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they were then under the Ming,-what they are now under the Manjows,-in a state of semi-independence; or rather resembling the attitude of Afghanistan to India,-left to settle their own quarrels among themselves, provided they left the Chinese in quiet,—were perfectly satisfied with their yearly "presents," and did not help themselves on Chinese soil. The Mongol and Nüjun chiefs intermarried, and so probably did the neighbouring peoples under them.

Thus when the Nüjun south of Kirin and Ninguta combined to take and destroy Noorhachu in Laochung, they sent for the aid of the chief of Kursin, who willingly marched at the head of his troops, was the first in the fray, and the first to flee when the whole allied army was routed below Gooluashan. Afterwards when Woola was attacked, Kursin marched to the rescue, but was met and his horse fled back to their own country.

As soon as the chief got home, he sent messengers to the Manjows to make a treaty of peace.

In the middle of the 15th century, Twotwoboowha chief of Chahar was murdered, the murderer assuming the chieftainship. The son of the murdered man was soon after reinstated in his patrimony, taking the title of Siaowangdsu (the small king),-a title handed down to his posterity. In the beginning of the 16th century the Siaowangdsu made himself master of the Kokonor Mongols, and marched about at the head of a hundred thousand bowmen. After displaying their prowess all round, these gradually broke up, moving eastwards and settling down, except when making inroads on Chinese territory; for China was the Roman empire of these Goths.

When the Manjows began to make themselves felt in eastern Manchuria, the Ming empowered Lindan han, the then Siaowangdsu to raise an army against them. Doubtless Lindan han had already proved himself a man of war. His first effort was unsuccessful, for he was driven home. He however raised an army larger than the first, with which instead of attacking the Manjows, he devastated his Mongol neighbourhood, spreading the terror of his name in all directions. Many of his neighbours fled towards Kursin, and—whether from righteous indignation at the atrocities of Lindan han, or from the fear of themselves feeling the scourge of his arm, or from both motives,-the Kursin chief and people bound themselves fast friends to the Manjows, in a friendship which has up to the present day not been broken. For it was their chief who planned the defences on the Beiho and led the army which opposed the march of the allied troops on Peking; and he did only what his predecessors have always done when any danger threatened the Manjow government. These chiefs and the imperial family have therefore again and again intermarried.

Lindan han still went on his course, though not without opposition; for he was once defeated at the head of forty thousand men by a combination of Mongol families. The Mongols however found they had no chance against him, and therefore implored the protection of the Manjows, who in 1632 marched with their newly-acquired Mongol tributaries against Lindan han. As it was summer, the Liao was unfordable; and the Manjows therefore marched northwards by Hingan ling,* a distance of thirteen hundred li. Lindan han desired to make a stand at his capital, but his men broke up, stripped, crossed the (Yellow) river and fled whither and with as much of their live property as they could, most of them finding their way into Gweiwha chung. The forsaken chief had to follow perforce, fleeing alone and never resting till he got to the marches of Kokonor where he died of fatigue, his former ruthless power doubtless making an asylum anywhere impossible.

The Manjow army then marched on Gweiwha chung which they captured with many myriad men.

Soon after the accession of the Ming Tienchi (1621), two Ming wangs looking after Chinese interests in Mongolia, who were very friendly disposed to the Mongols, and what is just as likely, very much afraid of them, agreed to pay a million taels per annum to the Mongol Shwunyi wang, descendant of Nanda, to whom that title had been first given; for this Mongol it was who had charge of preventing inroads into Chinese territory. This was handed over at the yearly horse fair, when Shwunyi wang presented his tribute of fifty thousand horses, or three hundred and twenty thousand taels as an equivalent.

Chahar defeated Shwunyi wang, took his place as border guardian and recipient of the million taels, which was given him with the view no doubt to retain him in Chinese service.

When Taidsoong caused Lindan han to flee, and occupied Gweiwha chung, he thought he had as good a right to the subsidy as his predecessor, and sent letters to that effect to the magistrates of all the border cities, Hüenfoo, Daitoong, Yangho, &c., stating how much better it would be for the Chinese to pay him this sum than have handed it to the weak Chahar, whose power was gone with the flight of its chief; for that thus he and they would become good friends. The governor at Daitoong agreed to make a covenant with the Manjows, on the ratification of which, a white horse and a black ox were sacrificed, and arrangements made for an excharge market at Jangjia kow. But when news of this covenant made by his unauthorized

* Two hundred and twenty li north-east of Meirgun in Hei-loong jiang province, which was however not then subject to the Manjows, but probably in the neighbourhood of some of their new allies.

official came to the emperor's ears, he was extremely wroth and had the various parties punished. Thereafter no magistrate dared hold any intercourse with the Manjows,

In the beginning of 1633, Taidsoong urged the farmers to diligence in cultivation of grain and planting of trees, while the soldiers were exhorted to frequent bow exercise, because it was the bow which had won them dominion, and the officers were forbidden to oppress the poor by compelling them to do unrequited government labour. The first flush of youth had gone, and the Manjows were inclined to follow the example of their easy neighbours the Chinese, and like every people if not stirred up, were content to let the future take care of itself; when as soon as their military power was rusted, they would assuredly be driven back into their original mountains or all massacred. The son was worthy of his father however, and gave his men employment. He sent one brother east of Newchwang half way to Corea, to build the city of Siwyen, another to build Lanpan,* a third to build Toongyooen poo, and a fourth to build Jienchang, which is now in ruins, and like every ruin called a "Corean city."

We have already seen that Mao Wunloong who held the many small islands along the south and south-east coast of Manchuria, whence he issued as he willed to scourge the rear of the Manjows, was murdered by accomplices of the brave defender of Ningyooen. His troops broke up, many of them crossing over to the Chinese forces in Shantung, while some remained to live as they might on the islands. Among those who crossed to Shantung were Koong Yoodua,† and Gung Joongming, both inferior officers in Mao's army. They were both made Tsanjiang by the governor of Dungjow (Tungchow), at the time Daishow was so hard pressed in Dalinghua city. Yoodua was at once ordered off to the relief of that city with eight hundred horse. When he got to Woochiao hien he was met by a brother officer who tempted him to desert. They set off accompanied by fifty men who doubtless plundered all round. Their band rapidly increased to thousands. They returned, besieged and took Linyi, Ling, Shangho, Chingchung and other hien cities, when they made bold to march on Tungchow, which was opened to them by Joongming with fourteen other associates. The governor fled and the city was taken.

Yoodua assumed the title of Only Commander and Li Jiwchung who had tempted him, that of Second Commander, while Joongming was made a dsoongbing, or "general." From Tungchow as head quar

* Lanpan, 240 li west of Fungwhang chung; Toongyooen, 100 li north-west of the same; Jienchang, 120 li south of Hingjing.

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ters, they marched against all the cities and villages of Shantung, which was therefore in a frightfully riotous state.

The brave Dsoo Dabi, whom we have met before, marched with many myriad men against Tungchow; but it is not astonishing to hear that the man who with a few men penetrated into the heart of Taidsoo's army, was slain early in battle.

The rebels found however that they could not stand out, and Yoodua suddenly departed by sea for Manchuria. He was attacked by the Chinese commandant of Lüshwun kow, which appears to have been a strong city in the extreme south of the Manchurian promontory; and being on the sea, not to have followed the example of the up-country cities, when they all opened their gates to the Manjows. Whether the attack was by sea or by land it is difficult to determine, but it was most probably a pursuit by sea; for several of Yoodua's officers were slain, while the commandant who had been a fellow-officer of Yoodua's, lost none.

Coreans came up to support the Chinese, but fortunately for Yoodua, who must have been on shore by this time, the Manjows who had been sent city building turned up, and his assailants retired.

Yoodua was instructed to repair to Doongjing* with his wife and goods. He was allowed a hundred horses for his retainers. He and Joongming were gazetted in Moukden with the titles they had assumed in Tungchow.

In August following, an army marched against Lüshwun kow, under the guidance of Yoodua, and took it with its contents of five thousand three hundred prisoners, hundreds of horses and oxen, two thousand two hundred gold taels, twenty-one thousand two hundred silver taels, over three hundred pieces of satin, over two thousand seven hundred pieces of pongee, and twenty-four thousand pieces of cotton, with eight chests of ginsheng and much other stuffs. The ginsheng proves that the Coreans still kept up communications with the Chinese by sea, while the money would seem to imply that this was believed to be a safe place. A band of two thousand Manjows took the Shanhai gwan road, at the same time returning with four thousand two hundred captives.

Next Chinese new-year's day, Taidsoong seated himself in his Reception Hall,† ordering Yoodua and Joongming to present themselves with the beiluas of the highest rank. Wrestling matches

had been.

* North-east of Liaoyang, now known only by heaps of earth, where the walls + A beautiful octagon outside the palace buildings proper, but beside the east wall thereof. It stands at the north of a large quadrangle paved with stone and brick, at each side of which are five fine detached houses, probably for the use of the princes and guests.

took place, when Ursalan raised all competitors off the ground and was therefore called "Marvellous Strength."

Shang Kuasi* the Ming Foojiang of Gwangloo island, south of Manchuria, deserted with the men of the islands Changshan and Shuchung off Pidsuwo, in all several thousands. The island of Pi was soon taken and Wunloong's head quarters all attached to Manchuria.

These three, Koong, Gung and Shang who had been small officials under Wunloong all became wangs in the south of China before many years passed over them, having done good service for the same. Koong and Gung had a black flag given them bordered with white, and Shang a black with a white circle in the centre.

Moukden was called the "Heaven-aiding capital," and Huatooala the "Heaven-aided prosperous capital (Hingjing)," and the first examination was held for Jüzun (Chüjên) degree in Manjow, Mongol and Chinese. Sixteen passed who were each presented by Taidsoong with an embroidered suit, four men of the family of each, subject to military service were exempted, and they themselves feasted by the Board of Rites.

In July, Taidsoong advanced from Hüenfoo to reconnoitre Swojow district, and next month the army marched in force on Shansi, against Daijow, Swojow and other cities, but apparently only Jwowei was taken before the army was recalled. Raids were however made on Hei-loong jiang to the north and Warka to the east, which were more successful; for these raids on the more thinly populated Nüjun districts, seemed to have served their purpose when a number of captives were brought back, many-possibly most-of whom, were soon converted into soldiers. Bachilan reported when four months from home, that he had taken about ten thousand men, and a hundred and sixteen women, beside live stock, in Hei-loong jiang. Doobahai reported the capture of five hundred and sixty men, five hundred and sixty-six women and ninety children, in Warka.

A force sent in June 1635 to reconnoitre Ningyooen and Jinjow, fell in with a Chinese army, which they routed, killing and taking some of their higher officers together with five hundred men, after which it returned.

In 1634 the men of Chahar revolted against Lin Danwoo and deserted in "countless numbers" to the Manjows, after seeing the dead body of their former chief. In March of 1635 these men were sent back to their own country along with a picked Manjow army. Three months after, the main army had got to Silajoongua on the way to Chahar, at which place Lin's widow, with a Taiji surrendered with a thousand five hundred families.

* 尙可喜

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