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and yet the method is essentially the same as ments of our universities are gaining so strong women not excepted-instinctively regards all that now in general use in the “ district tele- a hold and so high a rank, any movement made unbelievers, not to mention the ditficulty, or graph," whereby either a doctor, messenger, in them in favor of some decided reform in almost impossibility, of that previous acor policeman, may be summoned.
the constitution and purposes of their societies quaintance which might awaken a mutual re
would add one more to their many claims for a gard between the parties. We have frequently taken occasion, in our favorable recognition and increased patronage. Besides this, it is to be remarked that in reviews of scientific progress in England, to
most European countries the world at large notice the violence with which the journal Na- In a recently-published supplement to Pe- are rather disposed to connive and smile at any ture bas expressed its opinions regarding any termann's Mittheilungen there is presented, in “ firtation” which is observed, even though, lack of zeal manifested by the government in connection with other valuable statistical in- the lady be a married woman; while in Turkey the cause of science. The present, however, formation, the following estimate regarding the a cawas, a hammal, any man, of even the lowbeing a dull season at home, the pen of this total population of the globe : The grand total est grade, who should observe a Mohammedan editor is forced to seek other objects for de- is now given at 1,396,842,000 souls, and the woman speaking in the street to a Frank, or nunciation and rebuke, as is illustrated by the general distribution as follows: Europe, 302,- even exchanging the slightest sign of intellifollowing from that journal of June 3d: “We 973,000; Asia, 798,907,000; Africa, 206,007,- gence with bim, would literally fall upon her are very much surprised, and on all accounts it 000; America, 84,392,000 ; and Australia and
with hand, and foot, and cudgel, and be warmis greatly to be regretted, that the Legislature Polynesia, 4,563,000.
ly applauded for such brutality by any casual of Massachusetts has rejected the bill for a
spectators, especially among the women. No new survey of the State to which we have al
one here understands the remotest approach ready referred. Massachusetts is known all
to raillery on the subject of conjugal infidelity.' the world over as being one of the most intel
The purely material jealousy of the Turks, ligent and best-educated States in the Union.
VOTEWORTHY THINGS GLEANED HERE and the precautions which it involves, protect Evidently, however, the State schools are too
them, almost invariably, from any cause of dostrong in arithmetic; a Mr. Plunkett brought
mestic scandal; although jocose allusions to some extraordinary calculations before the
the subject are made familiarly enough in the House, showing that the survey would cost VROM the lamented Théophile Gautier's
theatre of our friend Karag beuz, and in the nearly a million and a half of dollars, and oc- highly - entertaining book on “Con- course of the comic disputes incidental to bis cupy nearly a hundred years! Besides an ad
stantinople" (reviewed in our “Literary” performances. vanced and accomplished calculator, the Masdepartment last week) we select the larger | freely, take their walks and drives to the Val
It is true that the Turkish women go out sachusetts Legislature is also happy in the possession of a funny man,' a Mr. Rice, who part of the chapter on “Women :"
ley of Sweet Waters, to Hyder Pasha, or to seems occasionally to relieve the severity of
The first question invariably addressed the Place of Sultan Bajazet; seat themselves Mr. Plunkett's extreme calculations by bright
to every traveler on his return from the East beside the tombs of the Little Fields of Pera flashes of buffoonery. Mr. Rice described the
is, “ Well, and the women?” To which each or Scutari ; pass entire days at the bath, or in proposed survey as · sendirg young men with responds by a smile, more or less mysterious
visits to their friends ; talk beneath the pormuck-rakes to scratch the sterile soil of the
according to his degree of fatuity, implying, ticoes of the mosques; lounge in the shops of State and make pictures.!!
however, a fair amount of romantic adventures, the Bezetin ; and sail, in caïques or steamers,
Whatever it may cost my self - love, I upon the waters of the Bosporus ; but they The sudden death of Joseph Winlock, late humbly avow that I have, in this particular,
have always some companion, be it a negress, director of the observatory of llarvard Col
no story to tell;" but am compelled, to my or an old woman in the capacity of duenna, or, lege, is an event which will be sincerely
great regret, to send forth my narrative de- if they are rich, a eunuch, often more jealous mourned by the world of science, where he
void of all incident of love or romance. A than his master. If they are not thus accomhad attained so high and worthy a fame, and
few such would certainly have served admira- panied-which exception is rare-a child, led by the many associates whom he honored by
bly to vary my descriptions of cemeteries, by the hand, insures them respect; or even, his friendship. It is seldom that the philoso
mosques, tekkis, palaces, and kiosks. Nothing in detault of this protection, the tone of pubpher creates for himself a fame of such a na
is more charming in an Eastern tale than to lic manners watches over them, and“ protects" ture as to attract the attention and command
read bow an old woman, in a deserted street, them, perhaps a little more rigorously than the reverence of the poet; hence the following
made you a sign to follow her cautiously, and they altogether desire. The excessive liberty sonnet by Lowell, composed in memory of the dead astronomer, will be received as a special door, into an apartment heaped with all the at a distance, and introduced you, by a secret of action which they enjoy is only apparent.
Foreigners have sometimes fancierd themmark of honor : luxuries of the Orient, where, reclining upon
selves beloved by a Turkish woman, when " Thy soul and stalwart, man of patient will a superb divan, a sultana, gleaming with jew- they have, in fact, confounded the Armenians Through years one hair's-breadth ou our Dark to
els—which, however, paled beside her superb with the Turks, whose costume they wear, exgain,
loveliness—impatiently awaited your coming, cept the yellow boots, and whose manners and Who, from the stars he studied not in vain,
and received you with smiles of tenderness allurements they imitate so closely as to deHad learued their secret to be strong and still, Careless of fames that earth's tin trumpets fill;
and welcome. In due course the adventure ceive any but a resident of the country. For Born under Leo, broad of build and brain,
should terminate by the sudden arrival of the this it suffices to have an old woman, who arHe watched while others slept, in that hushed master, who scarcely leaves you time to fly by ranges her plans with a pretty young Armenian fane
the back-door ; unless, indeed, a more tragical coquette, a rather credulous and romantic of Science, only witness of his skill:
climax is attained, by a contest from which young man, and a rendezvous in a lonely Sudden as falls a shooting-star he fell.
you barely escape with life, and the plunge house. Vanity does the rest; and the adven-. But inextinguishable his luminous trace
into the Bosporus, at dead of night, of a sack ture generally terminates in the extortion of a In mind and heart of all that knew him well.
which bears some vague resemblance to the sum of money--an insignificant circumstance, Happy man's doom ! To him the fates were human form.
omitted from the subsequent narrative of the known Of orbs dim-hovering on the skirts of space,
This orthodox narrative of Eastern ad- deluded Giaour, who imagines in his heroine Unprescient, through God's mercy, of his own!" venture, slightly varied in details, always at least the favorite slave of a pasha, if not
passes current, and interests all readers; and, one of the harem of the Grand-Seignor himself. The students at Caius College, Cambridge more especially, all “fair readers;' and, doubt- But, in real truth, the actual Turkish lite is (England), have recently founded a society on less, it is not entirely without precedent that not less "hermetically sealed" than we have a basis that might be imitated among our own a young Giaour, handsome, rich, knowing always supposed; and it is very difficult to institutions. The organization is designed for thoroughly the language of the country, and even conjecture what passes behind those the diffusion of scientific knowledge among residing in his own house in the Turkish fash- closely - trellised windows, the only view the members of the college, for the reading of ion, should, with great peril to himself and through which is that from within, each being essays on scientific subjects, and for the hold- absolute danger to the life of the lady, have furnished with a sort of bull's-eye, to enable ing of scientific discussions. Whatever may an intrigue with a Turkish woman; but, it those on the inner side to command a perfect be the view taken by undergraduates, we do such a thing occurs, it is very rarely, indeed, view of all that passes without, while they not question that the alumni of American and this for many and obvious reasons. First, themselves remain rigorously invisible. colleges are often led to regret that the zeal the bolts and the gratings which intervene be- Nor is it of any use to think of obtaining demanded of them in the support of their so- tween the females and the rest of the world information from the natives of the country. called secret organization had not been put to are tangible and unmistakable ob les ; then As the author says at the comme cement of better service in advancing their intellectual toe difference of religion, and the unconquer
• Namouna culture. And now that the scientific depart- / able suspicion with which every Turk—the
"Utter silence reigns throughont this narrative.''
To speak to a Turk of the women of his Bosporus, assured by iny assumed air of drow- ticle to “
Language.” Her comments upon eheld is to comunit the grossest possible siness and abstraction.
the difficulties of titles are amusing: wsch oi etiquette and politeness. It is for- The Turks, however, see no more of them tolen to make the slightest allusion, even than the Giaours do. They never pass be- At the language of official life, at the riLetly, to this delicate subject; and, of yond the selamlick, even in the houses of their diculous titles official people claim, we bave 3x, all such phrases as “ How is your wife most intimate friends; and they are acquaint- already glanced. The exactions in this direc:-1!" (commouplace as they are to us) are ed with no women but those of their own ha- tion are almost sufficient to frighten a simplebarished from conversation. The most
When the inmates of one harem visit minded person out of society. Have you givsellely bearded and turbaned Turk would those of another the well-known custom of en the right man the right title? Is he a Gei like a school-girl if he heard an inquiry placing the slippers of the visitors upon the heimerath, or a wirklicher Geheimerath? Was si sitrageously improper.
threshold of the harem which they are visit- that prince who affably condescended to adThe embassadress of France, wishing to ing at once announces the presence of stran- dress you a Royal, or a Transparent, or a Semáte a present to Redschid Pasha of some su- gers, and interdicts the entrance of the odalick, reue Highness? You have just addressed a Lyons silks for the ladies of bis harem, even to its own master, who thus finds him lady (who has no right to the title) as Ercellenz, ** them to him with this brief note: "Pray | self, at any moment, shut out from a part of and made her your implacable enemy for life. kept some silks, which you will know better his own house. An immense female popula- | You have occasion to write to a Roman Cath
ta gay one how to use.” To have expressed tion, anonymous and unknown, circulates olic clergyman, and you forever offend him by į aplainly the object of the gift would have through this mysterious city, which is thus addressing him as Ew. Hochehrwürden, which
. bsd taste, even in the eyes of Redschid transformed into a sort of vast masquerade, is a Protestant title, instead of Ew. HochwürA despite his familiarity with French with the peculiarity that the dominoes are den, the correct Catholic style. How are you 2. Bers; and the exquisite tact of the mar- never permitted to unmask. The father and to know that privy councilors and presidents ***ess caused her to adopt a forin of expres- the brother are the only males who are al- exact the predicate Hochwohlgeboren, which be133 59 gracefully vague as could not wound lowed to behold the faces of the daughters longs of right to the nobility (second class), en the sensitive susceptibility of an Oriental. aud sisters, who rigidly veil themselves for and how can you guess that a count must be
It is, therefore, easy to understand that it any relative of remoter degree; and thus a addressed as High-born” (Hochgeboren), or 7) te singularly unbecoming to ask from Turk may, in his whole life, have seen but even, under some circumstauces, as Erloucht, 1 Tok any details as to the habits or customs half a dozen faces of Moslem women!
a baron as “High-well-born” (Hochwohlgebothe barem, or the character and manners of The possession of large and numerous ren), and that the common herd exact Wohltarmen. Even though he may have known harems is restricted to viziers, pashas, beys, geboren, as well as their own patronymic, on a familiarly at Paris, have taken two hun- and other persons of either great wealth or the letters you address to them? It once ocbrand ears of coffee and smoked an equal num- high rank, for their maintenance is enormous- curred to the writer of these pages to have oc
of pipes on the divan with you, he will, / ly expensive, especially as each female who casion to send to a little Jew shopkeeper for a tertheless, if you question him on this sub- becomes a mother is entitled to her separate reel of silk or a skein of wool. The nearest
on tammer and hesitate, and evade your in- apartments and her own suite of slaves. The townlot was ten iniles distant, and, being unde in every possible manner. Civiliza- Turks of middle rank have rarely more than willing to trust her commission to the rustic e, in this particular, has not advanced a one wife (although legally entitled to espouse messenger, she wrote a note, dictated by a
de step. The only method to employ, in four), together with perhaps three or four kind relative, to the shopkeeper in question. inter really to obtain any authentic informa- | purchased female slaves; and for them the Left to herself, she addressed it to Herr Meyer, e, is to request some European lady, who is rest of the sex remains in the condition of a linen-draper, adding the name of the town, " latroduced aod has access to the harems, myth or chimera. It is true that they can and deposited the letter on the hall- table. recount to you faithfully that which she has compensate themselves by looking at the wom- “ What! will you then insult the people?” y For a man, he may as well abandon at en of other races--the Greeks, Jewesses, and cried a critical and choleric cousin, snatching
the idea of knowing any thing more of Armenians, together with the few European up the poor little missive; "you blame your*: Torkish beauties than he is able to gather | ladies who extend their travels so far; but of self” (Du blamirst Dich), my best one, by
the glimpses which he may spatch by the females of their own people they know ab- such ignorance of the forms!” and, stripping artice from beneath the awning of an araba, solutely nothing beyond the walls of their own off the offensive cover, he reinclosed it, writmagh the window of a talika, or beneath harems.
ing in a fine, flourishing hand, “To the Wellse aiade of the cypresses of the cemetery, at The sentiment of love and the delicacies born Mr. Jacob Meyer, Merchant” (Kaufmann). i moment wheu heat or solitude has caused of courtship are, necessarily, almost unknown I felt quite ashamed to inclose the twopences somentary and partial withdrawing of the to the Moslemah. A Turk wlio wishes to halfpenny that was to cover my debt in the
marry has recourse to some woman of mature face of such a grandiloquent address as this; Still if one approaches too boldly, even age, wbo exercises the profession of a matri- the very poetry of commerce could do no der such circumstances-and especially if monial negotiator. This woman frequents the more than build up such a structure on the et chance to be any Turk within hearing-baths, and gives bim a ininute description of foundation of the little Hebrew luckster's ob
iraws upon himself a shower of such com- the personal charms of a certain number of scure shop. stents as the following: “Dog of a Chris- | Asmés, Rouchens, Nourmahals, Leilas, and Altogether the address upon a Ger an let! miscreant! Giaour! May the birds of other beauties of marriageable age, taking ter is a serious affair, and cannot be attempt
air soil your beard! May the plague dwell proper care, of course, to adorn with the great- ed in any light spirit of enterprise. You have Isaur house! May your wife be childless!” est profusion of metaphors the portrait of the to consider your declensions, and to call to * last being a Biblical and Mohammedan young girl whom she herself favors, or whom mind all the social and official prerogatives of addiction of the utmost severity. It may,
it is her interest to select. The effendi be- the person you are addressing. No such slipkterer, be suspected that this fury is more comes a lover on the strength of her descrip- shod, easy familiarity as General Smith or Saxted than real, and is, in great part, a piece tion; sprinkles with bouquets of hyacinths Colonel Jones can be tolerated. You must of wings for the gallery;" for a woman, even the path by which his veiled idol must pass ; begin in one corner of the envelope, and, if ragh a Turk, is seldom displeased at being and, after the interchange of a few glances you wish to be decent, end in the other, as : atrized; and among the Moslem women the (his share of which is limited to such glimpses Seiner Hochgeboren Ekte of their beauty, no doubt, weighs some- of a pair of eyes as he can snatch through the
dem Grafen what upon their minds (as any other secret close-drawn veil), demands the maiden of her
Adalbert von Kanonen-Donner, * a'd do upon any female mind), and they father, offering her a dowry proportioned to |
General-Major, Inspekteur ont sorry to have an occasional confidant his passion and his fortune; and at length sees
der K, K. Artillerie, etc., etc., that sex which is best able to appreciate the removed, for the first time, in the nuptial
Hieselbst, chamber itself, the yachmack which has hither- or wherever else he may be ; and, if your By the Sweet Waters of Asia — by lean- to concealed the fair one's features from his friend hold a civil appointment, a far more immovably against a tree or the fountain, longing gaze.
elaborate address will probably adorn the sua the attitude of one who is lost in profound These marriages by procuration do not perscription. tretie–I have been able to catch a glimpse appear to give room for much more of mistake In society a married lady is always ad4 b¢pe than one lovely face but imperfectly or deception than those which take place dressed with the prefix of gnädige, or gnädigste escaled by a thin veil of gauze half withamong us.
Frau (gracious, or most gracious lady). It she **979, and more than one snowy throat gleam
have a title, it is not customary to use the 22 between the folds of a half-open feredge,
family names in speaking to her; Frau Grün *kle the eunuch was walking at a little disThe entertaining writer in Fraser upon
fin or Frau Baronin being deemed sufficient. 2.ce, or gazing upon the steamboats on the “ German Home-Life" devotes her last ar- Many persons use meine Gnädigste (“my
ade of the disclosure.
most gracious"), without further designation. Among female friends the formula is somewhat Jess ceremonious, liebe Gräfin, or Generalin, or Geheimeräthin, being sufficient. Young ladies are not addressed 6 Miss ” Soand-so, but by gentlemen invariably as mein gnädiges Fräulein. In Vienna the title Comtesse, in contradistinction to Gräfin, is only employed toward unmarried ladies. It is not customary to say
“ Colonel Rag” or “Major Famish;" Herr Oberst and Herr Major are the correct forms; Herr Hauptmann and Herr Lieutenant. In speaking of these gentlemen you may, of course, mention the family names of both the Rags and the Famishes. I may give an illustration of my meaning in the following experiences: I was equally well acquainted with a Baron Wolff and a Baron Behr, both members of well-known Courland families, but I never could remember which was which. It was of no great consequence, as safety was afforded in the convenient Herr Baron ; but on more than one occasion it so happened that I had to speak of these gentlemen when others of the same rank were present. I was obliged to particularize, and I made a shot at the Wolff. The next time I took desperate aim, and it was at the Behr. I fancied Fate had favored me, until a cloud on the countenance of the latter gentleman informed me I had blundered. Meeting him a few days later in a shady avenue, he accosted me with a stiffness that was barely tempered by its cold civility. “I have perceived, my most gracious," he said, " that you are in the dark as to my insignificant personality (meine unbedeutende Persönlichkeit). You have on several occasions spoken of me in my presence as Baron Wolff: now, allow me to tell you that the Wolves are not to be compared with the Bears!” Crushed as I was by his morgue and magnificence, I could not but sinile (as I muttered out my confused apologies) at the serious tone of his reproof.
Fatiguing alike, however, to aliep ears and sense is the vicious abuse of the adverbial and adjectival form in the language of every-day life. An adjective and a note of admiration will serve, for instance, to express the feelings of a family all round.
The emotions of a group surveying the beauties of Saxon Switzerland or the Rhine will be rendered as follows:
MAMMA. “ Reizend!"
And so on da capo, ad infinitum. At first, especially if the group be one of pretty girls, each shrieking out her little note of spasmodic admiration in a higher key than the last, you will think this pretty animation very naïve and charming, but by degrees it will pall upon you; you will wish that they could be persuaded to utter a few consecutive sentences ; or you will regret that they should have begun with the climax. It is a common mistake to suppose that German travelers are morose ; they are the most talkative of companions ; they talk pro bono, and, like Tennyson's brook, though men may come, and men may go, they seem able to go on forever!
have been often exaggerated, these Apennine him instead, eagerly demanding his opinio country-people are, on the other hand, no taci- perhaps on some free and foolislı raillery, turn race. They are cunning to mould to their laughing with him at the discomfiture of son use the lithe tongue of their land, to adorn it too forward suitor, while the men are prom with expletives, and to point it with gesticula- and outspoken with their lightsome jokes ar tion; and it is even this habit of noisy vocif- taunts. He laughs, too, and retaliates, beir eration which has perhaps won them abroad no way prudish in his talk. Of what use wou their character-80 little truly deserved-for it be, were the good man inclined ever so mu curbless passions and vindictively cruel pro
to seek for the flaws and the specks upon t13 pensities. They are a kindly people enough gray and homespun garments of his parishio in their mutual relations, and formed, indeed, ers? Though his person be held in ever : by their very nature for warm, social life. great respect throughout the parish, thoug They have need of a certain amount of free, his voice be listened to in meekness and neighborly intercourse, such as a quiet and awe within the holy precincts, and his cou colder temperament can scarcely understand ; sels highly valued, and his upbraidings r and hence it is that the life of an Italian com- garded at the confessional, without his offi munity is to be learned in its open thorough- the priest's power is a mere name, and well } fares rather than its individual homes--as in knows it. It is fortunate perhaps for him tha the comparatively secretive life of northern in most country parishes at least, he ha lauds. We must seek on cottage door-steps, | learned to adapt himself to his standing. I in market-places, and piazzas, where men and own upbringing has probably not been sut women mix freely together, the true color of as to render him peculiarly sensitive to ti this Apennine people.
mere outward grossuess of speech, which Mark them now as they stand about the generally the worst feature about this fran parish church. Mass is just over-for it is one and merry people. Who that is Italian, t of the smaller festas-and the peasants are birth and by nature, could have grown to 1 split into divers knots, where the interests thus susceptible? A country parish priest, i peculiar to various ages and callings are ar- all events, is not, and, as a rule, he gets o dently being discussed. Some of the people well, descending, when out of his religion live on the far confines of the parish, and it duties, to the work and the interests of tł is not often these meet with neighbors out of peasants about him, happy enough, doub other hamlets-hence is there much to ask and less, in his own way, and careless of any grea to said. The old priest comes forth now show of respect. Now he joins another part: from the sacristy, and threads his way among and this time the group is ore of old or ser the crowd. He has put off the most conspicu- soned men, whose interests are wrapped up i ous part of his canonical apparel, and wears the crops and the coming fair. Hear him, ! only a long black coat, with knee-breeches, with avidity he discusses the country's pros black stockings, and buckles to his shoes; in pects, or reconnoitres cautiously that he ma his hand the three-cornered, ecclesiastical hat, know the better how to buy and to sell wit which is in strict etiquette on a feast-day. To advantage on Monday next. Here is no moor one side of the quadrangle a group of youths struck priest, but a man of the world--poo and maidens are gathered, and hither first the parsimonious, and prudent; poor, but not a pastor turns his attention. They make way ways stingy, not always grasping because by for him, and do not shrink or turn aside shame- too-though pinched and care-worn far mor stricken at his coming, as boys and girls would than the greater number of his people wh surely do in England when caught at their have their own lands and crops—he, too, ha play by the minister. The maidens turn to the proverbial buon cuore of the Italians.
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From a very charming paper in Fraser on “ Peasant - Life in North Italy," we quote a well-drawn picture of the parish priest:
Italians love a goodly portion of gossip and loitering; and if foreign sayings about Italian impetuosity, and easily moved Italian feelings,
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cottages as were described in the preeeding paper to each separate tree. As soon as the dry season arrives the time of opera
tion is at hand. The inmate of the palace | milky-white sap, which instantly commences
Thus the collector travels from trunk to the whitish-yellow tinge which defines the tuguese seringat (syringe). One of the eartrunk, each laborer having a certain number close of the process.
liest forms in which India-rubber came to of trees assigned him by the proprietor of Thus be puts layer upon layer, until at America was as manufactured over-shoes, the camp. The process in many respects is last the caoutchouc on both sides of the then known as Pará shoes. Of course, at like that seen in the sugar-camps of the ma- shorel has reached several inches in thick. that time the attention of civilized countries ple-woods of the North. Let the reader re- ness, when he thinks the plancha has reached had not yet been called to the enormous imlease his recollections of the maple - sugar a sufficient amount. It is cut from off both portance of caoutchouc and its almost endfrolics of his boyhood from the association sides of the shovel and suspended on a tree. less capacity for transformation into different with frosty mornings, bare landscapes, and When it feels the effects of the sun, the wa- shapes. Consequently there was no attempt mcadows as yet partly brown with the touch ter evaporates through the as yet unsolidi- at manufacture except in the native home of of winter, and transfer his thought to the fied pores. About five or six pounds of good, the gum, where the crude process, hundreds splendid river-valleys of Brazil, glowing with solid product is thus prepared in an hour. of years old, was known and practised. The intense heat, painted with a rich depth of The plancha, from its initial color of silver- rubber shoes, which then formed an article greenery, and made picturesque with the gray, turns shortly into a deep yellow, and of export, were made, like the bottles, over manifold sights and sounds of tropical life. thence into the well-known dark brown of rude clay moulds. A Boston merchant, in
The caoutchouc-gatherer travels his ap- the rubber as it is exported. There is a wide 1826, conceived the ingenious idea of send. pointed round, and pours the contents of the variation in the quality of the seringa. Tlie ing out improved lasts, of assorted sizes, bamboo-canes into a large calabash provided best is perfectly uniform in texture, dense, made of clay, to the Indian collectors in the with straps of liana, that useful parasitic and quite free from bubbles. This grade ob- seringa districts. He thus built up a great vine which fulfills a thousand useful func. tains a double price over the most inferior | trade in this special article, and is said to tions for the South American. This vessel quality, the so-called sernamby, or cabeca de have acquired large wealth. But at last his is emp:ied at home into one of the large tur. negro (negro's head), which latter is made of rivals discovered this neat commercial ar. tle-shells, so necessary to tropical house- the drops collected at the foot of trees with tifice and followed the example, which de. keeping, serving as they do for basins, the remains of the milk scraped out from the stroyed the monopoly. troughs, vats, etc.
bottom of the calabashes. Tbe rubber of the When the balls and planchas of rubber Now a new operation must commence East Indies is very similar in color and text- are received at Pará, each one is cut through without delay, for caoutchouc is a peculiar ure to this sernamby, and has about the same by way of testing the quality. By this means substance, and must be warily handled. The market value - like it, being often found any bubbles are discovered, or such adulteraseringueiro instantly sets about the smoking mixed with sand and small pieces of bark. tion as is often effected with the milk of the process, lest the quality of the product should The plancha is often rolled and condensed mangaba, that fine sluub with rich, dark, become inferior by the separation of the res. by a sort of kneading into a solid ball, which glossy leaves so often made to do service in inous elements of the sap.
is one of the most common forms of com- civilized conservatories and saloons under An earthen jar without bottom and with mercial rubber. Another shape, by no means the name of the India-rubber tree. The spua narrow neck to serve as a chimney is set common in the Pará market, is that of the rious caoutchouc made of the milk of the over a fire of dry urucury or uauassú palm- bottle. The caoutchouc-sap in this case is mangaba has little of the toughness and nuts.* These furnish the only fuel which prepared over an earthen mould with an open elasticity of the genuine article, but for cercan be used, for the smoke has a peculiar neck, which is afterward broken and removed
that of making hardened chemical quality shared by no other woods. piece by piece. These rubber bottles often- caoutchouc, for example-the milk of the inThe vapor has the strange effect of instantly times come ornamented in the most curious serior tree has a certain value. As the price coagulating the caoutchouc-sap, which in this fashion, frequently quite artistic. While the is much less than that of the seringa, the state resembles rich, yellow cream.
rubber is yet soft, the Indian artisan, with manufacture of the mangaba resin has its The workman sits beside the little earthen wooden tools, will engrave on its surface fig- inducements, and under proper treatment it chimney through which rise dense clouds of ures of birds, beasts, plants, even of rude might be made to have a standard commera smothering but aromatic white smoke. landscapes, with an eye to natural effect and cial value. The operation is mostly performed in the proportion highly creditable to his power
of Not unfrequently the seringueiro settleopen air, to give free egress to the dense va. imitation. Since the demand for caoutchouc ments attain considerable size where the rub. por, which would otherwise choke the work. bas become so great, these rubber bottles- ber-forests are unusually rich and extensive,
Travelers describe the sight as highly whose preparation, of course, demands much the Mojo workmen occupying hovels, while picturesque when seen at night, which is gen. time and labor-have become more scarce. the proprietor rules with a lordly sway, and erally the time of the smoking process. A quarter of a century since, before the Ama- lolls at ease through the long summer days
The sombre depths of the tropical forest zon and its tributaries were ploughed by in his hammock, with naught to do but count in the background, lighted up by the glow of steamboats and barges, the whole of the se- the rich gains which his humble laborers the flame, the tawny Indian bending over the ringa product was borne hundreds of miles roll up for him. For the most part, how. thick smoke, which rises up like a pillar, his on the backs of mules and porters. The lat. ever, these enterprises are carried on by emcopper skin glistening with the heat, and ter were used mostly to carry the rubber bot. | ployers who do not fare much better than brought out in clear relief by the light of the tles, each one hanging by itself from a pole the Mojos, the hope of future wealth counterfire, while he anxiously watches the process borne by the carrier lest two should come in balancing the inconveniences of the present. of coagulation—the picture is as if one were contact, and the figures be blotted or erased Many of the seringueiros are from Bolivia md viewing the mystical rites of some sorcerer on the yet soft and sticky rubber. For their Peru, while occasionally there may be found of old myth or fairy tale brewing a magic own use the Indian workmen mould the those of European race. The latter are potion, or completing a spell to call up durk caoutchouc into various shapes with not a mostly nomadic and restless sailors, deserters spirits from below.
little ingenuity. The squirt or syringe, which from ships at Pará, or natural-born wanderFrom his calabash, the seringueiro pours is indispensable to a familiar social custom ers who have dristed by some strange chance a little of the caoutchonic-milk on a sort of in Brazil-at least among the ball-civilized up into the seringa forests, where the temptalight wooden shovel, always careful by a deft riverines-gave, indeed, the ordinary native tion of making money without much labor milnagement to distribute the fluid evenly name to the product of the caoutchouc-tree. easily induces a permanent settlement. A over the surface to insure a uniform action It is common for the Indians after a feast to recent German explorer through the regions of the smoke. Thrusting the shovel into the blow water into each other's faces through of the Upper Madeira gives a curious illus. thick white vapor over the neck of the jar, long rubber-pipes, in obedience to some sav. tration of this in the case of a fellow-coun. he turns it to and fro with great rapidity, till age superstition connected with aboriginal tryman. The latter had come over from Holthe milk is seen to consolidate and assume religious rites, a babit yet in vogue even stein twenty years ago, enrolled himself as a
among those who have been converted to the soldier, and fought against Rosas in the La * Two species of the atta'en palm. the latter worship of the Virgin Mary by the good Plata states. Thenceforward he led a sort of with gigantic bifurcated leaves.
Jesuit fathers. Hence seringa, from the Por- Robinson Crusoe life in the valley of the Ma.