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shin hib, is the word which includes the whole multitude of false gods of every class, of all different ranks, and natures. Hence in this commandment, elohim must be translated by shin fills, and when it reads shalt have no other shin before me,” it covers the whole ground; it forbids the worship of all the false gods which are known to the Chinese.

Having thus arrived at the conclusion, that shin is the proper word to translate elohim in the first commandment, it is right to inquire,what light does this throw upon the proper word to represent Elohim in the other clause of the sentence ; for it is Jehovah Elohim who gives the commandment. Elohim clearly refers there to the true “God," the only proper object of worship. The commandment with its connection will read, “I am Jehovah thy Elohim. Thou shalt have no other shin before me.” “Other” is an objective pronoun, which shews a correlation between the objects or beings referred to; and that correlation can only be clearly expressed, when the beings or objects in the different parts of the sentence are referred to by the same word. This law of language then requires, that as elohim in the last clause of the sentence has been translated by shin, referring to false "gods;" so Elohim shwuld be translated by Shin in the first clause of the sentence, where it refers to the true "God;" + and the whole will read “I am Jehovah thy Shin. Thou shalt have no other shin before me.

There is no passage in the whole Word of God that it is more important to translate correctly than this first commandment. In it Jehovah most authoritatively forbids the worship of all other gods besides himself, Having arrived at the conclusion, that by reason of the nature of the command, and the structure of the sentence in its different clauses, the Elohim in both clauses should be translated by Shin, I feel assured that in all other passages of the Old Testamant, Elohim, when it refers to the

also be translated by Shin; and this leads to the conclusion-which is the counterpart of that reached in the first part of this article--that Shin nibh may be properly used to translate Elohim and Deos in the Sacred Scriptures when they refer to the true “God;" and it follows as a sequence, that as shin tuli is the only word in the Chinese language which can be used to translate elohim and geoç in the Sacred Scriptures when they refer to false "gods,” which can also be used to translate them when they refer to the true “God” Jehovah, it is clear, beyond all doubt, that shin tub is the word which should be used to render elohim and Aeoç in the translation of the Sacred Scriptures into the Chinese language.

As the example of Moses, when delivering his message from God to

true “

God," may

peregrinis.It is also clear that shin thus includes all "gods," from the other fact, that all Chinese writers when they write about the customs and manners of

foreign nations, use shin in speaking of their objects of worship. + The principle is so plain and so universally recognized, that the same word should

be used to translate Elohim into all other langnages, in both clauses of this com. mandment, that all the versions into Chinese have adhered to it, so far as I know; except one edition of the mandarin version, which was printed at Peking, in which

different word is used to translate Elohim in the different clauses. Of the translations into other languages, I know of no exception.


the king of Egypt, gave us an example of the terms which were used under the Old Testament, so the narrative of the apostle Paul at Athens gives us an example of the manner of preaching to a heathen people under the New Testament.

Paul having arrived at Athens, and while waiting for his companions, was brought to Areopagus with the desire of the people to hear some new thing from him. In the presence of the most cultivated audience the world could furnish, and in the sight of the most elegant temples, which were adorned with all the finest images that Grecian art could supply, he preached unto them Jesus and the resurrection. But by way of introduction to this, he availed himself of the fact that they were preëminently devoted to the worship of the Aeol, so that they had erected altars to any god that might be unknown to them. The apostle takes advantage of this great devotion to the worship of the Deol, and proceeds to make known one that was as yet unknown to them. He takes the very word that was in common use to designate their false gods, to make known to them a new Deoç ; and to distinguish him clearly from all the Deol which they knew, he uses the characteristic work of Jehovah and says: “The Deoç that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands.” He does not connect this new God, that he makes known to them with the name of any one of the false gods which they worshipped, however great and high might be their conception of divinity as connected with individual gods; but he uses the name common to all the objects of worship as a class, to tell them of the one Divine Being who made the heavens and the earth. It was not because θεος had the meaning of God κατ' εξοχήν, that it suited the apostle to use it for this purpose. It was because it was the word by which they designated their false gods collectively and also individually, that he used it to make known to them the only true object of worship, the one Divine Being "that made the world,” and in whom “we live, and move, and have our being." The attributes and works, which the apostle predicated of this new Dens, made it impossible for them to confound him with any of their old /ɛol ; and made it impossible for them to suppose it was one of their former 0eol he called upon them to worship. The great point and aptness of the apostle in this sermon to the Athenians, turns on his appropriating the word which was in common use to designate the objects of false worship, to bring to their understanding some just conception of the Divine Being now newly made known to them. The whole effect of the address would have been hindered, if he had taken the name of one of the false gods and called the true God by that name. So now, it is a fundamental truth, ever to be borne in mind, that the Divine Being whom we seek to make known to these people, is as yet unknown to them, and in writing or speaking of Him, we should give to Him His own particular name Jehovah, and ascribe to Him His own specific work; thus obviating all possibility of their misunderstanding our teachings,

From this discussion it is evident, that the word which is needed for the translation of elohim and Deos into Chinese, is not one that will enable as to teach this people that the attributes, works and worship of the Divine Being belong to Chin-shin or Shang-ti or T"ien-chü; but one is needed which will enable us to teach them, that there is only one Divine Being, and that His name is Jehovah, and that He it was who made the heavens and the earth ;--and that all divine attributes, works and worship belong to Jehovah alone. Hitherto this discussion has been so conducted, and missionaries have so used these various terms, that we have appeared to ascribe the attributes, works and worship, which belong to Jehovah alone, to Chin-shin, or to Shang-ti, or to Toien-chü; and thus we have done dishonor to the name of Jehovah; and we have given that glory to another which belongs to Jehovah exclusively; and from the prominence which has been given to these several terms, we have become known among this people, some as the worshippers or advocates of Chin-shin, and some of Shang-ti, and some of T'ien-chu; but none are called by the name of Jehovah. But the worshippers of the true God, as distinct from the worshippers of false gods, have ever been characterized as those “that were called by the name of Jehovah.O Jehovah, hear; O Jehovah, forgive; O Jehorah, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name," was the cry of Daniel in Babylon,--Dan. ix. 19. Again-"That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith Jehovah that doeth this." Amos ix. 12. Whether this passage means, as Poole in his annotations suggests, that the clause “which are called by my name” is connected with they in the first part of the verse, referring to the chosen people; or whether it refers to those who are converted from among the heathen, and thus had the name of Jehovah called upon them, as the Septuagint translates it, and as it is quoted in The Acts xv. 17* by the apostle James, in reference to the conversion of the Gentiles, is immaterial; either interpretation makes it clear, that the teaching of prophecy is that the people of God should be called by the name of Jehovah.


* The passage in Acts reads as follows:-“Simeon hath declared how God at the first

did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.” Acts xv. 14-17. Here the “Jehovah" of Amos is replaced by "the Lord” in the last clause. If it is read “Jehovah," the passage is still more forcible. That the residue of men might seek after Jehovah, and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called, saith Jehovah, who doeth all these things.” As all the different translations of the Old Testament into Chinese agree in transferring the proper name Jehovah, instead of following the English version, and substituting the

Lord,” it might well be considered if it would not be better, in the New Testament quotations from the Old Testament in which the name Jehovah is found, to reproduce the name in the New Testament instead of using the substitute

the Lord;" and so also continue the Old Testament phraseology in saying "the angel of Jehovah" instead of "the angel Lord” wherever such expressions ocour in the New Testament.

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This idea, that Jehovah is to be made known by His peculiar name, is if possible, more clearly declared by the prophet Ezekiel. The chosen people during their captivity, had profaned His holy name in some way, among the heathen. Jehovah declares: “I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned among the heathen, which ye have profaned in the midst of them; and the heathen shall know that I am Jehovah, saith Jehovah God, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes...... Then the heathen that are left round about you shall know that I Jehovah build the ruined places, and plant that that was desolate: I Jehovah have spoken it, and I will do it....and they shall know that I am Jehovah." Ez. xxxvi. 23, 36, 38.

There is not the least reference to the point, that he should be known to be the true Elohim, or the Lord of heaven, or the Highest Ruler, but that the heathen should know he was Jehovah.

Because of this controversy about terms, some degree of alienation and want of confidence has existed among those who ought to be to each other as “brethren beloved ;” and who ought to labor in harmonious coöperation in the work of making known the glorious Gospel of the blessed God. We can now all consider our previous mistakes. We can all now hear the word of Jehovah to his people and repent of our errors. We can all now agree to meet on this common grounil, and call our God by His self-designated name “Jehovah,” and be all known henceforth as the worshippers of Jehovah, and of Jehovah our Righteousness. "In his

“ days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS." Jer. xxiii. 6. “In the name of our God we will set up

our banners :.. ... Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: but we will remember the name of Jehovah our God,” Ps. xx. 5, 7. Let us all agree, that we will no more seek distinctively to make known Chin-shin, nor t'ien-chu, nor Shang-ti; but everywhere and at all times, make known Jehovah; who is the God of gods, the Lord of lords, the Supreme ruler among all nations. For “Blessed be Jehovah God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things. And blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole carth be filled with his glory; Amen and Amen." Ps. lxxii: 18, 19.

For the greater glory of God Jehovah, and out of love to our gracions Saviour, who has redeemed us with his own precious blood, let us bury all our special preferences at the foot of the cross; and with one heart and mind, let us combine our efforts in making known Jehovah to this people, and His son Jesus Christ, the only name given among whereby they can be saved. If we can agree in this one thing, to use daily and constantly the name Jehovah, as the name of the God whom we worship and whom we preach, so that we will be called or styled the worshippers of Jehovah, it is comparatively of little importance which word is used to translate Elohim. In my judgment Shin mbi is the best; but Ti i will lo, because it is a common name. If we all use constantly the name Jehovah, it will be comparatively a small evil, if some still use Shin jubi and others use Ti *. For whether our God Jehovah is for the

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time, and by reason of the existence of polytheism, classed as a shin mimba or a ti , there will be no confusion of thought; as he is truly both a shin and a ti; and he will be known by his appropriate name Jehovah, of which it is said, “Thy name, O Jehovah, endureth for ever; and thy memorial, O Jehovah, throughout all generations.” Ps. cxxxv. 13. Then will we see the speedy fulfilment of the assurance, “That all the people of the earth may know that Jehovah is God, and that there is none else." 1 Kings viii. 60; and again, “That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth.” Ps. lxxxiii. 18. May our God give his servants" to see eye to eye" in this matter to the glory of his grace.



"I go: but thou shalt tarry till I come.He comes! He comes! Loud rose the echoing cry And as He passèd painfully and slow As, midst the crush, the slow procession wrought Along the “Dolorous Way” some, in the press Its painful way: and each expectant eye

Confirmed their gibing with a dastard blow With eager glance or straining vision sought

At him who, even then, could turn and bless! To scan the face of him led forth to die.

—" Father forgive them, for they know me not." No marrel that the crowd all turned to see

Avd presently he stopped, though rudely pressed The mien of him, who, in the Judgment Hall

With spear and mailed hand, to ur e him on. Of Pontius Pilate, had declared that he

His agony must have a moment's restWas God's own Son, the mightiest of them all!

All morial then, though God's iminortal Sou! Now doomed to die a death of agony.

And from his brow the sweat fell drop by drop.

And as he strove to rise, his drooping head The Eastern sun in burning splendour glanced

Received a buffet from a sinewy hand; O'er whitened roof and tower: through sombre shade

And he who gave it in derision said, O'erspread the devious route, as through it passed

"Go to, thou 'King!' Wherefore so weak dost stand? T'he mighty Victim : while beyond, it played

Canst not thyself, while saving others, save?". In wanton warmth upon the n ountain side.

.- The Saviour turned and looked upon his face, And lo! from street and alley issued forth

And gazed upon it with commanding eye A mingled inass of human kind to fight

As if the speaker's inmost thoughts to trace,
And push and wrangle in contentions wrath,

Who thus would taunt his dying agony,
Lest they should miss the memorable sight,
Nor see the Man of Sorrows e'er he died.

And then replied in accents, low and grave :

“I go, indeed, to do my Father's will, And soon the heavy tramp of armoured men,

“But thou shalt tarry in this vale of tears
And shouts of rabble youth with jest and gibe, “Until I come again : surviving still
Rose sheer above the clainorous noise : and then "The fall of empires, for revolving years
The song and daughters of the “Royal Tribe"

"No rest shalt know.

For ever this thy doom !" Silenced their bickering tongues to turn and look! -Yet not one pitying eye in all that guze,

And so for centuriesmas legends goNo single heart beat sadly at the sight;

The contumacious mocker has lived on, No witness there to feel a dread amaze

Midst wrack of Empires. All the awful woe To see the Saviour suffer snch despite!

Of that dread curse, his head outpoured upon, -He whom, to save themselves, the Twelve forsook. Never to cease, till all rise from the tomb!

N. B. D

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The Term for God in Chinese.


During the year now closing, several articles have appeared in your columns advocating the use of E Shang-te for "God,” and assailing the position of those who use muu Shin; while no reply has appeared, if we except the squib fired by Mr. Lyon. With your

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