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cation than for the intermediate and lower. Free tuition at the university, and the slight expense of the actual necessaries of life at Athens have induced many poor Greeks to study law, when they should have been preparing for lifo as farmers or mechanics. This has unsettled politics somewhat, but has not been an unmixed evil. The university is now one of the largest in the world, with more than three thousand students, of whom at least half are from lands beyond the borders of the kingdom. Most of its professors have pursued studies in Germany or France, and many of them
are brilliant and learned men. It has Greek Type, Peasant.
received large gifts; its museums and
laboratories are endowed by private genHE ancient Greeks united to form erosity.
a nation only when they combined The foundations of female education
in opposition to the Persian Em- in Greece were laid by honored missionpire. While the Greeks of to-day are aries from America, who established distracted by many factions and in- themselves at Athens before this city terests, they are united by their pride was made the seat of the Greek governin their ancestry and their hatred for ment. Dr. and Mrs. Hill lived to enjoy the Turk. When these emotions are the retrospect of half a century of usearoused, Greece has but one mind. fulness. Their school educated about
Emulation of their ancestors has been two thousand Greek women, many of a great stimulus to study for the Greeks whom have occupied stations of high of to-day. The new government had rank and influence. Near the university hardly been set up at Athens when a uni- now stands the Arsakion, a seminary versity was established on the German well endowed for the higher education model, and with several German profes- of women. The number of Greek women sors, in 1837. The university was ready who can read and write is far larger now made and fully developed, but few stu- than it was twenty years ago. Sixty dents were prepared to enter it. Since years ago they were as ignorant as most then, Greece has delighted in cherishing women in other parts of the Turkish schools of every kind, but better pro- empire. vision is still made for the higher edu The literature of the Greeks is still ar
tificial, consisting largely of translations paper editor who made Greek names for from the ancient Greek, or from modern the principal objects at an international languages, in the literary idiom. Few exposition. Even “gas," which is itself and brief works are published in the a made-up word, and which has been form of the language which most Greeks speak. The fullest collections of the songs and stories of the people have been made by foreigners. The Greeks have been so busy in founding a nation that they have had no time to develop & national literature or school of art.
With the expulsion of the Turkish tyranny, the Greeks strove to cast forth the Turkish words which had been adopted into the language. With the emulation of their ancestors' deeds, grew the desire to speak as their forefathers had done. Words which had been unused for centuries were brought again into service. Ancient names were revived for districts and towns ; the Morea is again Peloponnesus, Kastri is again Delphi. Even official forms have been resuscitated; the legal orations of antiquity and the old lexicographers have been searched, in order to
Greek Hospitality. secure the fitting terms for the use of the law courts. adopted into all modern languages, inThe Supreme Court of Greece is the cluding the Greek—the word “gas” is Areopagus, and the Senate is the Boulé. not used by the newspaper writer, but Names of things which were unknown to aërophòtion, air-light. Curiously enough, the ancients have been translated liter- the newspapers are the chief supporters ally from other modern languages, often of the literary language; they are diliforming compounds which would be un- gent in their affectation of, and approach intelligible to Plato, who would not sup- to, the classical idiom. The vocabulary pose that a “spirit-manufactory” could and the general outlines of the syntax of be a distillery. The Greeks hold as a the ancient language are used in Athens benefactor of their language a news- to-day. But this language is more or
7. N. Theit
less consciously artificial. The Greek West in the eleventh century. The Palanguage has never died; some few triarch of Constantinople is the nominal learned and cultivated men have always head of the Church, but he exercises no spoken the classical idiom, though the governing authority. The kingdom has
speech of the people became more and about forty bishops; the Church recog. more corrupt under foreign influences, nizes no higher ecclesiastical title, but and by natural process of decay. But at the bishop of the capital of a province the beginning of this century an attempt is called an archbishop, by courtesy, was made to revive the general use of and the Bishop of Athens is the MetroAttic Greek. At first a conscious effort politan. The churches in the country was needed, but the newer generation are generally cheerless, and often dilapof the better educated families has been idated. The Greek priest (pappás) is familiar from youth with the restored married, but is not allowed to marry a language, and treats it as a vernacular. second time. He is said to be assidNo unpolitical subject is more burning uous in the care of his wife, since he in Greece now than the question which knows that he can never have another. is the true language of the time. The He often has a large family and a small translations of the New Testament have income. His fees constitute his salary. become more and more classical. He is generally a peasant, and lives like example of newspaper Greek, the story the other peasants—tilling his fields, is told of an Athenian lady who left with teaching school, or perhaps keeping a a newspaper an advertisement of the loss small shop. He has little education. of her white dog (aspro skyláki), which Only in recent years have theological she failed to recognize in the classical studies prospered at the university. The terms (leukon kynarion) of the newspaper! bishops are promoted from the monks,
not from the priests ; if by chance the Almost all the inhabitants of Greece be- priest attains special distinction, and is long to the “orthodox” Eastern Church, made bishop, he is obliged to separate which separated from the Church of the from his wife.
Greece was full of monasteries at the norance. The monasteries are of two beginning of this century. Four hun- different orders : cenobite and idiodred of these were destroyed in the rhythmic. In the former, the monks revolution, and their property fell to assemble at a common table, and live the government. About one hundred according to a common rule; in the latand fifty remain, with four convents for ter, each has his own apartments and lives nuns. Monasteries flourished better un- as he pleases, except as regards attendder Turkish rule than now, and are more ance on church services.
On the slope prosperous in Greek lands outside of of Mount Pentelicus, near the marble the kingdom. In Greece proper, men of ability and energy have more attractive reers open to them, while the Turks often encouraged the withdrawal of leading men to a life of inactivity. The monastery lands are gradually coming into the hands of the government. The beautiful site of the Ameri
West Slope of Mars' Hill, with Mount Hymettus in the background. can School at Athens was granted by the govern- quarries, is a large and prosperous monment from the grounds of the convent astery which is often visited by travelof the Asomaton (angels). The monks lers who desire to ascend the mountain. have the reputation of laziness and ig- Near the mountain fortress of Phyle, a few miles to the west, is another monas- Greek Church. To be without flesh food tery of the humblest sort; the door is would be no deprivation from usual not high enough for a tall man; the comfort for most of the people. Not building has rooms for only three or only fish, but also eggs and cheese are four monks, and everything but the forbidden, at least on the strict days of clear, cold water indicates squalor and Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. indifference to comfort and cleanliness. After the dreary and exhausting sea
The most important Greek monaster- son of Lent, Easter is warmly welcomed. ies are those on Mount Athos, that of It is the great festival of the Church year. the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and It is the season for family gatherings that on Mount Sinai. These have de- and for friendly gifts. Houses and boats pendencies, or branches, in Greece. are painted, and clothing washed, in
The Greek religious services are gen- preparation for the celebration. No erally held early in the morning, before family is too poor to have a roast lamb the heat of the day. After them, the for Easter Sunday, and the streets and pappis is a prominent figure in the squares of the towns are filled with flocks throngs of idlers, prominent because of of lambs. The whole air of the city is his long black gown, his tall steeple-hat redolent with their savor
on Easter (without a brim), and his long, un- morning. Hungry family groups collect trimmed black hair and whiskers. His about the fire as the lamb is spitted in office does not assure him special re- the open air, all watching and assisting. spect. He is far from having the so- at the operation. cial position accorded to clergymen in The Greeks are very religious in Protestant or even in Roman Catholic some outward observances, and especicountries.
ally quick in their resentment of the inLent is observed very strictly by the sinuation that they are in need of con