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not an indication of its being more modern, The Greek and Roman jewelry of the British for it resembles too closely the hair of the Museum and the Louvre, and the bracelet of Venus of the Capitol and that of the Venus the Venus of Cnidus at Munich seem to Callipygos of the Naples Museum. But the show that the bracelet of our Venus is not an treatment of the base on which the statue impossibility in antiquity. rests is more suspicious. This may be de- A well-known sculptor and a painter, who scribed as rough-tooled, but the tooling is so have seen the statue, have been so charmed regularly done as to suggest an imitation of with its beauty as to care little whether it be methods no longer in vogue. Since seeing ancient or not. Nor are we ready to answer the statue I have observed in the British Mu- positively or negatively the question raised in seum, and in the Louvre, the bases of a num- regard to its antiquity. We can only say, at ber of statues of the period to which the Ve- the present time, that if ancient this statue nus de' Medici is usually assigned. These is the most important of the series to which are sometimes dressed to a smooth finish and it belongs, and that if modern, the cleversometimes tooled roughly, but less regularly ness of the forger is of an unusually high than in the case of the present statue.

order. When in the British Museum I consulted with Mr. Murray and Mr. Smith, curators of Since writing the above, I have visited the ancient sculpture, with regard to the motif of National Museum of Florence, and was imour statue. I had no photograph to show pressed by the fact that a number of busts then, but the motif struck them as modern. and reliefs were disfigured by similar brown But to me it seems not necessarily modern. stains. A well known expert, Signor Bardini, Other Venuses with the dolphin exist, in suggested that these were caused by the efwhich the goddess holds something in her fort of Renaissance sculptors to tone the whitehand. Clarac (Musée de Sculpture, Pl. 615) ness of the marble by applying heated wax publishes three such statues from the Gius- mixed with other ingredients. These brown tiniani Collection, in which Venus holds a stains do not appear on ancient marbles in Rower, a sea-shell, or a vase. What is more the rest of Italy, and, even in Florence, seem natural than that a sculptor, when executing to be limited to works of the Renaissance peone of a series of statues in which an armlet riod. It seems strange that the Romanesque is worn, should vary the theme by making the sculptors, who executed the choir screen and goddess carry the armlet, instead of a shell or pulpit at San Miniato, should have been able a vase ?

to tone marble to a beautiful ivory finish, and When I examined the armlet I must con- that the accomplished Renaissance sculptors fess that suggestions of Byzantine, rather should have made such blundering mistakes. than Greek design, were aroused by the rect- It is more probable that these stains date angles containing globules and nail-heads. from the sixteenth century, when classical It seemed as if the sculptor had drawn his methods were more systematically imitated. inspiration from the bronze doors of a Mediæ- They represent, then, an unsuccessful attempt val cathedral or from the ornamentation of a to reproduce the classic ganosis. The quesMediæval book-cover. But here again I am tion still remains: Are the brown stains in not so sure that the design in question may the present instance Renaissance stains, or not date as early as the Alexandrian epoch. those of an accomplished modern forger?

Vol. XXII. -56




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LL the good old signs of gold times and flowing into the Yukon 1,850 miles from the a big boom out West are with us again. mouth-and its tributaries. Some of these

The Pigwacket Post, of Pigwacket men had panned out fortunes of $200,000 in Centre, Mass., announces that “ Jonas Mead a short time and considered their claims worth has sold his cow and his furniture and is millions. Their appearance has begun what going to the Klondike to prospect for gold. is well cailed, in popular parlance, a fever. Good luck, Jonas.” The more accessible It is all the better named a fever, because

newspapers have there is no rationality in it at all-a rule to KLONDIKE gaudy displays of which there are exceptions, but in a very

. GOLD DIS- companies that small ratio. The people like Mr. Mulhall,

will dig out this who deal with great masses of figures, have COVERIES

Alaskan gold, and shown the extraordinary fact that the gold of a great many mined from the earth in modern times act

millions of stock ually has not paid for the work put in the $

shares for sale at mining; in other words, the race of miners the small price of are unconsciously a sort of martyrs, who give

one dollar each. up their lives and efforts to furnish the rest $ Away off under of the world with a useful and ornamental

the Arctic circle, commodity—another truth which admits of 8,000 miles from some very distinguished exceptions. Further, New York by the the mining adventurers who went to Caliusual route, where fornia in 249, counting in the bonanza kings,

the ground is the Lucky Baldwin class and all, earned an frozen all the year round and the sternest average of $300 a year, which, with boots at winter lasts for eight months, Dawson City $20 per pair, and four at fifty cents a pound, has sprung up as if by magic. Last autumn is scarcely worth calling an income. the junction of the Klondike and the Yu- And although California may have seemed kon was in the Arctic wilderness-a good a rough land and far away to the roving place to hunt for the bones of mammoths, Yankee of '49, it was vastly more comperhaps, but so extremely difficult of access fortable than this Upper Yukon country. that such a motive was ineffectual. Now There were things to be done other than there is a city there, with thousands of inhab- mining, and a sunny land of fruit and flowers itants—the experienced say there will soon be lay around the mountains for the use of the 20,000--newspaper offices, stores, faro banks, disheartened prospectors. The Klondike and all the other necessaries of a mining civil- district is 4.500 miles from San Francisco by ization. The little band of hardened advent- the water - route across the Pacific to the urers who returned from the wilderness mouth of the Yukon, and then up that mighticarrying gold dust and nuggets in deerskin est of rivers; and navigation is impossible for sacks, tomato-cans, milk-cans-anything that eight months, and unsafe for another month, wouldn't leak-brought back the tangible out of the year. The more direct route is evidences that there is a great deal of gold in 2,000 miles shorter-by the Pacific to Juneau the small gulches of the Klondike-a creek in southeastern Alaska-across the moun



tains by one of three difficult and even dan- vibrations on the Herz radiator principle, gerous passes, then by a chain of lakes and with a rapidity of 225,000,000 vibrations the Lewis River to the Yukon, and down the per second, these waves seem to be carYukon to Dawson City. The difficulties of ried through the ether, if unobstructed by the Chilkoot Pass route were graphically de- material obstacles, equally in all directions, scribed in SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE for No- and his delicate receiver has no difficulty in vember, 1896. The authorities are becoming receiving and recording them across the Brisalarmed at the blockade of men and luggage tol Channel. The feat is possible only in on the hither side of the mountain passes. places where an unobstructed expanse of Even the earlier or more fortunate adventur. ether interposes between the transmitting ers who get to the Klondike this fall, will have and receiving instruments. to be well equipped to stand the Arctic winter, The idea of wireless telegraphy is no new and they can do no mining until next summer. Men have been thinking of it almost The summer sun, indeed, melts only a few ever since the Morse inventions came to the inches of the soil, and great bonfires must be world. The astonishing Mr. Edison had his built to thaw out the ground, in the middle of try, and abandoned the attempt for more imJuly, before the paying gravel can be dug up mediately promising work. Aside from the for the pan. All the mining of this region is young Italian, Marconi, Nikola Tesla has the of the placer variety, in which the gravel is most ambitious projects in this direction and, mixed with water and whirled in a pan until indeed, Mr. Tesla contemplates the possibilthe few grains of gold settle on the bottom. ity of an even vaster feat, for he believes he No huge nuggets are found to be compared can transmit electrical power without wires. with the bonanza strikes of the Californian Should he accomplish such a thing, the and Australian gold fields, but a remarkably bounds of electrical utility will be extended large percentage of the claims shows paying more radically than by any other discovery results.

the world has seen. Mr. Tesla is not yet The experienced say that no one with less ready to publish the details of his experiments, than $750 in hand can hope to get through but he has explained to interviewers that it is without trouble. Hundreds of others have the static electricity of the earth which he will insisted on beginning the journey too late in exploit in furnishing the power necessary for the year. None have succeeded in persuad- his wireless transmission. He has already ing the life insurance companies to share sent signals via the earth current to and fro the risk.

through a distance of twenty miles, and an

nounces unhesitatingly that he shall in time be N these days the layman is apt to protect able to telegraph without wires to any part of himself in a cloak of blasé acquiescence the earth's surface.

from the ever-fresh demands upon his Tesla used a striking and simple simile in mental powers made by mechanical wonders. explaining how he intended to disturb and But the most fatigued and agnostic inteili- capture the earth's electricity. He said to his

gence will scarcely fail to respond to interviewer :: “Suppose the whole earth to be the proposal of the electrical “ wizards” like a hollow rubber ball filled with water, and to telegraph from one part of the earth's at one place I have a tube attached to this, surface to another without the use of with a plunger in the tube. If I press upon. wires. In Europe, a young electrician the plunger the water in the tube will be driven named Marconi has actually succeeded into the rubber ball, and as the water is pracin transmitting and receiving messages tically incompressible, every part of the sur

through a distance of nine face of the ball will be expanded. If I withTELEGRAPHNG

miles, with no connection draw the plunger, the water follows it and LD WITHOUT

between the sending and re- every part of the ball will contract. Now, if WRES

ceiving instruments save that I pierce the surface of the ball several times furnished by the circumam- and set tubes and plungers at each place, the

bient ether, Marconi has plungers in these will vibrate up and down in found that when a transmitting instru- answer to every movement which I may proment-which is so simple in its ele- duce in the plunger of the first tube. If I were ments that one is tempted to describe to produce an explosion in the centre of the it in detail-is made to utter electrical body of water in the ball, this would set up a



series of vibrations in the whole body. If I to make the demonstration without subtractcould then set the plunger in one of the tubes ing one unit from her fleets in foreign waters to vibrating in consonance with the vibrations at a juncture when continental editors were of the water, in a little while and with the use raising a hue and cry over the “ rotten British of a very little energy, I could burst the whole navy.” This review at Spithead was remarkthing asunder.”

able in showing undoubtedly the most powerIn the same way, Mr. Tesla proposes, with a ful feet that ever has been concentrated at comparatively small power uttered in vibra- one point. Of the one hundred and sixty-five tions of marvellous rapidity, to urge into ac- pennants that swung at Spithead no less than tion the terrestrial current. The inventor one hundred and thirty-three were fitted for thinks it possible that his machine when per- immediate active service-to fight an enemy fected may be set up, one in each great centre within a few hours. So strongly are the Engof civilization, to flash the news of the day's lish convinced of the importance of sea-going or hour's history immediately to all the other qualities, that practically the whole of this cities of the world; and stepping for a sen- fleet could reach Gibraltar in four days, and tence out of the realms of the workaday the Channel Squadron could be at Halifax in world, he offers a prophecy that any commu- nine days after sailing orders had been renication we may have with other stars will ceived. When it is remembered that Engcertainly be by such a method-a prophecyland's naval resources in foreign and colowhich has all the picturesque and imaginative nial waters, amounting to one hundred and charm to be desired, together with an unusual twenty-five effective fighting vessels, were quality of prudence and safety.

not touched in showing this unprecedented

strength, one understands the bubbling selfHE great naval review at Spithead, felicitation which has made the Times's acwhich was the last important feature of count of the event almost incoherently joyful.

the Diamond Jubilee Celebration, had Aside from its effect in impressing the a significance for the British nation astonish- Powers, such an occasion as the Spithead reing to Americans, who as a rule considered view has its instructive phase in the compari

only its orna- son furnished with earlier periods of naval THE

mental feat. construction. The progress which has been BRITISH ures. It awak- made during the reign of the Queen is of

ens one afresh course fairly revolutionary. In the first fleet NAVY

to the depend- reviewed by the Queen there was not even a ence of Great screw propeller, and every vessel was built of Britain on wood. In the first steam-vessels the Queen

wooden saw, the engineers got along with three pounds walls," and her of steam pressure, and for every horse-power frank recogni- about half a ton of machinery was required, tion of the de- while at present the crack vessels use one pendent condi- hundred and fifty-five pounds of steam, and tion. Few of one and three-quarter hundredweight suffices

the foreign for one horse-power. The fuel burnt per visitors realized when they looked on the horse-power has been reduced from seven thirty or forty miles of warships anchored in pounds to two pounds—indeed one might gala array off Spithead that the British had continue almost indefinitely to enumerate been straining every nerve in a conscious the remarkable changes which illustrate effort to strike the world dumb with astonish- the curiously rapid progress of naval archiment at her overwhelming naval strength, and tecture.

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