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IN portrait photography a small mirror, called an expression-glass, in which the sitter can see his face, has been tried with success. It consists of a round glass mirror about six inches in diameter, secured by means of a universal joint to a brass ring sliding on an upright rod. The rod is supported by a base, so that it will stand firm on the floor, and by means of the ring and joint the glass can be placed in any desired position. On the top of the mirror is a telescopic sight, to enable the operator to adjust the mirror in line with the sitter's eyes. By the aid of this glass the sitter is assisted to look in the proper direction to obtain the best view of the face, and is given a fixed point on which to rest his eyes. He also sees his face in the mirror, and may thus correct any infelicities of expression. The apparatus is said to meet the approval of photographic artists.

Direct Process in Heliotyping.

THE heliotype process has recently exhibited an interesting and valuable improvement, whereby much time and labor are saved, with no resulting loss in the artistic perfection of the work. By the usual method gelatine films are made sensitive to light, and when placed under photographic negatives and exposed to sunlight, are so affected as to become water-proof wherever the light falls upon them. The rest of the film, the parts shaded by the negative, still retain their peculiar absorptive qualities and take up water readily. Printer's ink (containing grease), spread upon the film, then adheres to the affected parts, and is rejected by the portions that still retain water. In this way the film prints a copy of the picture or document shown in the negative. By the new process all the photographic work is omitted. By the aid of tannic acid the effects obtained by the action of light are reached by simple contact. In place of employing a negative of the picture or document to be reproduced in heliotype, the subject is merely drawn or written with a pen dipped in a solution of tannic acid, or any copying ink containing tannic acid. The subject, be it letter, design, plan, or picture, is then laid on the moist film and submitted to pressure. The tannic acid in the ink then water-proofs the film where it touches, and it will resist water and accept grease precisely as will a film prepared by the usual actinic method. It may be then used to print from, or a transfer may be made to lithographic stone or to zinc. By transfering to zinc and treating the plates with acid, a relief is obtained that may be used in an ordinary printing-press. The advantages of this direct transfer of the pen-drawing to the gelatine film are obvious. The time, labor, and expense of photographing are all saved, the exact reproduction of the original is secured, and an autographic copy obtained that gives the author or artist in fac-simile.

New Steam Gauge-Cock.

IN place of the three gauge-cocks commonly employed on steam boilers, a single cock that registers the height of the water has been introduced. It consists of a hollow plug cock inserted in the boiler, and having an interior pipe passing through it and bent at a right angle on the inside of the boiler, so that it presents a radial arm that turns round on the axis of the pipe. At the outer end is an arm for turning the pipe, a screw valve for opening the pipe, and a small radial arm or pointer that indicates the position of the interior arm. Behind the pointer is an index plate that gives the height of the water in inches. The operation of this gauge-cock is easily understood. When the radial arm is below the water, the pipe discharges water when opened. By turning the handle the radial arm may be made to revolve and sink in the water, or rise above it into the steam. The escape of steam or water thus shows at once when the arm passes the water-line. The pointer also shows the position of the arm and gives the depth of the water in inches. When the fire is out this gauge may be made to show the position of the water by turning the arm through a half circle, when the open end scoops up some of the water and shows its position by the amount of water discharged outside. The advantages claimed for this gauge over the usual group of three try cocks, are the smaller number of holes made in the boiler, and greater accuracy in the statement of the water level. This gauge is not designed to replace the glass tube commonly employed. In this connection it may be noticed that glass tube gauges are now furnished with a strip of white enamel on the inside, that gives the water a milky appearance that renders it more distinctly visible.

Canal Tow-Boats.

THE most recent pattern of steam canal-boat or canal tow-boat that has been launched, is an iron boat having a square section amidship-that is, she has a flat bottom, with square upright sides. Both bow and stern are of the same form, and rise longitudinally with square corners. At the stern the side plating hangs down at each side to the level of the bottom, thus inclosing the screws and rudder in a hood. There are four screws placed in pairs on each side of the rudder, and each pair driven by a single engine. Each shaft has a slight pitch downward, and is connected with its engine by geared wheels. The chief point of interest in this boat is the iron skin or guard on each side of the propellers. All the water displaced below rises at the stern against the propellers, and there is no suction or inflowing of the water at the sides, and there is little disturbance of the surface. The usual center keel at the stern is omitted. The boat is said to display good towing power, with no injury to the banks of the canal by washing.

Borax as a Preservative.

SOME recent experiments with a solution of borax, by M. Dumas, point to its value as an agent in destroying the spores of parasite plants, like those affecting the grape, etc., its power of destroying low animal life, infusoria and the like, its usefulness in preserving anatomical preparations and in arresting fermentation. It was also tried on milk and fresh meats with success, and is suggested as an aid in the treatment of wounds. S. Beer, of Germany, in the same line of research, announces the use of borax as a solvent in the treatment of timber. The coagulation of the sap may be prevented by a solution of borax, and it may then be removed from the wood by boiling. The timber is said to be greatly improved in color and texture, and in ability to resist decay. By omitting the boiling, and leaving the borax in the wood, it is rendered less liable to injury by fire.

Oil Engine.

Of the many experiments made in search of an oil-burning motor, the latest and apparently the .most satisfactory engine is one that employs mingled air and crude petroleum. This new engine is made in several sizes, from one-horse-power upward. A five-horse-power engine occupies a floor space of about 2 x 6 feet, and is about 5 high. It is a single-acting engine, with an upright cylinder placed at one end of the frame-work supporting the fly-wheel, air pump, etc. In the base of the framework are cast-iron reservoirs, containing a supply of compressed air, and at any convenient distance is a can for the crude oil. From this can a small

pump sends the oil to the cylinder, through a pipe 1-16 of an inch in diameter, and delivers it, a drop at a time, on a circular wick of felt. This is care

fully protected by wire gauze, on the principle of the Davy safety-lamp, and by another pipe the compressed air is delivered at the same time and place. The result is an instantaneous flaming of the oil and air, and by the resulting expansion in its volume the piston is driven down. This flaming is not, as in the earlier types of gas engines, an explosion, but a simple burning under pressure till the oil is consumed. The products of combustion and the waste heat then escape through the exhaust. At the same time, a smaller burner maintains a minute flame of oil in the cylinder, and in no case can the flame leap past the wire gauze down the oil pipe. The return of the piston is secured by the balancewheel, and another drop of oil being supplied, it takes fire from the small burner, and the process is repeated. An air-pump is added to maintain the pressure in the air reservoir, and another pump keeps a stream of water circulating in the jacket placed on the cylinder to keep it cool. The cut-off and the pump for supplying oil can be both adjusted to the amount of work required, and on the air-pipe is a safety-valve, to prevent danger from undue pressure. The engine is started by turning a small crank that operates the oil-pump, and then lighting the carburetted air in the cylinder through a small opening. A few turns of the wheel and a single

match are all that are required, and, once started, the engine runs continuously, so long as the supply of oil is maintained, and with no more attention than can be furnished by an occasional oiling and cleaning.

Photographic Registry of Deeds.

THE safe keeping of deeds and other documents has always involved expensive and troublesome buildings, and, as they are now arranged, a search through one of these registries of deeds is a trouble and a vexation. The clerical labor performed in such places is something immense, and it is now proposed to make photo-lithographic copies of such papers, and to preserve them on long webs or sheets wound tightly on rollers. To make new copies, a photolithographic transfer is taken, and from this as many are printed as are desired. It is not designed to keep the negatives, but to rub them off after making the required copies, and to use the glass again. It is estimated that the expense of maintaining a photographic establishment, in connection with a registry of deeds, would be less than the present clerical force employed. Photographs possess a fidelity to the original that no copyist can hope to attain. They are legal evidence; they are more quickly multiplied, and, by the aid of photo-relief, copies may be repeated on a common newspaper press. The idea of preserving photographs of deeds on sheets wound upon rollers, instead of in folios, as at present, has advantages in point of economy of space and ease of access. The searcher for a deed has only to turn a crank, and the deeds pass in procession before his eyes, in less time and with less labor than by the present arrangement. Having found the deed wanted, he then asks for a photograph of it, and a dozen absolutely correct copies may be delivered in less time than it now takes to make one tolerably correct one by hand. Some of the musical associations in this city already employ this process, and have all their sheet music photographed. It is more accurate than manuscript, it is neater and more legible, and is not found too expensive.

Road-beds for Bridges.

THE immense traffic over London Bridge has caused the authorities to consider the further economy of the road-bed space. At present the bridge is like an ordinary street, with walks at the side. Among the plans offered, the best one suggests the removal of the walks, and opening the whole width of the bridge for heavy traffic. It is then proposed to excavate a trench in the center, 3 feet 9 inches deep, and 18 feet wide. Stone walls, 4 feet high, are then to be raised on each side, and on these a row of iron columns will carry a high, level bridge six feet above the present street. This bridge is designed for the light traffic, and will be 18 feet wide, with a narrow walk at the sides, and edged with a light iron railing, so as not to mar the artistic effect of the present structure. The space under this bridge is to be finished off with tiles, and is designed for the foot travel. This proposed altera


revolving hair brushes so much used in England, and is said to be far preferable to the curry-comb and brush used by hand. With steam power, one man can easily groom one hundred horses in a day by the aid of this machine.

tion will give two road-ways, each 16% feet wide, for heavy traffic; a high, level road, 18 feet wide (including walks), for light carriages, and reached by inclines, and a covered foot-way, reached by tunnels under the lower road-ways. This suggestion might be useful here. Nowhere are more bridges needed than in this country, and nowhere can better bridges be found. At the same time, they nearly all follow the old plan of a single street, with walks at the sides. A high, level walk for the foot travel is far better, both on account of the economy of space, safety, cleanliness, and security.


IN place of electric bells, rung by wires in connection with a battery, a magneto-electric bell signal is being introduced. A magneto-inductor, containing six permanent magnets, between which a Sieman's armature revolves by means of a handle, generates a current that rings the bell. By this device, all the difficulties attending the use of batteries are avoided, and replaced by a constant and unchangeable power that is controlled by simply turning a handle. The apparatus, including a pair of bells, is portable, and may be inclosed in a box, 11x6x12 inches.

A "horse groomer," or circular brush, driven at a high speed by hand or steam power, has been introduced into the stables of some of the large English tramway companies. It operates precisely as the

General Washington in Boston.

IT may be interesting to our readers to know that Mr. Hale did not draw upon his imagination for the anecdote of George Washington, printed,-it is believed for the first time,-in the January installment of "Philip Nolan's Friends," and reprinted below. Mr. Hale writes that he had it from the daughter of "the little gal." Nolan asks Ransom if he ever saw Washington, and Ransom replies:

"Guess I did. Seen him great many times. I was standin' right by him when he come into the old tavern at the head of King street, jest where the pump is, by the Town House. Gage boarded there, and Howe and Clinton had they quarters there, and so the Gineral come there when our army marched in. They was a little gal stood there starin' at him and all the rest, and he took her up, and he kissed her, he did. 'N' he said to her: Sis,' says he, which do you like best, the Red-Coats or the Yankees?' 'N' the child says, says she, she liked the Red-Coats the best,-gal-like, you know,- because they looked so nice. 'N' he laughed right out, 'n' he says to her: 'Woll,' says he, they du hev the best clothes, but it takes the ragged boys to du the fightin'. Oh, I seen him lots o' times."


The Sun-Dial.

MR. STEDMAN's recent verses, entitled "Only the Sunny Hours" (SCRIBNER for January), have called forth from the pages of an album which contains many famous names, the following little poem on the same subject by Professor Morse. We knew that Professor Morse had tried his hand at painting,

M. Saint-Edme, of the French Academy, after exhaustive experiments with lightning conductors, suggests the use of iron rods in long lengths and heavily nickel-plated. The nickel plating is an excellent conductor, and resists the action of the weather.

Cork has been added to the list of available materials used in making illuminating gas. The waste from the cork-cutters distilled in close retorts gives a whiter and more brilliant light than coal, with the blue core of the flame much reduced. The results so far obtained are so satisfactory, that it is to be applied to street lighting.

Among means employed in removing stumps comes the suggestion to use sheet-iron chimneys. These are cone-shaped below, to cover the stumps, have a tall stove-pipe on top, and have short iron legs to allow of an air-space all round the bottom. Kindling material being piled round the stump, the chimney is placed over all, and fire applied. The chimney acts as a blower, and, in the powerful draft, the stump is quickly destroyed. A few of these chimneys of different sizes are reported as sufficient to clear a field of stumps at a nominal expense of time and labor.

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Sixty-Six Jumps.

A CENTENNIAL NOVEL. BY FRANK R. STOCKTON. (Illustrated with Half-length Figures by the Author.)


AN observable and general interest in the deeds of our fathers and their parents gives the author and artist reason to believe that a tale based on an event which created considerable excitement in the youth of our Republic will receive a welcome from American readers, not only on account of the lesson it teaches, but because of its associations.

MARCH, 1775.

IT was in the spring of 1775, and already the fire that was soon to burst into flame was smoldering in the hearts of two-thirds of the inhabitants of Lower Milford. In no portion of Connecticut were there purer patriots or braver men. Reuben Salton had been born in Lower Milford. He had grown up among its stony meadows and its simple ways.


He loved his country, his town, and his comely sweetheart, Anne. He was young yet, but he was tall and strong. I should also say he loved his mother. Thus it was in March, 1775


ON the ninth of the month, Reuben Salton had made the assertion, before a large portion of his neighbors at a town meeting, that he could jump from the lower step of Marvin's tavern to the town-pump in sixty. six jumps. When the bold statement became generally known, the townspeople shook their heads. Only one man and two women in all Lower Milford believed that he could do it. The man was Daniel Hetcomb, Reuben's old friend and school-fellow. The women were Anne, and Reuben's mother. That night the matter was talked over in every home in the town, and at an informal meeting of the select-men at the house of Ephraim Thomas, where the Governor was on a visit, it was determined, that as Reuben had made public boast of his ability, he should give public proof of it, and court day, which fell on the fourth Wednesday of the month, was appointed for the trial.



THEY were anxious days for Lower Milford, those days of waiting. As we have seen, fully one-third of the inhabitants of the town were lukewarm patriots, or open adherents of King George. To these, the failure of Reuben would be a goodly pleasure. To the rest of the townspeople it would be a sad discomfiture, especially as the ne shad spread to Upper Milford, and West Milford, and even to East Milford. The subject was thoroughly discussed in every quarter; the ground was measured, and many a jumper tried his agility. Hour by hour the feeling grew stronger that sixty-six jumps would not be enough. But Anne, and Daniel, and Reuben's mother never lost faith. And in the early morning, and late at night, Reuben practiced his jumps in his back-yard.


IT was the day for the jumps. The town was full of people. During the morning the court-room was crowded; but the good folks cared not for the two men who were tried, and were only i. apatient that the trials there should be hurried through, so that Reuben's trial-a much more important one to them-should commence. The prisoners were found guilty in a short time; no one wished to waste precious hours upon them. The ordinary legal business was hurried through, and every one hast

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ened away to an early dinner, so as to be in time for the jumps, which were to be made in the afternoon.

During that morning, Reuben did not leave his house. Over and over, until near to the dinner hour, he practiced hisjumps in the back-yard. About eleven o'clock his mother called him in to dress. She had ironed his finest shirt, and had beautifully pressed the cambric ruffles. Around his neck she tied a new handkerchief of silk, and his Sunday breeches, brushed by her hands, showed not a speck of dust. She fastened upon him the suspenders his devoted Anne had embroidered for him, and smoothed and tightened the white hose that covered his vigorous legs. Then she said, with a little tremble in her voice:

Reuben, I think you are ready."



REUBEN ate no dinner.

He merely drank a mug of ale, and took a few bites of bread and cheese; and then his friend Daniel came and said:

"Reuben, they are waiting for you."

Anne had come to walk with Mother Salton, and in a few minutes the four left the house together. Reuben and Daniel walked in front, Reaben without a coat, with his new suspenders sparkling in the sun. The two women followed close behind. When they reached Marvin's tavern, they found the road from the tavern to the town-pump lined with people. Old men, leaning on their canes; stout young fellows in holiday attire; maidens in their best gear; and mothers with their little ones about them-all stood silent and waiting. Upon the porch of the tavern were the Governor, the select-men, the clergyman of the parish, the doctor, and all the magistrates and lawyers of the neighborhood. ben appeared on the tavern steps, a hum ran through the crowd.

When Reu



THE Governor came forward and took Reuben by the hand. "Young man," he said, "I wish you well."

The select-men and the other dignitaries murmured words of encour agement. Reuben bowed gravely, without a word. Then he took his stand upon the ground, his heels against the lower step. By his side stood Daniel, holding a hammer and some pegs. Reuben looked straight before him, and then he turned his head toward Anne and his mother, who stood a little on one side. Both the women were pale, but they smiled as he looked at them.

Then said the Governor : "Jump!"


AT the word, Reuben drew a long breath, bent his knees, and sprang. It was a goodly jump! And then another and another, and another, until he had counted ten. Daniel, with his hammer and his pegs, ran by his side, and the Governor and the select-men, and the upper ends of the long lines of townsfolk, closed in behind him. But Anne and his mother were nearest to him. At the tenth jump Reuben stopped, and Daniel drove down a peg at the toe of his left shoe. Reuben stepped back, wiped his face with his handkerchief, and looked behind him. He said nothing, but in a minute or two he put his left toe against the peg, which Daniel then pulled up.


THEN jumped Reuben again, once, twice, three times, four, five, six times, and stopped to rest. The Governor came to him, and said:


"No hurry, Reuben. Take your time."

And Daniel brought nim a drink of water in a tin cup. Then he jumped six times more, and after a rest, during which his mother and Anne came to him with pleasant words of encouragement, he made eight more jumps.

Now," said Daniel, "jump three times more and I'll drive down a peg, and you can take a good rest. Then you will have jumped just half way."

So Reuben gave three mighty jumps, and then sat down on a big stone by the side of the street and took a rest.


THERE was great excitement among the townsfolk now. He had jumped half his jumps-had he jumped half the distance? The Governor and the magistrates mingled in the thickest of the crowd, as much excited and anxious as any one. Even Anne and Reuben's mother watched two men who had a long cord, with which they measured the distance Reuben had already jumped. Then these men went on and measured the distance he had yet to jump. Almost every one followed them as they measured the ground, but Daniel never left the spot where he had driven the peg which marked half of Reuben's work. There were men in town that day who would have set that peg back, had the opportunity been given them.


THE men had measured the ground. Reuben had not jumped half the distance! Full five feet were lacking. Anne said, with tremulous voice, "Do not tell him;" but Reuben's mother said, "I will tell him. He must know; he must jump better." So she went and told him. Loud was the talk and many the opinions among the townspeople. Some said that he could easily make it up. He need add but two inches to each of his remaining jumps and he would make up the defi ciency. But others said he could not make longer jumps. Then Reuben came and took his stand at the peg.


REUBEN now made ten tremendous jumps and then he rested. Then he made ten more and took a longer rest. He rested so long that the people became impatient and shouted for him to go on. Very few now believed that he could cover the distance in sixty-six jumps, and those who doubted him were not backward in saying so. When he rose from

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TWENTY feet in a single jump! And yet Reuben, without a word, prepared to jump.

Stop!" said Daniel again, "you can't do it!"

"I know I can't," whispered Reuben-he did not seem to have the strength to spea' out loud-"but I will finish. I will do better than any man in town can do, though I have failed."

"No," said Daniel, "wait. You can do better if you wait."

The good Daniel could not believe in his friend's failure. If he would only wait and think, something might be done. He did not know what. Wild thoughts came into his mind of a vaulting-pole, a springing-board -something. But they soon vanished. Such things would not be allowed, of course. But still he said, "Wait!"

The turmoil among the people was terrible. They pressed around Reuben; they shouted, and they laughed, and were angry.


Go on!" cried some. "He has failed," said the Tories. yet!" said his friends.

Anne and Reuben's mother stood behind him pale and motionless, and they said not a word. Then the Governor pressed his way through the crowd, and he said to Reuben:

Young man, you cannot jump that."

"I know it," said Reuben, "but I will do my best." "And that you cannot do," replied the Governor, "for you are trembling and tired."

Then the Governor walked to the pump-platform and mounted upon it. "Hear!" he cried, and all the people were silent. "The day has rapidly passed," said the Governor, "and it is supper time. Even now


I hear old Mother Kemper ringing the bell for the squire. We cannot allow our sports to interfere with our domestic plans. Therefore the final jump of Reuben Salton is postponed until to-morrow inorning."



SLOWLY and discontentedly the crowd dispersed, while Reuben, leaning on his inother's arm, slowly walked homeward.

The people were noisy and disputing. The Tories of Upper Milford were in especial glee. The patriots were depressed. All now were gone but the faithful Daniel. He waited by the peg that he had driven where Reuben last stood, and he drove it down tightly into the ground. The Tories must not set it back in the night. "Although," he thought, with a sigh, "how gladly would I set it forward." But he was faithful, and he drove it down tight.



DANIEL did not rest well. He dreamed many a dream of Tory raids upon the peg, and of Reuben, with grasshopper legs, making the one wild bound that was needed. In the dim and early gray of the morning, he arose and went down to see if the peg had been moved.

As he neared the town-pump, he saw, in the uncertain light, the figures of two persons moving about the place.

Ha!" he cried, "they're at it!" and he ran at the top of his speed toward them.

The peg was all right. He felt for the heads of the tiny and secret pegs he had driven on each side of the large one, to mark its position. They were there. Nothing had been disturbed. And then he looked at the two men. They were at work, and, as he looked at them, his eyes dilated, his hair rose on end, his legs trembled beneath him. He advanced a step.

"What-what?" he stammered.


Aye, good neighbor," said the elder man, "aye, and ye're surprised, may be, to see us here so early. But we must e'en finish our work

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"Reuben," yelled Daniel. "Come out! Put on your breeches, quick, and come! Come and in ake your jump. They've moved the pump!'


"A worthy young man!" quoth the elder pump-man.


Aye, an an honest one, I hope," said the other "and we'll go straightway to the tavern, before he repents him of his promise."

"Aye,' said the other. "It was a short pump, and easier raised than I had thought. We'll just leave it now. It's well, perchance, that we did not get here yesterday, for I heard last night they'd had a jumping


race, or some wild sport here, and a main great crowd-an' little work we could have done. Come on."

And they went, and on the ground they left the pump, lying with its lower end over the well, from which, for needful repairs, they had raised it with a windlass; and its upper end resting in the road not five feet from Daniel's peg!

CHAPTER XVI. THE LAST JUMP. REUBEN was down-stairs in a trice, closely followed by his mother roused by the hubbub.


"Run Reuben! run to the peg !" shouted Daniel.

Then ran Daniel to the town hall and rang the bell, matily. Up popped windows, and out of open doors hurried the townsfolk. Away then went Daniel to the house of Ephraim Thomas, and, meeting the Governor, half-dressed, and without his wig, at the door, he stammered out the news. Then to the pump he ran, closely followed by the Governor, the select-men, and a crowd of people, pell-mell. There stood Reuben at the peg, his mother near him, Anne panting and pale by his side. The Governor lost no time. Hatless and wigless, he waved the crowd back. Then rising on his tiptoes, in his excitement, he shouted: "Jump."

Reuben jumped, and lighted fairly on the pump.

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