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ing the songs, and sent me on the stage Haymarket season sailed viâ the Cunard after 11 o'clock at night, and after a line, which then went to Boston only. five-act comedy. I was a good deal put There I saw my father, who was just out at this. I thought it would ruin about to start for England. my chances, and to a certain extent it This was the cause of my coming to did, the audience being tired and yawn- America as an actor. I opened the ing, many leaving the theatre before I Broadway Theatre, playing Sir Charles came on. So well did somebody man- Coldstream, fell through a trap on the age, I won't say who, that after a few first night and nearly got killed. The nights of this I did not act at all, and stage had been built in a very hurried when I appeared again it was once more manner. Jumping on the trap, it gave under unfair treatment, as I believe. way and I went through, but fortunately Mr. Hudson, who was the leading com- had presence of mind enough to catch edian then, was taken ill and could not myself by my elbows. I picked myself

play Dazzle in “Lon- up uninjured and had one of the greatest don Assurance” receptions I ever remember. I was the which had then been success of the evening, so the newsrevived. Mr. Bouci- papers said. In those days I lived on cault himself attend- Broadway at a boarding-house kept by ed the rehearsals, and a Mrs. Black near Broome Street. Walthey cast me for Daz- lack’s Theatre, strangely enough, afterzle, a part I had never ward stood on that very spot. attempted, and which The Broadway Theatre was built by, had all the prestige or for, one Colonel Alvah Mann. The of Mr. Charles Math- first season was a losing one. There ews's great name.

I was a succession of managers, things had not been allowed were going very badly, and Mr. George to play for

some Barrett finally gave up the stage manweeks, and I was put agement, which devolved upon Mr. on the stage with Mr. James Wallack, Jr., my cousin ; it then Farren, Mr. Buck- came into the hands of Mr. George Van

stone, and all these denhoff; at last it came to Mr. William people around me who knew every turn Rufus Blake, and then was produced and twist of the business of the comedy; Boucicault's “Old Heads and Young and I naturally appeared under the great- Hearts," with Mr. Blake as Jesse Rural. est possible disadvantages. I think that The drama, which had never been done is about all I did do.

here before, brought up the fortunes In the meantime Mr. George H. of the theatre again. The next season Barrett, who had come to England to Mr. Blake was still stage-manager and make engagements for a new theatre we repeated various plays. Mr. Forrest which was building on Broadway, corner had a very successful engagement there of Anthony Street, New York, and which during which I played Cassio to his was to be called “The Broadway," went Othello. Then James Anderson played to the Haymarket, saw me, and thought an engagement and I acted with him. he had found the very thing he wanted I supported Forrest, too, in the “Broker for America. He came to my mother's of Bogota,” and that was the first idea house and asked, “When does this sea- I got that I could do some serious work. son end?” I told him, and he said, The fortunes of the theatre went down “Well, now, what are you getting once more until at last an actor named here?” “Six pounds a week,” a very George Andrews got hold of a book good salary in those days. He replied: which was exciting and interesting the “Well, I will give you eight, if you will whole town. It was Dumas's “ Count go to the States.” It was a great temp- of Monte Cristo.” Andrews made a tation, because it secured to me the dramatization of it, and offered it as a first line of comedy and because my holiday piece, to be brought out on father was then in America ; so I closed Christmas night. Mr. Blake came to with him at once, and at the end of the me and told me about it. I said it was

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James Wallack, Jr.

capable of making an excellent drama. and had left no word as to when he He replied : “ The drama is made ; and would return. The time approached for you must play Monte Cristo." “Good the commencement of the performance, Heavens, I cannot !” said I. “You must Mr. Walhack was waiting, dressed for do this or the theatre will close," he an- Othello, I was waiting dressed for Cassio, swered; "we have no one else to do it.” which I was to play that night; everyI was in a horrible fright, for I had never body was waiting, dressed for everything. attempted anything of the kind ; but I No Mr. Vandenhoff

, no message, until said : “Very well, I about five minutes before the curtain will try it and if I fail should have risen, when a note did arit will not be my fault.” rive at last from him, explaining that as The consequence was his name in the bills and

advertisements an immense success— did not appear in equal prominence with one of the first plays Mr. Wallack's he did not intend to play that rivalled "Richard at all. There was naturally a great deal III."and London As- of indignation expressed on the part of surance” by a run of the management; the audience were beone hundred nights. coming impatient, and eventually Mr. Fanny Wallack, my Blake went upon the stage before the cousin, played Haidee, curtain to explain the cause of the delay. and Mr. Fredericks He spoke to this effect:

played Fernand. Had “Ladies and gentlemen ; I am very George Vandenhoft.

away was in the piece sorry to appear before you as an apolo

and played Caderousse. gist. We shall give you the play, but It was the great hit of the season, without Mr. Vandenhoff

, who, not ten and the thing that saved the theatre minutes ago, sent word that he would from bankruptcy. It was from Monte not act because his name did not appear Cristo that I got what celebrity I ever in the bills in equal type with Mr. James had in melodramatic characters, and Wallack’s. It has been left to the mansingular to say, most of the greatest agement to give you an acceptable subsuccesses I ever had were in parts which stitute in the person of Mr. Dyott, who, were a mixture of the serious and comic, at this singularly short notice, will aplike “The Romance of a Poor Young pear as lago. [Great applause.] We Man,” “ Jessie Brown,” “Rosedale," and have given you the best possible rem“The Streets of New York.”

edy for the disappointment, and we I first met George Vandenhoff at the leave it to you to give Mr. Vandenhoff Broadway Theatre, where it seems he his just deserts whenhad made an engagement with Colonel ever he shall appear Mann, in which he stipulated that he before you again." should not be held inferior to anyone in The result of this the company.

In other words he was was a very successful to be strictly the leading man. When performance of the Mr. Blake came into the stage manage- tragedy, and a chalment he advocated making a star theatre lenge from Mr. Vanof it, and among other stars he engaged denhoff to Mr. Blake. was my cousin, Mr. James Wallack, Jr. Mr. Thomas Placide The opening play was Othello,” in consented to act as which Wallack was cast for Othello, as a Mr. Blake's second. matter of course, and Vandenhoff for The affair, however, lago. About half past six, the curtain was patched up by being supposed to rise at seven, there was the interference of no Mr. Vandenhoff in the theatre. They mutual friends, and no blood was shed. sent a message to his lodgings or his Mr. Blake, off the stage as well as on, hotel, or wherever he was, to know was a positive epitome of fun and humor. whether he was aware of the lateness of There was a gentleman in the company the hour. The messenger came back and named Hind, who came to him one day reported that Mr. Vandenhoff was out with the pomposity which I have gene

VOL. IV.-44

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William Rufus Blake.

rally remarked prevails in a greater de- carries the flag of our nation, and I have gree among the lesser luminaries of the always, in that particular scene in which stage than among the greater, and said : I carried it,

been accustomed to sing “Mr. Blake, I have observed an omis- • The Star Spangled Banner.'” Mr.

sion in the bills with Blake replied :
regard to my name. “But a song here is entirely out of

Mr. Blake turned place; it will be an interruption to the around from the course of the play, and on this occasion managerial table, I cannot consent to its introduction. and gazed at him We cannot sacrifice the play on that acwith some surprise. count.” Mr. Jones replied :

“Mr. Hind, what "Mr. Blake, if I am to play this part is the omission ?I must sing 'The Star Spangled Banner.'

“I have always My name has invariably been in the bills been particular, sir, with the addition of this line: 'In which about my initials; he will sing The Star Spangled Ban

they are not in the ner.'” Mr. Blake persevered in his deThomas Hadaway. bill.”

nial of the request, when Jones drew

Mr. Blake, with- himself up to his full height, which, by out asking him what his initials were, the bye, was not above five feet four, and said very solemnly:

majestically said: “Mr. Hind, the omission shall be rec “Mr. Blake, I wish it to be recorded tified.” The consequence was that in

that I inthe next bill in which the gentleman's name occurred Mr. Blake put “The

being billCharacter of so and so by Mr. B. Hind,”

ed as singwhich of course caused a great deal of

ing The amusement in the company, and a great

Star Spandeal of indignation on the part of Mr.

gled BanHind, whose initials were T. J., but who

ner.'” was called “Mr. Behind ever after.

Blake On another occasion Mr. Blake had

declined to deal with a gentleman of a somewhat higher style of ambition whom we will

ther concall Jones. On the 22d of February a

versation patriotic play was produced which was

on the subconcluded with the appearance of the figure of Washington surrounded by

in the bill every sort of emblem of patriotism-in

he wrote fact, in a blaze of glory. Mr. Jones said

“The Chato the stage-manager:

Thomas Placide.

racter of so “Mr. Blake, I have frequently played

and so by the part that you have cast me for in Mr. Jones, in which he insists upon this piece. I represent the officer who singing "The Star Spangled Banner!""

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sist upon

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any fur

ject. But

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PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN POLITICS.

By Hugh McCulloch.

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ORD DERBY, in a that in ships. Until the Cunard Comspeech delivered at pany, in 1840, sent their first steamship Liverpool, in 1872, the Britannia, of thirteen hundred tons, made the striking from Liverpool to Boston, sailing vessels remark that the in- built of wood, had the command of the crease of wealth in seas. There were, it is true, a few Great Britain,with- steamships constructed before that time. in the present cen- In 1819, the Savannah, with steam as

tury, far exceeded well as sails, went from Savannah in the increase in the preceding 1800 years. Georgia, to St. Petersburgh, stopping This wealth had been chiefly created by on her way out at England, and comher extensive commerce and her manu- pleting her run from St. Petersburgh factures, in which for many years she ex- back to Savannah in twenty-six days; celled all other nations combined. The so that the honor of sending the first gain in the United States has been the re- steamship across the ocean from the sult of agricultural and manufacturing United States, belongs to a Southern industry, and of the increased value of State. In 1825, the Enterprise, properly land, and this increase in the value of land so called, went from England to Calis in a very great degree attributable to cutta, and in 1838 the Sirius, of seven canals and railroads, chiefly the latter, hundred tons, and the Great Western, of without which the most of the great thirteen hundred and forty tons, came West would have remained a wilderness, to New York from Liverpool. These, and our large cities would have been however, were experiments. Regular unimportant towns. It is hardly too ocean traffic by steamships did not fairly much to say, that the United States are commence until the establishment of the twenty times richer than they were a Cunard line in 1840. From that time half century ago. The whole world has, the construction of steamships went indeed, felt the influences that have been rapidly on, and traffic upon the seas at work within this brief period of its went as rapidly from sailing vessels to history in pushing onward modern civ- steamers. The great motive power of ilization. A large part of it has, in fact, the world upon water as well as upon been rejuvenated within a half century. land, is steam. Upon the Great Lakes Nearly all of the mechanical inventions, and upon the Ocean, its value is apprenow so indispensable, such as railroads, ciated; but upon the rivers only, can its iron ships, telegraphs, agricultural im- great advantages be fully understood. plements, labor-saving machinery of all Before I went to the West in 1833 and kinds, have come into use within less for some time after, the business upon than two generations, but in no part of the Mississippi and its tributaries was the world have such changes taken chiefly carried on by flat-boats, which place as in the United States. Within were floated down to New Orleans by the period named, the population of the the current, and broken up and sold for United States has been more than twice lumber after their cargoes had been disdoubled. Sixteen States have been posed of; or by barges which, after they added to the Union, and what was then had been unloaded at the levee, were the far distant West, has become the towed back to their shipping points by centre of population and political watermen, a race that has long since dispower.

appeared.

A whole season was con

sumed by these barges in a single trip Of all the changes that have taken down and back from the Ohio and Upper place within the last half century, none Mississippi to New Orleans. has been more marked and decided than Steamboats when they came into full

ers.

play changed all this, and opened for that will attain the greatest speed, carry settlement a country as large as that the heaviest guns, and resist the heaviest which lies east of the Alleghanies. The shot. Their value will be tested in the ocean and lake traffic might have been next great European war. carried on by sailing vessels, but upon

The decline in its shipping is the no rivers, except the great rivers of South great humiliation of the United States. America, could sails be used. In our Less than half a century ago, it was secharbors one now sees a few small sailing ond only to Great Britain, with strong vessels, and here and there a three indications that it would soon be her masted schooner, which reminds him of superior as a maritime power. The best the Baltimore Clippers, but these are ships in the world were then built in the engaged in a coast wise trade, and are United States, chiefly in New England, being rapidly superseded by small steam- and our ship-yards not only supplied

In 1876, the last time I was in the home demand, which was very large Liverpool, I saw scarcely a single sailing but to a considerable extent the foreign vessel among the hundreds that filled demand also. Now, except for the home her docks. The age is utilitarian ; it is trade, the building of ships has subthe most useful that is sought for, what stantially ceased. pays the best is the desideratum. The It makes one who saw the ship-yards, sailing ship is a thing of beauty. Noth- along the New England coast half & ing to me is so beautiful as a full rigged century ago sad as he sees them now. ship with all sails set, as she moves be- A few steam-ships are being built there fore the wind; but she has ceased to and in the other Atlantic States for pay. A steamship is a thing of power. coast-wise or West Indian and South There is nothing about her which is American trade, but none for the Eurobeautiful, but she is time-saving, and pean. In ship-building and ship ownhence her superiority over sailing ves- ing, the United States are behind nasels.

tions that, a few years ago, were not Next to steam, iron and steel have known for either. The carrying trade been the great factors in the revolution between the old world and the new is of the last half century in ship building. in the hands of Europeans. It is their Fifty years ago, vessels of all descrip- ships that are crowded with Americans tions, naval as well as those that were who are constantly visiting the old world used in trade, were built of wood. Now on business or for pleasure ; it is their iron and steel are almost exclusively ships that bring emigrants to our shores ; used. There are a few small sailing ves- their ships that carry our cotton, our sels being built of wood for home trade, wheat, our beef and pork, our tobacco and but a wooden ship of war can only be petroleum and what not, to foreign marseen among the hulks. The fight in kets. We no longer share in the gloryand Hampton Roads between the little Moni- the gain which attend upon maritime entor and the Virginia, sealed the fate of terprise. The decline of American shipwooden war ships. What a revolution ping commenced with the substitution in ship building that first contest be- of iron for wooden ships. It was hasttween iron-clads produced! It literally ened by our refusal to permit our ship made valueless the navies of the world, owners to protect their ships by a forupon which countless millions had been eign flag during the late war, and the expended. In itself considered, it was finishing blow was given to it by a tariff in comparison with hundreds of other which, by taxing the materials that are naval battles, an unimportant affair, but used in the construction of ships, made by enabling the Government to maintain them too costly to invite capital in that the blockade, it did much for the preser- direction and forced it into manufactvation of the Union, and by showing how

That the United States have powerless wooden ships would be in con- been enormously enriched by their tests with ironclads, it created a system manufactures, is undeniable, and it is of naval architecture in which all the equally undeniable that their rapid commercial nations are now eriment- growth in manufacturing industries is ing. Each is trying to construct ships very largely attributable to high duties

ures.

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