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For it is one of those open secrets, which seem the more secret because they are so open, that all phenomena displayed by a nation are phenomena of Life, and are with

IN MEDIAS RES. out exception dependent on the laws of Life. There is no growth, decay, evil, improvement, or change of any kind, going on in the body-politic, but what has its

SENATE. original cause in the actions of human beings; and there are no actions of human

June 16th, a

new conference with the beings but what conform to the laws of

House on the Anti-Trust bill was agreed to, Life in general, and cannot be truly understood until those laws are understood. We

and Mr. Blair introduced a joint resolution. do not hesitate to assert, that without a It requests the President of the United knowledge of the laws of Life, and a clear States to institute an international confercomprehension of the way in which they un

ence, to meet in Washington in February, derlie and determine social growth and or

1891, with a view to the formation of an in

ternational alliance for the suppression of ganization, the attempted regulation of

slavery and the slave trade, and of the traffic social life must end in perpetual failures. in intoxicating liquors, firearms and destruc

See, then, the iminense incongruity be tive substances with uncivilized people. And tween the end and the means. See, on the to provide for the establishment of schools of one hand, the countless difficulties of the common kuowledge, art, and industry; also to

secure the disarmament of nations and the gigantic task ; and on the other hand, the almost total unpreparedness of those who

establishment of international courts, and ap

propriating $100,000 for the expenses of the undertake it. Need we wonder that legis

conference. lation is continually breaking down? Is it not natural that complaint, amendment, and

The consideration of the Silver bill was repeal should form the staple business of then resumed, and Mr. Daniel continued his every session?

Is there anything more speech. He spoke in favor of the bill and of than might be expected in the absurd Jack free coinage of silver, but said that the Cadeisms which almost nightly disgrace the measure was an experiment, one which Con· debates? ... One would think that the

gress was bound to try (!) whole system had been framed on the say Mr. Allison continued to debate. He said ings of some political Dogberry: “ The

that the increased coinage of silver, or the art of healing is difficult; the art of gov

issue of paper on the security of bullion, was ernment easy. The un lerstanding of arith.

made necessary by the retirement of the metic comes by study; while the under

national bank circulation, which retirement standing of society comes by instinct. Watch-making requires a long apprentice

was itself due to the paying off of the national ship; but there needs none for the making debt. In the place of government bonds, of institutions. To manage a shop prop

silver must be made the basis of a paper erly, requires teaching ; but the management money. As the matter stood, there was abof a people may be undertaken without solutely no means by which the volume of the preparation."- Herbert Spencer,

circulating medium could regulate itself,

one

Congress had taken the business of furnish June 20th, the Post-office and the Diplomatic ing money out of the hands of the States [he Appropriation bills were reported from comdid not say of the people], and now must see mittee. The former carries $72,461,000, an the business through.

increase of $473,000 over the House appropriThis was followed by questions, recrimina ation. lions, and personal explanation of no interest Then the Legislative, etc., bill, was taken up and less importance, and the time for debate and passed, after various salaries had been inwas again extended.

creased by amendment, as others had already been increased by the bill over former amounts.

The oply offer to reduce a salary was made June 17th, Mr. Wolcott spoke on the Silver by Mr. Stewart. He wanted to strike out the bill, but said nothing.

appropriation for the executive officer of the Then a vote was taken on amendments. geological survey. The cost of this departThe first was to strike out the provision mak ment, in salaries alone, is over $100,000, and ing the treasury notes issued on silver bullion the aggregate is over $1,000,000, and all this (or for silver bullion, rather) legal tender for has grown out of an item in a former bill, apprivate and public debts. The amendment propriating $5,000 for a map. Mr. Stewart was rejected and the provision stands (50-14). proposed to strike out the salary of the exec

The clause providing for bullion redemp utive officer, $3,000; but the proposition was tion was struck out (57–7).

frowned down. The section, ordering free coinage when the price reached $1 for 371.25 grains fine June 21st, the bill expropriating the funds silver, was retained (46–6).

of the Mormon Church to the use of the Other amendments were inserted

public schools of Utah, which had passed the declaring that the “unit of value” shall be of

House, was passed by the Senate. The 412.5 grains silver and 25.8 grains gold, shall amendment offered, to leave the money with be called a dollar, and be legal tender, etc. the Church, with orders to apply it to purposes and some were rejected, when a vote was

of education, was rejected. taken on the bill as amended, and it was Then the bill to establish a school fund of passed (42–25).

the proceeds of public land sales and money received from railroads which had been sub

sidized by land grants, was taken up, and led June 18th, the Tariff bill was reported from

to some debate. The wisdom or unwisdom the Finance Committee, as were also the River

of giving public money to schools was not and Harbor bill and one relating to treaties broached. The bill proposes to begin by paywith Sweden, all of which were placed on the

ing to so-called agricultural colleges (State calendar.

colleges) $15,000 a year to each State, the The report on the Anti-Trust bill was ac

amount to be increased yearly till it reaches cepted, so that the bill now stands as origi- $25,000. This subsidy is then to be conpally passed by the Senate.

tinued. But the clause limiting the fund to After which, the legislative, executive, and

the proceeds of sales and railroad payments, judicial appropriation was taken up, and sev

and the clause specifying the kind of educaenty pages were considered.

tion required to qualify colleges to receive the subsidy, were expunged, but the bill itself

went over. June 19th, after the presentation of petitions, one from Boston against increasing the duties on fish, and of messages from the

HOUSE. President, one relating to reciprocity with June 16th, the session was consumed iu deSouth American States — the consideration of bating the Sundry Civil Appropriation bill, in the Legislative, etc., appropriation bill was Committee of the Whole; and, continued. The time consumed with this bill On June 17th, the bill was passed immediwas prolonged by the defective character of ately, when the Indian Appropriation bill was the language and classifications, attributed to taken up, and the consideration of it was conthe haste of the House in passing it.

tinued on June 18th. A motion to reduce a

salary from $4,000 to $3,000 was rejected, but Before the famous “ original package” deamendments, by which suins of $200.000, cision was rendered by the Federal Supreme $12,000, $48,000, and $27,000 are refused from Court, the Iowa Supreme Court had defined an the Indians, were accepted. The bill, being

The bill, being "original package” to be a flask, bottle, keg, reported from the Committec of the Whole, or barrel, anything in which goods were put was passed. It appropriates about $6,000,000 up without regard to the manner of shipment. The Silver bill was received from the Senate, Lately this Supreme Court's decision was but immediate consideration was refused. overruled by the Polk County District Court,

and certain liquor drawn from a barrel into June 19th, the session was spent in debating quart bottles was seized and condemned. the action of the speaker in referring the Silver bill, just sent from the Senate, to the Com The Pittsburg (Pa.) commission merchants mittee on Coinage, etc. A number of votes are using the “original package " question were taken on motions to amend the journal,

in an unforeseen manner: to evade the oleo80 that it should not appear from it that the

margarine law by selling the product in the bill had been so referred, on motions to table, “ original packages” in which it is imported to reconsider, etc. The party line in these from other States. They seem to be as divisions ran, a little crooked: the two entirely perfectly protected in such traffic as the distinct issues being involved — whether to liquor dealers, and even more so, as the bill sustain the Speaker's action as a matter of recently passed by the senate to meet the parliamentary practice, or whether to sustain difficulty about liquor does not touch the bis action in its effect on the immediate fate matter of oleomargarine. of the Silver bill.

Judge Caldwell of the United States Circuit June 20th, the journal of the 18th inst. was

Court (Leavenworth, Kan.) has delivered amended so as to leave the Silver bill on the

an opinion in the habeas corpus cases, releasSpeaker's table, but a motion to proceed with

ing persons from jail who had been charged its consideration was rejected. The confer

with selling liquor in “ original packages” in ence report on the Anti-Trust was received

violation of the prohibitory law of the State. and accepted (243-0). The quarrel over the reference of the Silver bill was then resumed, The Court of Appeals (Kentucky) has renbut repeated efforts to get a vote for consider dered an important decision, whereby it holds ation or a ruling from the Speaker were alike a telegraph company liable for damage to feel. unavailing

ings or purse, if it fails to use ordinary dili

the compliance of its contract June 21st, the House proceeded to render its

regarding the transmission of messages, previous action on the 19th inst. nugatory, by

Kentucky is the third State in the Union that

has decisions bearing on the points at issue, voting, in effect, that the Silver bill bad been referred to the Committee on Coinage, etc.,

Texas and Tennessee being the only other and should, in time, be considered in Coni

States; the former having varied opinions, mittee of the Whole, instead of directly by the

and the latter one which fixed the responsiHouse.

bility by a divided court.

gence in

The " original package" cases are becoming very much mixed up in the State of Iowa. A short time since two district juilges rendered contrary decisions, one (Polk County District Court) holding that an original package” is an unbroken case, just as it is received from the consignor; the other (Waterloo District Court) that any subdivision of the case, properly sealed, with contents intact, would fulfil the requirements.

The Supreme Court of Illinois has ren. dered an important decision regarding the dealing in futures. By the revised criminal code of 1874, it is made a criminal offence to deal in options, and the Court says that the purchase of grain or other commodities for future delivery is a gambling contract, if the intention at the time of the purchase were to make a future settlement, and not for actual delivery.

The anticipated suit to prevent the consummation of the proposed sale of the Union Stock Yards and Transit Company to an English syndicate, has been commenced in Chicago.

Sensational charges have been made in the bill, and the court is asked to remove the present officers of the corporation, appoint a receiver, and issue an injunction restraining the proposed issue of bonds, and the sale of the plant and stocks.

Congress may at any time make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

Art. I., Sect. IV., $ 1. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Art. II., Sect. I., $ 4.

The cracker trust has extended West, and the corporation will shortly put up large factories in Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, and Kansas City.

A federal law which does more than fix the time for choosing presidential electors is plainly against the letter of the Constitution, and one has only to call to mind the convention which framed that instrument, and imagine how such a law as is proposed would have been received by its members, to decide whether such law is against the spirit of the Constitution. It is safe to assert that a Constitution which contained the provisions proposed to be embodied in the law would not have been ratified by a single State.

This must be conceded to be some objection, though very likely it will weigh more with the people than with many of their representatives in (ongress.

The Chicago Packing and Provision Company is the latest large industry to be bought up by an English syndicate.

It is the second largest packing establishment in that city.

The inequalities of our representative system are frequently commented upon. The

The plea under which the present revoludominant party in Congress is so exercised tionary rules of the National House were over the alleged fact, that certain persons in justitied was, that the rules would facilitate some sections are counted in apportioving

the doing of business by the majority, that representatives, whose votes are not counted

under them the will of the majority (right or are not cast at elections, that it is seriously or wrong) would prevail. Coming as it did proposed to pass a federal election law, under from a party which represented a minority of which the dominant party can do its own

the nation, this plea could not but be open to registering and its own counting. The in the charge of hypocrisy. The will of the equalities are not all confined on one side of majority in the House would necessarily, if it Mason and Dixon's line. Mr. B. F. Meyers, prevailed, override the will of the majority in in the North American, computes that if,

the nation. The rules have been tried for in the different States, representatives had nearly one session (let us hope that the presbeen clected in proportion to the votes cast

ent session is near its end), and never probaby the different political parties, the present bly in the history of the country did so small House would stand: Democrats, 162; Repub

a minority have such complete control over licans, 155; Prohibitionists, 5; Union Labor, legislation. By means of the caucus system, 3. It looks as if Republican ingenuity were a

a minority of the dominant party is able to match for almost anything in the way of se commit that party to a course of action, and curing representatives. Still, of course, it the new rules assist greatly in holding memwould like to have the fruits of its ingenuity

bers to the course determined upon. One extended, and perhaps it really does not en would suppose, on reading the reports in the joy securing a “working majority” by going papers, -" The Speaker's triumph,” si What behind the returns of elections. One objec the Speaker will do," " When the Speaker tion to a federal election law is, that it is will bring the session to an end," that in unconstitutional, as applied to presidential place of the promised rule of the majority, we elections, at any rate.

have the rule of a minority of one. The The time, places, and manner of holding elections

complaint has frequently been made that for senators and representatives shall be prescribed

the House does little business, owing to the in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the

lack of leaders. It has a leader now, and

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