Puslapio vaizdai

of prudent, cautious invalids to endure no knowledge of the physical changes the comparatively low winter tempera- wrought in an invalid transferred from ture. The small amount of aqueous a locality having a very high absolute huvapor permits the solar rays to transmit midity to a very low one, but he deems their heat, without much absorption by it desirable to draw attention to this the air, to the body of the invalid. But point as illustrating the very great imlet him once quit the sunshine and portance of absolute humidity as a clihe realizes the force of the Italian prov- matological factor of health conditions.* erb: “Only dogs and strangers seek The map of absolute humidity for Janthe shade." Since differences of 30° to uary shows, with other data herewith, 40° obtain at Nice between sun and that for dry cold air one must seek shade, the need of prudence and expe- Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Dakota, rience to preserve or recover health is Minnesota, Wisconsin, northern Michibut too evident.

gan, and northern Iowa. Dry warm air It is significant of the state of public is found in southwestern Texas and the knowledge in respect to humidity that southern portions of Arizona and New local writers use, and all interested Mexico, during the winter. quote, that phase of humidity which The great German meteorologist, Dr. best suits their line of argument. Hahn, has very accurately and graphical

In Chart II. will be found the condi- ly set forth the fact that there is no eletions of absolute humidity for the Unit- ment of the climate which so certainly ed States, as determined for January marks its softness or severity as the vafrom ten years' observations. Attention riation of the average temperature from is invited to this map, which shows the day to day. In determining this variagrains of water in each cubic foot of air. bility of the temperature, the mean is Although less than one grain per foot is obtained from the changes which take present in the air during January over place, whether they are plus or minus, the greater part of the upper Lake re since a sudden fall in temperature and a gion, yet it is not unusual to see the sudden rise are almost equally trying statement made that the air is very and injurious. moist since the relative humidity is high. Chart III., on the opposite page, shows Similarly in Florida and Georgia where the average changes in temperature, from from 2.5 to 5 grains or more of water is day to day, for the entire year, as depresent in each cubic foot of air, the duced from many years' observations of atmosphere is often said to be dry or the United States Signal Service. It moderately dry, even drier than in the may be fairly assumed that changes in northern section of the country.

mean daily temperature exceeding Apart from the effect of absolute hu- five degrees, from day to day, mark a winmidity directly on the comfort of man, ter climate which is more or less trying by abstracting heat from the body, may to all, and absolutely injurious to invalids be mentioned the necessary consequence or persons of delicate constitution. on the respiratory organs, in cases of a It needs but a casual inspection of the very low or a very high degree of absol- map to show that such mildness of climute humidity. In certain portions of the ate obtains in the United States only in country, assuming three hundred cubic the Florida peninsula and in the counfeet of air to be inhaled daily, a man try to the west of the Rocky Mountains. takes into his lungs in January one hun- While the variability in the Peninsula of dred and twenty-five grains of water Florida is slight, yet for weather which each day, while in other localities he is practically unchangeable one must go inhales over eighteen hundred grains. to the westward of the Sierra Nevada Since the amount of moisture exhaled and Cascade ranges. by a man in health is fairly constant Along the immediate Pacific coast, throughout the year, it follows that from San Diego northward to Vancouvin one case nearly seventeen hundred grains more of water must be extracted * Those who are further interested in the possible ef

fect of low absolute humidity and low temperatures may from the blood through the lung-tissues find a discussion of the subject in The Causation of Pneli than in the other case. The writer has

monia," by Dr. H. B. Baker, Michigan State Board of Health. Lansing, 1888,

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months, the variation from day to day out January, but the entire winter fornia it barely reaches three degrees. the same temperature, not only through- heit, while in the interior valleys of Calier's Island, the days are substantially of scarcely exceeding two degrees Fahren

During February the variability of

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Chart III

per oent December


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Santa Fe


El Paso


the temperature changes is so modified and northern or upper Georgia, in order that they average five degrees or less named, most frequently show excessive along the immediate Gulf coast, while in changes in temperature from day to day. March the conditions are further amel- New Mexico is somewhat more equable. iorated, and sudden changes are few and California and southern Arizona, howfar between as far northward as Charles- ever, have remarkably equable temperaton, Augusta, Montgomery, or Little tures, the least degree of variability being Rock ; while similarly favorable condi- found along the immediate coast from tions obtain in the Northern States along San Francisco to San Diego, with slightly the Jersey and southern New England but not materially larger changes from coasts and Long Island. In the north- Sacramento southward to Yuma, Ariz.

Of data charted, San Diego and San Francisco show

conditions most nearly apVariability of temperature of deg's or more daily.

proaching that of Nice, which

latter place, while excelling Stations Stations

the California coast stations in this respect, is inferior as regards low temperatures, high winds and especially the presence of snow and ice-unknown conditions along the

coast of southern California. l'acksonville

One of the greatest beneinoville

fits to be derived from Saint Paul_ko

health-resorts in winter is the opportunity and inducement for exercise in the open air, and since invalids shrink

from chilling temperatures, Augusta

there is a necessity not only

of warm days, but also abSacramental

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sence of high winds and low San Diego

relative humidity, conditions San Franc sed Nice, France to

which, especially the winds, tend to rapidly abstract heat

from the body. ern parts of New York and New Eng Besides, clear bright days without too land, the climate does not, however, frequent rain are needful to enliven and soften to this extent until the middle cheer the invalid, and remove him from of May.

the depressing impressions which always Chart IV. illustrates further the varia- result from confinement through stress bility of temperature at Nice, France, of dull or stormy weather. and eleven stations in the United States, Chart V. gives for fourteen stations, which cover those sections having strong covering the country most frequented in climatic claims as winter sanatoria. This winter, the velocity of the wind at 3 chart shows, in percentages, the chances P.M., about the hour at which the wind of any day in December, January, or is at its highest. Winds below ten February being followed by a day whose miles an hour may be considered satismean temperature will be more than six factory. El Paso, Charlotte, and St. degrees warmer or colder. The limit Paul show the least wind. Santa Fé, of six degrees has been assumed as the San Francisco, and San Antonio are most largest change in mean temperature com- liable to high winds. All these stations patible with comfort, as any greater rise are far superior to Nice, where the probor fall of temperature, even in the United abilities of strong winds on any day inStates, is considered a decided change. crease throughout the winter, being 16 Colorado, Minnesota, northern Florida, per centum of the entire number of days



Chart IV.







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Chart V.

and February. California is Average velocity of wind at 3p.m. supposed by many to have

continuous rain during the

winter, but Chart VI. shows Sations Stations

that Sacramento is favored with substantially as many

rainless days in winter as San Francisco

northern Florida, while San

Francisco has the same as Sacramento

Augusta, and less than CharSan Antoniot Denrer Yuma

lotte, N. C. Thirty per cent

um is about as high a perSan Diego

centage of rainy days as can

be commended to invalids. Jacksonville

As one of the ablest and Sanford

most distinguished physiKnoxville

cians of the country has said, Saint Paul Augusta El Paso

little or nothing can be done

to modify the course and preCharlate

vent the development of epidemic diseases dependent

on atmospheric changes, but in December, 18 in January, and 25 in certainly much can be done in determinFebruary. As many as 16 cases of strong ing the meteorological conditions which winds, or 57 per centum of days in Feb- promote or facilitate the disease, so that ruary, have been known to occur at Nice. with an accurate knowledge of the vaIn connection with the velocity of the ried climatic conditions to be found in wind, the tendency is general for winds our vast territory the skilful physician to increase in strength from December can ameliorate the conditions, check the to March, which latter month in the United States is marked, if not with the lowest and

Probability of Rain. most sudden changes of temperature, yet with the highest winds. At Augusta and Stations

Stations Jacksonville the wind is higher in March than in February, although at Yuma the reverse holds good. This emphasizes the fact that Charlotte

San Francisco

Hugustahigher winds are usually to

Sacramento t30 be looked for in the opening


Skicksonvillemonth of spring. As regards the number of Wice

, France San Diego

Denver rainy days, including those on which snow falls, it will

Yuma probably surprise Americans to know that rain or snow during the winter months is more frequent at Nice than from western Texas to Arizona ; and disease itself, or, better still, forestall it even as shown by the curve of rain for by sending in time for prevention those San Diego, the percentages are in favor most liable to attacks into a favorable of southern California during January and proper climate.

VOL. IV.-65

8 percent December

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By John R. Spears.


HE big sky-sail clip- of whistle and steam engine, and the

per ship Governor hoisting and stretching of sails to the George T. Oglesby, orders of mate and riggers, there was of Bath, lay beside no end of animation about the Governor the pier at the foot George T. Oglesby; a landsman would of Wall Street, al- have said there was a babel of confumost loaded with a sion, but to the eye of the sailorman miscellaneous cargo everything was working with a smooth

for Portland, Ore- ness and regularity seldom to be found gon. A line of trucks with goods for the under like circumstances except on the big ship reached from the ship's gang- deck of a Yankee clipper. way across South Street and nearly half Just after three o'clock—six bells, the way up

to Front Street. The engineer in stevedore called the hour—when the the little coop that covered the hoisting stir and noise, as he would have said, engine on the pier was red in the face had reached flood tide, there was a from his extra exertions with throttle splash in the water alongside the big and coal shovel, for the stevedore up on clipper. Half a dozen loungers on the the ship’s rail was making things jump, next pier on the south side became sudin the hopes of completing the cargo be- denly animated with the appearance of fore six o'clock that night. The 'long- life, and hurried to the string-piece, shoremen on the pier, about the deck, over which they leaned and pointed and in the hold of the ship worked excitedly toward something that was with unwonted zeal, while the ship's struggling and splashing about in the mate, having set a young man from the water. agent's office to checking off the goods “It's a woman,” said one, excitedly, that were hoisted from the pier to the “I see her har.” tune of the stevedore's whistle, was trying “What's yer givin' us? It's the dog to see how near he could come to stand- off’n the Guv'ner Ojelsby," said another. ing in two parts of the ship at once “ Yer a stuff ; it's a man.

Why in without splitting himself, and at the hell don't some of yous run for a cop?” same time keep his two eyes aloft on said a third. the riggers at work on all three masts. Nobody ran, but every one knew just The riggers were stretching the sails, what was the matter and what some one fresh from an overhauling in the sail- else ought to do. There was a man loft, along the yards and making them drowning in the water close alongside fast there, and the mate was taking his the big black hull; that was plain oath that he “never see such a gang of enough. One big, dirty hand was clawlubbers as them riggers,” and offering ing at the smooth copper in a vain efto bet his soul against a worn out chew fort to reach up so that the ends of the of tobacco that the first capful of wind fingers could catch in the seam between that struck the ship would strip the two of the wooden planks. Although canvas off her, fore and aft. The ship’s unable to reach the seam, the efforts, master, Captain Walter W. Allen, of somehow, kept the man from going unNewburyport, was not in sight, having der for good, but he was fast getting gone to the office of the agents to settle weaker when the mate of the big ship some accounts and sign the papers, but heard enough of the disturbance on the what with the moving of the trucks, un- adjoining pier to cause him to give one der the shouts of noisy truckmen, and impatient glance in that direction. That the hoisting of the cargo, with the noise glance was enough. To his eye it was

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