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A man in Wisconsin engaged an English A cracker trust has been formed which inwoman to come to this country as his house includes nearly all the prominent cracker keeper, promising work to her two boys also. manufacturers in the country. The rumored The English party are at present detained capital is $10,000,000. on board ship, having been denied a landing,

The Standard Oil Company has purchased under the Contract Labor Law.

the Forest Oil Company for $1,600,000 and has agreed to take the remaining $400,000

worth of stock. An outcome of the present agitation in regard to the use of money at elections is the At Minneapolis, Minn., representatives arrest of the mayor of Alleghany City, Pa.,

from about sixty of the most prominent for alleged perjury. The mayor affirmed,

lumber firms of the Mississippi Valley and when taking the oath, that he used no money

Northern Wisconsin met to form a combinato secure his election.

tion to raise the price of lumber. Capital to the amount of more than $150,000,000 was

represented. A committee was appointed to Judge Houston, of Burlington, Ia., has

draw up a schedule and price list. published in the Hawkeye, of that city, an A large butchers' combination has been article on a decision of the United States effected in New York. The Eastmans ComSupreme Court of several years ago parallel pany has united with several other large in principle to the late “original-package" companies, and the object of the union is said decision, but in which the Court reached an to be to secure better and increased facilities apparently opposite conclusion. This case, for the preparation of dressed beef and cattle found in Vol. 114, United States Reports, for export to England. page 622, holds that after property imported

The governor of Nebraska has revoked his into the State had reached its destination it

call for a special session of the legislature. was at once a commodity and became part of

The best legal authorities united in the opinthe general mass of property in the State

ion that any legislation accomplished by the without having passed out of the hands of

special session would be invalid, as some the consignee. In the later decision this

districts would not be represented, there not case was apparently overlooked.

being enough time to elect members where

vacancies had occurred. The application of the High-License Law

The Louisiana Lottery has again turned its

attention to North Dakota in its efforts to in Baltimore, Md., has resulted in the closing of nearly 2,000 saloons, and an increase to

gain a renewal of its charter. The Lottery the city revenue of about $400,000 a year.

Company claims that the next legislature will be chiefly of such men as are in favor of the scheme, and that no governor can be

elected against the company's opposition. It is stated that the governor of Ilinois will call an extra session of the State Legisla

Oregon, in the late election, returned a ture to consider the World's Fair question.

Republican Representative to Congress, elects There are several legal obstacles which have

a Democratic governer, and Republicans for to be met. Some members of the legislature

the remainder of the State ticket. The legishave died, others have moved away, and still

lature stands, Senate: Republicans 22; Demoothers are occupying Federal offices. Notice crats, 8. House: Republicans, 28; Demois necessary that these vacancies may be filled.

crats, 22. Any amendment to the Constitution must be Philadelphia is having trouble with her Highpublished before Aug. 1, in order that the License Law. A wholesale license is granted, necessary three months shall elapse before it under which liquor sellers are privileged to is voted upon at the regular November elec sell in quantities of more than one quart, the tion. The legislature will be asked to sub liquor not to be drunk on the premises. One mit to the people a Constitutional amendment "wholesale place sells four glasses, with to permit Chicago to guarantee $5,000,000 the total of a quart, for fifteen cents. Others of the Fair Association's bonds.

sell in quart kettles, and provide tables in the

adjoining yard for the buyers' accommoda The strike of the New Haven, Conn., tion.

masons ended in a failure on the part of men The Commission created by the last New

to secure any advance in wages, or recogniYork Legislature for the purpose of inquir

tion of their union. ing into the expediency of consolidating the In New York City the cigar-making strikers various municipalities around the Harbor to the number of about 600 asked for an adof New York has begun its work. The vance of $2.00 per thousand, and that none Committee favors the union of New York, but union men should be employed by the Brooklyn, Long Island City, and Staten firm. The firm served about forty of the Island under one municipal government. strikers' families, which occupied the firm's The scheme proposed is that the city should tenement houses, with notices of ejectment. extend twenty miles from City Hall in all The strikers decided to compel the firm to directions. It has been estimated that in evict them, and were granted their demands thirty years that area would be occupied by at the last moment. The Cloakmakers' 9,000,000 inhabitants, making it the greatest Union received notice that their demands for city in the world.

an increase in wages and employment of

union men only would be granted. The prosecutor in the case of the New

In Brooklyn, N. Y., 800 tin and sheet-iron Jersey election officers, who have been in

roofers have struck for an eight-hour day, and dicted for perjury, has successfully applied no reduction in wages. for a “ struck jury.This is a blow to the

The Rochester, N. Y. Sash, Door, and Blind defendants, who had hoped for a trial under

Makers' Union struck for nine hours. The the present petit jury. In a "struck jury,

strike has failed, and the union men are reunder New Jersey law, the Court selects forty-eight reputable citizens as a panel.

turning to work at the old rate. From this panel the prosecution and defence At Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa., the stone. are allowed to strike twelve names each. A cutters to the number of 700 have struck for jury must then be selected from the remain

an advance of four cents an hour. ing twenty-four.

Fifty silk-ribbon weavers in Paterson, N. J.,

have struck on account of a 15-per-cent reSTRIKES.

duction in wages. The manufactures claim

the reduction was necessitated by the general At Calais, Me., the wharfmen have struck

depression in that class of business. for $1.50 per day.

Two hundred and fifty employees of the The Union granite workers at Montpelier,

Columbus, O., Consolidated Street Railway Vt., have struck. The strike was ordered on

have struck for an advance in wages. account of the employment of non-union men.

In Cincinnati, Ohio, over 1,000 carpenters The strike which has lasted a long time at

have struck for a nine-hour day. Squire's pork-packing establishment in Cambridge, Mass., has failed. The men have

The Rock Island, Ill., union carpenters to

the number of 100 have struck for a pine-hour agreed to return with no stipulations, not even that they should be accepted in a body. day, and pay for ten hours. The wood-turners of Boston, Mass., have

The cloakmakers and finishers of Chicago, almost universally succeeded in gaining a

Ill., have struck for restriction of the work nine-hour day, with pay for ten hours. The

day to ten hours, and for a regular weekly paycarpenters have succeeded in some cases in

day. Nearly 1,000 men are idle. getting an eight-hour day, and no reduction At Fort Wayne, Ind., the four weeks' carin wages. Two contractors in Newton and penters' strike has ended. The bosses have seven in Allston have acceded to the strikers' agreed to the men's demands. At Terre demands.

Haute, the strike failed, the poverty of the Ip Lowell, Mass., fifty plasterers struck for strikers not permitting them to hold out an advance of twenty-five cents a day. The

longer. lathers have decided to ask an advance of In St. Louis, Mo., the lathers and harnessfifty cents per thousand after June 10.

makers are still on the strike.



The past month of May will go on record Connected with the demand for a larger as one in which an unprecedented number of coinage of silver seems to be the fear that strikes took place. Between May 1 and May there is not enough money in the country to 29, 243 strikes, involving 67,507 persons, were do the business with. The only grounds for reported. A comparison of the first five this fear are that most persons find it difficult months of the last few years is here given : to get as much money as they need. It is

well to remember that an increase in the 1890, 580 strikes, 136,454 strikers. 1889, 296 75,110

metallic circulation of a country beyond the 1888, 389 111,201

actual requirements is an evil. The metallic 1887, 511 212,317

currency of a nation is so much unproductive 337,000

wealth. Prof. Cairpes likened it to the cash reserve of a private merchant. Evidently if a merchant is enabled to dispense safely with

a portion of his ready money, he will be able A most piteous appeal comes to us at this to add this portion to his productive capital, time in behalf of silver. The woes and suf

and do a larger business. So a nation which ferings of this substance, essence, entity (it does not yield gold and silver can obtain them is hard to find a name sufficiently reverential) only by parting with elements of real wealth ; have been depicted in the most beautiful and and a nation which does yield these metals touching language. Silver, we are told, has

must expend a portion of its labor and capital been insulted” and degraded”; it has

in procuring them, which otherwise might even been called

commodity.” To-day have contributed to its positive welfare. The the alarming intelligence reaches us that

idea that there should be enough metallic cirsilver is being murdered in the house of culation in a country to do away with the its friends.” The great crime of 1873 against necessity for credit in making exchanges is silver still remains unavenged. The sacred wholly barbarous. “It is in enabling a name of religion is invoked. Gold and silver, nation to reduce within the narrowest limits according to Mr. Shermau, were created by this unproductive portion of its stock that the the Almighty as money, and such they have chief advantage of a good banking system been from the beginning of time.

consists; and if the augmentation of the God hath joined together, let not man put metallic currency of a country be not an evil, asunder" is the solemn exhortation of Mr.

then it is difficult to see in what way the Plumb. Surely it behooves all good men to institution of banks is a good." rally to the rescue of this precious metal, and to see whether, by the sacrifice of hecatombs of kids and unblemished goats, this nation In the debates on the Silver question which may be saved from the wrath to come.

have occurred in both the Senate and the The great danger seems to be that silver House, the most remarkable statements were, will depreciate in value, owing to the machi perhaps, those which admitted that neither nations of Wall Street and “gold bugs.” party bad received any instructions from Evidently the thing needful is that Congress their constituents how to vote on this quesunanimously pass an act making the ratio of tion. It is acknowledged that the pending value between silver and gold 1:16; or, per measures are important and that they touch haps it would be well to pass an amendment questions of fundamental policy. Not a sinto the Constitution to that effect. There are gle instruction have members received from few things of which governments have not their party platforms how they should act in tried to regulate the value at one time or the matter. The whole scheme is one that apother, usually without much success. But has been hatched since the present Congress these other things were commodities, silver was elected; the electors have not voted on being in its essence a money, something quite this question. But when matters of fundadifferent in kind. Congress can surely regu mental policy and of admitted importance are late the value of that. All that is necessary voted through by irresponsible representais a fiat; but perhaps it would be well to put tives, where does Democracy come in? How just three and one fifth times as much silver is liberty being secured by the reckless disrein a dollar as there is gold in a half-eagle. gard of the basis of Democracy?

66 What

The majority of eight, with which the Re American farmer is now, and always has been, publicans entered the present Congress, has much more prosperous than the European now been increased to twenty by the simple farmer. Why should the exhaustion of arable and effective process of putting Democrats lands and the importation of food bring prog. out. The plan of making a representative perity here and not there? assembly the judge of its own elections seems to work well — for the majority.

In the same magazine Mr. Bronson Keeler

makes an earnest plea for Governmental conLord Wemy 8 stated in a speech in the trol of telegraph lines. The first argument House of Lords that in the five years pre

is, that in nearly all countries the telegraph is ceeding 1889 there were introduced in Parlia held to belong properly to the Government, ment three hundred and eight Socialistico and it is not well for this country to be an bills, of which forty were carried, tep inter exception. Then, the rates might be less. fering with the sale of liquor. This, no doubt, In Great Britain they are only a little more seems a slow proceeding to our Socialist than a half what they are here. But the friends, but it is not without promise for civil service there is infinitely better than it them. Have they, by the way, ever agreed is here. The plan would add to the exciteon just how many bills of Parliament are re ment of Presidential elections, as there would quired to remodel society? Is the number be from 30,000 to 50,000 more offices to scrameighty or eight hundred? The average num

ble for. ber“ carried ” during the period referred to has been eight per annum: in ten, or in a Three girls rushed into a burning house hundred years, then, we may all be reformed. the other day in Brooklyn, removed two in

fants from danger, and extinguished the

flames, while some men stood gaping in the Mr. C. Wood Davis, having proved that

street waiting for something to “turn up." the reason why the American farmer is not

If we accept the orthodox view of the invioprosperous is because there is so much un

lable differences of the sexes, this fact comoccupied land in this country, and having

pels us to conclude that miracles still occur. drawn the corollary that farming will be

For the nature of women, we are told, is to profitable as soon as the lands are all taken

weep and faint; only by an unnatural metaup, presents in the Forum for this month a

morphosis can they think and act. discussion upon “The Exhaustion of the Arable Lands." With the present rate of increase in population, he tells us,

this ex

It has often been argued, with considerable haustion will practically be reached within force, that the plan of having Cabinet officers the present century. The maximum popula take part in Congressional debates would tion which can be supported during this cen work well. No doubt some small advantages tury by American agriculture is 75,960,000; might be gained by this means, but no advanafter that “ consumption must, as in Europe, tage whatever results from the practice of be met from the products of a given anıl un Congressional committees in giving private expanding area supplemented by an importa- hearings to Cabinet officers. Repeatedly this tion of food.” Evidently previous writers winter reports bave appeared to the effect on the patural resources of the United States that a Naval Committee or an Appropriation have been marvellously deceived, and their Committee was engaged in the consideration estimates of the population which could be of Secretary Tracey's naval scheme; and supported are ludicrously in excess. Mr. more than once I think that the Secretary had Atkinson will need to revise his address, had a conference with this or that committee. “ Consumption Limited, Production Unlim Now, this is an extremely objectionable pracited.”

tice. The only influence on legislation by The comparison with Europe, however, members of the Cabinet recognized by the suggests an uppleasant doubt regarding Mr. Constitution is what may attach to their preDavis's promise of prosperity for the Ameri scribed reports, otherwise their influence on can farmer. The exhaustion of arable lands legislation was intended to be nil; and so it there has long been complete, and still the should be.

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A short time ago Liberty promised that the one or two criticisms of anarchy suggested by us should not pass unnoticed. But the editor appears to have concluded that his best course lay in counter-criticism. Exception is taken to our calling the men who so recklessly sacrifice their personal liberty to tradesuniony" slaves by nature.”' We are quite willing to recognize in Liberty a champion of laboring men, of the “ working class," as by a not very just restriction they are called, and an able champion too; but we object to the implication which excludes TO-DAY from all right to a place in the list. Says Liberty:

“In the first place, the workingmen, when organizing unions, copy the principles and methods of the State, and are no more slaves by nature than any of the very numerous supporters and admirers of the State."

But of what avail against TO-DAY is this observation supposed to be? Is it to intimate that we are supporters and admirers of the State? Hardly; but the more general implication is equally beside the question. What though the admirers of the State are also slaves by nature: do you imagine that TO-DAY will shrink from the assertion ?

Not at all though it might become necessary to draw careful distinctions. But let us grant for the present that the supporters of the State are, equally with the men who yield their independence to the Union, slaves by nature. Then, I say again, both have their deserts. They are slaves by nature and they become slaves in fact. To such men the State, and those imitation States which spring up alongside, and, as you say, partly in consequence of the “huge compulsory organization,” are thoroughly adapted. The wholly or partly compulsory organizations which exist are the results of more or less slavish natures. I am at a loss to see what there is specially unpbilosophical in this view of the situation.

On the whole, I fear that I might more properly pass the epithet back to yon, for very little reflection would have shown you that the aspect of trades-unionism, to which we take exception, is not at all the act of uniting and acting together in order

contend with or defend themselves from the all-powerful possessors of natural wealth and capital.” On the contrary, this act of voluntary cooperation is to be highly commended, even and specially when resistance is offered to the tyranny of that involuntary organization, the State, which the possessors of natural wealth and capital

so generally succeed in seducing to their aid. It is perfectly evident, on the other hand, that we object to the encroachments of those voluntarily associated upon the personal freedom either of the associates or of others. So far as the associates are concerned, the evidence goes to show that they are often coerced by the organization to a much greater extent than they originally anticipated; though, on the whole, perhaps, they sign away their independence knowingly, in the hope of gaining something more valuable. Life is, to most persons, more valuable than liberty; and if the question is really one of life and death, it becomes questionable how far the

the description slavos by nature is justified. In this country, however, the lives of those who unite in the various labor organizations are not usually at stake; and what the . individuals really seek is ... some greater or less gain, by a sacrifice of independence and personal responsibility. But, you say, “it is not to be denied for a moment that workingmen are obliged to unite and act together, .

and those who do so submit from irresistible necessity." Well then, how about the State and its supporters? Is not the State the result of irresistible necessity? and if you claim any philosophical advantage over us by your recognition of the physical necessity that compels workmen to submit to unions, why should not To-Day, if it consents to rank itself with government supporters at all, derive a like advantage from a like philosophy? Trades-unions necessity; and so is the State a much deeper and more permanent necessity. And the necessity in both cases arises from the fact that we are, one and all, of that despicable nature that we are slaves at one moment and tyrants the next. Only as we shall cease to be both – which are really one may we become adapted to freedom. The reference in To-day to the tyranny of the Union was intended to be merely illustrative of the fact that we are slaves; and if the appearance arose of ascribing this trait to workmen specially, it was largely accidental. They may be more or less slavish than the other industrial class, the case is too complex to be decided by the evidence at hand. The antecedent probability is that they submit to tyranny more easily than others, but the difference is probably not great, not greater than what may be outlived in a single lifetime.

But the slavishness or the tyrannicalness that is in us all is greater than can be outlived in a single lifetime, therefore you cannot make a free man of one who is a slave by nature. Some few, very few indeed, - more rare than jewels fine, or sparkling gems are born free men. They serve to show us what we may become, if not individually, at least in the persons of our descendants. But the way to cultivate a free nature is not by joining a trades-union. The Union may be an irresistible necessity: granted ; but it does not conduce to freedom.

Our greatest hope lies in the fact that slavishness and tyrannicaloess generally go together, and that the rejection of the one kind of character involves the disappearance of the other. A due regard for one's own rights and freedom is an almost necessary accompaniment of respect for the rights of others. There are those wbo maintain that it would be more profitable for us to devote our attention to considering the rights of others than to be everlastingly dwelling on our own rights. There is much to be said on this side, but the case would be stronger if the two considerations were not, in fact, inseparable. And, even if the considerations are not identical or inseparable, the feelings, at any rate, which prompt attention to one's own rights are closely associated with the feelings which prompt respect of the rights of others. And feelings are the mainsprings of conduct.


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