consumer upon manufactures should equal “the difhas to pay unfair prices. This develop- ference between cost of labor at home and ment necessitates government regulation; abroad, and a fair profit to the manufachence we have the Court of Commerce turer.” To both native and foreign manucharged with the duty of supervising prices facturer a fair profit is as clearly an eleand protecting the consumer from extor- ment of "cost" as labor or material. tion. There will ensue a few years of There would be no production anywhere irregular results, but steadily the court unless there were a fair profit. Abolish will approach and finally reach solid that and production ceases. The differground and become to industry what the ence in the cost of labor is only one eleSupreme Court is to law. Eventually we ment in considering what rate of duty, if shall agree upon what a fair profit is upon any, is required, for, as we have seen, the capital and ability in each branch of pro- foreign manufacturer has many elements duction; also what is and what is not stan- of cost and other disadvantages in reachdard management, and how accounts are ing our domestic consumer, from which to be kept and what percentages if any are the home manufacturer is free. All of to be allowed for depreciation. It will be these points the Court of Commerce will found that few, if any plants, fail to be- have to consider when fixing the fair rate come more perfect than at first and appre- of a protective duty in addition, which at ciation, instead of depreciation, results. this late day it will not often be found The annual repairs should embrace the necessary to make excessive. adoption of new improvements charged There yet remains another and higher properly to maintenance as part of run- point of view. World conditions seriously ning expenses, and the plants thus kept up affect the doctrine of protection. Steam to date.

has shrunk the world into a neighborhood. It should be remembered that even As no man lives by himself alone, so no without tariff the home producer has natu- country does. They exchange products to ral protection, which government cannot such an extent that last year international touch. For the foreign producer there is trade amounted to $37,000,000,000, the the cost of transport, generally from an in- highest upon record. No nation can proland location to the sea, then the sea freight duce everything required. Our own counand then again land transport to the con- try has to obtain its chief supply of mansumer, -heavy items,- and in addition, ganese, essential for making steel, from there comes the serious disadvantage of foreign lands, our home supply being tritime consumed before the order can reach fling. It exported to other lands last year the foreign producer, and the article or- to the value of $1,910,000,000, and bought dered can reach the purchaser in return,

from them to the value of $1,645,000,000.

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