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fered. In the same way altar-cloths, read- one brought from afar is largely a question ing-desks, upholstery, carpets, and hang- of which is best for the given design and ings are given by well-meaning people with site. Often it is ás cheap to bring stone little thought as to the harmony of the gift from some great quarry at a distance, with the whole church. The interior is as where skill and experience produce the best much the creation of a good architect as building stones at a minimum price, as it the exterior.

is to open up a local quarry with unskilled The question of material from which to labor. The native stone, however, is more build often causes great friction in the com- apt to harmonize in a rural landscape, and mittee or between the committee and the has besides in its favor, the natural instinct builder. The argument of economy can to prefer native to foreign products. generally be used in favor of materials that The wood for interior purposes can be are native to the locality. For instance, in chosen on the same principle of the best a brick-making region much can be said for the purpose. Cheap freights and comin favor of brick as material for the walls. petition have practically eliminated the There is undoubtedly a popular prejudice question of distance from the supply. against brick for churches, because it is as- As for the exterior design, there is no sociated with cheap buildings for commer- peculiarly American church architecturecial purposes; but this is a fallacious de- as has been made evident by the illustraduction, and form and permanence are of tions of colonial and modern churches here the greatest moment, and brick is lasting presented. Certain localities have foland lends itself to beauty of form and color lowed, as has been pointed out, certain traif skilfully used.

ditions in church architecture because the On the other hand, a wood church, in original settlers came from various Old spite of the fact that it often lends itself to World places. In New England, for exgreat beauty of structure and appearance, ample, the meeting-house ”type prevailed is in the end only a makeshift. It does because the settlers brought with them not embody the ideal of ecclesiastical ar- builders' books that contained simple dechitecture as it suggests transitoriness and signs for cornices, windows, doorways, etc., decay.

that could be made by carpenters and afStone is generally accepted as the most fixed to the plain square building that even suitable material for church structures. the crudest carpenter knew how to conWhether a native stone shall be chosen or struct ; or the building was framed and en


is not therefore an architectural tradition that demands perpetuation.

The rule that an expert architect will follow is to preserve what is ecclesiastical and appropriate in local traditions, but throw over entirely those traditions that are reverenced simply because they are old. The Anglican church has developed an ecclesiastical architecture in the rural districts of England that for solidity, beauty, and fitness can be well imitated here. So with the Scotch Presbyterians, the French Catholics, and other denominations.

A sympathetic architect will inUNION CHAPEL, COCOANUT GROVE, FLA.

stinctively make churches, for va

rious denominations historically closed, by native talent, on lines laid down and artistically, expressions of their faith by home tradition, and the more orna- and their traditions—will suit his design to mental parts were imported. In Pennsyl- the conditions imposed and will add, what vania the red brick church of equal sim- makes it architecture—the impress of his plicity prevailed for similar reasons, but it own personality.

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The study of aërial photography has brought it into service as a valuable aid in been intermittent; a few investigators with military and other work. large patience and means pursued it awhile M. Nadar, of Paris, was one of the earand their example has infected others who liest experimenters in aërial photography. have sought to emulate them ; but all sorts As early as 1858 he took a bird's-eye view of obstacles have presented themselves to of the French capital and environs with a delay and discourage effort. Sending up a camera fixed to the side of his car. Twencamera and taking pictures seems a simple ty-five years later, greatly aided by the use enough thing to do until you try it, when of the improved dry-plate process, another surprisingly involved mechanical difficul- Frenchman, M. Desmaret, made a series of ties present themselves. Progress has been interesting views from a balloon. made, however, due largely to the advances One of the most ingenious attempts remade in the art of photography itself, and corded was made by M. Denesse, who into the development of a simple and easily vented a quaint rocket camera which was available lifting power.

to be sent aloft until the projectile exhaustAttempts to take photographs from ed its energy, when an automatic parachute great heights with the aid of balloons have was to spread itself to make the descent been made for a number of years, but the and trip the camera as it gracefully and difficulties and large expense involved in gently came to earth. this method have prevented those general About 1888 Herr Meydenbaur, in Gerexperiments that would have given aërial many, perfected a camera which was enphotography a wider popular interest and closed in a small captive balloon, the lens

Vol. XXII.—64

5,000 feet.

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only being exposed, and in 1889 and 1891 A novel experiment made in 1881 was lieutenants of the Austrian Army secured with a captive balloon camera that had a some fine views from both free and captive revolving drum holding four plates. Two balloons at altitudes varying from 2,500 to insulated wires led to the camera through

the cable that held the balloon, by means The first aërial photograph taken in Am- of which electric currents were sent, one erica, if not the first successful one made in to turn the drum, the other to operate the the world, was on a wet plate from a balloon camera. The results were successful, but over the city of Boston in 1862. J. W. the death of the inventor, Mr. W. B. Wood

bury, put an end to further trials. In July, 1893, William Jennings made a balloon ascent from Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and took several photographs, including one at a height of three miles; the best results, however, were obtained at one mile. About the same time photographs were taken through a hole in the bottom of a balloon car over New York City.

To - day the balloon is a part of the equipment of all the great armies of the world, and a number of interesting aërial photographs have been taken abroad

with their aid during From a Kite Photograph.

the past year. Taken by W. A. Eddy. The view includes the City Hall, New York, and a portion of lower Broadway with adjacent streets.

That the camera

will play an important Black, the operator, says that the leaking part in the warfare of the future is a foreof gas from the balloon destroyed all the gone conclusion, but up to the present time plates but one. John G. Doughty made a the one thing that has been needed to make balloon trip from Winsted to Windsor, it more useful and quickly available in aërial Conn., in 1885, during which he took pho- work has been a simple and reliable lifting tographs. These pictures included several power, and this has apparently been found cloud effects and landscapes. He found in the perfected form of the tailless kite. that the revolving of his balloon made This kite, or a train of them, to which a successful work exceedingly difficult. In camera can be fixed, will do the work of a one view taken by him through a hole in balloon and at no risk to human life. If an the bottom of the car at a height of a mile enemy cannot easily hit a balloon, how and a half, the shadows cast gave a picture much less chance will there be of injury re“ with some resemblance to the telescopic sulting to so small an object as a camera view of the moon," but another from an al- suspended a thousand feet or more in the titude of three-quarters of a mile showed air. Recent trials in Austria-Hungary and very plainly “the serpentine course of the in England have shown that rifle-bullets Connecticut south of Hartford.”

have little effect upon captive balloons,


Size of the negative, 3%83%.


even at low altitudes. Above six

servations with hundred feet ordinary shells are al

the aid of kites, most useless and even shrapnel are

and W. R. Birt, surprisingly ineffective. There has

of the Kew Obbeen no war of sufficient magni

servatory, made tude since kite - photography has

some interestbeen advanced to its present state

ing investigato thoroughly test its usefulness for

tions with their military purposes ; and may such a

aid in 1847 war never occur, but may the art

In 1882 Adcontinue to be one of peace !

miral Bach, of Kites have been used for more

the British Navy, than a century by scientists, who

used kites for ascerhave sought by their aid to solve

taining temperatures the problems of the atmos

over the waters of phere and the shifting

Hudson Strait, and clouds, and the re

the flight of a train newed and wider

of kites in England interest in their use

by Mr. E. D. Archinow is due to the

bald, each kite having stability, lifting

its individual line atpower, and

tached to the main greater alti

line, so that by a free tudes attaina

radius of cordage they might ble with the

indicate the direction of the new forms.

wind at the varying altitudes Everyone

in which they flew, resulted knows the sto

in some valuable meteorologry of Benjamin

ical information. The Franklin's famous

unique invention of the celkite-flying, by

lular kite by Lawrence Harmeans of which

grave, in 1882, excited a he brought elec

very general interest, and his tricity to earth and

experiments have stimulated the confined it in a

whole fraternity of contemporary bottle. His ac

scientific kite-flyers. Mr. W. A. count of his elec

Eddy, using an improved form of trical experiments,

the so-called Malay kite which is barely filling a col

evidently derived from a Javanese umn, appeared in

form, has made many interesting the Gentlemen's

experiments at Bayonne, N. J., Magazine for

and at the Blue Hill Observatory, October, 1752.

Readville, Mass. During the past year Lieutenant J. E. Maxfield, of the United States Signal Service, has used the multiplane kite invented

by the famous engineer, Octave Chanute, with a view to testing it for purposes of observation, and the War Department has had similar trials made at Governor's Island, New York. Lieutenant H. D. Wise

and Mr. Eddy have tried kites as a means A Tandem Flight of Five Parakites.

of lifting electrical devices for signalling to

distant points, and the former has only lateAbout 1837, the Franklin Kite Club, of ly raised himself forty feet in the air by Philadelphia, attempted meteorologicalob- their aid. In England Lieutenant Baden

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