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some one who understood the laws of of masonry around it, closing it in to keep metals. The engineer was the man.

The out the weather. They were fastened toarchitect, seeing him spinning his suspen- gether, these two buildings, and supported sion bridge, recognized that his was the each other somewhat, but theoretically knowledge wanted, and called him down either would stand alone so long as there to consultations about the building of was no wind or other side pressure. houses. It was a new problem to the en- When done, this revolutionary method gineer, and he had to study its require- of construction stood the test that was conments; but it was a promising field, too, and sidered sufficient by the eager men who he stayed. He studied architecture, and were trying to solve the modern architectthe architectural engineer was the result. ural problem, and the financiers backed In some conspicuous instances his conver- them for more. The price of lots in the sion was so complete that his origin is almost neighborhood of the new buildings rose forgotten, and he ranks among the leaders with them, in part because of them. The of his adopted art. But while the engineer very solution of the old problem entailed a was mastering architecture, the architect fresh one. The permanent financial queswas working into the mysteries of engi- tion was revived in altered proportions. neering, and among the famous builders of The builders overcame the difficulties of any large American city to-day there are details, perfected their construction, and examples of the combination in three ways forged ahead a story or two by minor sav— the architect who has made himself an ings. But as the buildings grew in height engineer, the engineer turned architect, and even the separate walls, which had to bear the firm with one member an architect and only their own weight, increased at the base another an engineer.

again, and presented the same old obstacle, The union of the two arts extended the a wall so thick on the most valuable floors substitution of metal for masonry.

The that the rentable space was encroached architect, blocked by the widening base of upon to an extent that cut off below the his brick walls, was taught that a slender gains in income above. pillar of iron could carry as much as his Why not let the iron frame that had carfattest mound. - All that stone and brick ried the floors so easily take also the weight were needed for was' to protect the iron of the walls? It meant running the floor from fire and corrosion. In the super- beams out under the masonry, a little structure the masonry need be no thicker strengthening of the columns, and it prethan was required to give the frame-work sented a pretty problem in handling windrigidity. So they built, throwing more and pressure. But these were matters of mathmore of the real work on the iron, and leav- ematics and engineering, not of rentable ing off ever-increasing amounts of ma- space. On the contrary, there would be a sonry.

saving of room everywhere. It was tried Without following the transition through on a small scale in New York in 1881, the minuter changes, the movement may again on a whole building in Chicago in be divided into two periods, that of the 1883, and during the next few years was double and that of the single construction. gradually accepted everywhere as a profitAfter all the saving of space that seemed able method of high construction on a narpossible in the details of pillars and girders, row foundation. Steel was substituted for the building of high structures had risen iron; hot steel rivets closed the conneconly a story or two, and the demand for tions and secured perfect rigidity, and gusmore of the free air and light continued. set plates took the lateral pressure not disThe next step was a brilliant one ; the en- tributable to the floors and interior colgineer suggested that iron could be made umns. The steel cage assumed the whole to carry the foors. This would relieve the burden of the sky-scrapers. The walls bewalls of any weight but their own, and came a veneer, panels to protect the metals would reduce still further the space they and the tenants from fire and weather. A must occupy all the way down the build. Chicagoarchitect recently began at the top, ing. There would be two distinct struct- and put on his walls in succession downures — the iron frame, which would be in- ward to show that it could be done, and dependent and complete in itself, anda shell last year a builder in New York, whose

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THE NIGHT GANG AT WORK PUSHING A JOB THROUGH. This scene is in the sixth story of a building at Christopher and Ninth Streets.

supply of lower-story stone was delayed by plan the construction ; there are builders the cutters, closed in his upper floors while who can realize the conception, and finanhe waited.

ciers who can manage the scheme. In Some architects are still afraid of the short, brain can do its work when capital Chicago method, as the steel cage con- is ready and if the law permits. struction is called, and lean heavily when The brain that is engaged in this business they can on their masonry, but for the lofty directly is divided into more than a huntower on a small base the steel cage is in- dred trades, each one of which has been evitable. No one can tell how long it will developing its particular branch with the stand the test of time. There are 1,950 same strenuousness, boldness, and ingenutons of steel in a building 370 feet high, ity that have characterized the architectwhich weighs in all 15,000 tons, and the ural engineering. The architect himself metal will surely corrode ; but how long has been laboring with a thousand conbefore its sustaining strength will be viti- siderations not even hinted at in this artiated to the danger - point is a question cle. He has been studying out such other that no one can answer empirically, and general problems as ventilation, light, econthe present generation of builders is not omy of space, convenience, proportion, belikely to know how well or how badly it sides attending to special applications of has builded.

all his principles, and those of all the other They can be sure of this, however, that trades that entered the building with his, they have solved their problem; they have and add to the ever-varying problem. The reduced the cost of construction from engineers have been pondering such esabout $5 to 37 cents a cubic foot; they sentials as joinings and strains and foundacan build as high as the elevator can go, tions. In Chicago, where there is no hard and the elevator knows no limit. Legisla- pan within reach, they devised a floating tion may interfere. The architects and “raft” of steel and concrete to lie flat on builders themselves have invited legal re- the shifting sands below the lake level, and strictions to the height of buildings in sev- on that they can build with such perfectly eral of the Eastern States. Otherwise, there even distribution of weight that when the is nothing in sight to check the rise of the whole structure of twenty or more stories sky-lines of the great cities. The financier settles it sinks plumb. The elevatortalks of foundation costs and the increas- builder has achieved such precision that ing space required for elevators to serve the number of cars put into a building is more than thirty stories. All this means determined by the cubical contents of the that the problem is back with the finan- structure. The plumber has applied to cier again, and that to go on would make his art the principles of sanitary science. necessary the combination of capital for The machinist has fitted his enormous the purchase of a large enough ground plant to the dimensions of the cellar, and space to start with to give room for a solid has plotted with the elevator man to use bottom on which to build and plenty of for the improved heating-system the exinside room for the numerous elevators, haust steam from the power engines to local and express. A building thirty stor- warm the tenant after it has lifted him ies high has dug a hole for itself in New to his floor and lighted his room. The York; and, at the time of this writing, in heater man has arranged so that all the the same city, the plans for fifteen build- tenant has to do is to set a gauge opposite ings of fifteen stories or more were filed in the degree Fahrenheit at which he would the Building Department. One heard like to have the temperature of his room much grumbling about overdoing, and kept, and the machinery automatically there was the rub; the builders had out- keeps it there. stripped at last the rise of rents, which were So it is with the roofer and the tile man, handicapped by hard times.

the master mason and the carpentry man But whether they go higher or not is (no longer a mere carpenter), the manua question beyond the present theme. facturer of hardware and the locksmith; The point is that they can.

There are en

the patent spring on the door closes it gineers who can lay the foundations for quickly, but prevents a slam, and the locks fifty stories ; there are architects who can are exclusive for each door, with a master

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Just who the head expert should be—the real estate man, the architect, the builder, or the manager-has not been settled unanimously even in the trade, probably because the business is So new. Each of these can give good reasons why he

should control, and in practice, key for the janitor. In one case, an ar- first one, then another, appears as the masmory, a set of locks was made with a pri- ter mind who hires the special service of vate locker for each man, a master-key for the others. Again, all four and the enall, and for each company another master- gineer and the owner are combined suckey that would not open a locker in any cessfully in one person ; but in such a other company-room.

case the comprehensive talent builds to “ I didn't realize there were so many sell, not to rent, which is quite a different trades in the world as I found I had to business. deal with when I undertook to finance this The rule that is working out most satisbuilding,” said the president of a corpora- factorily to the investor, who knows only tion that had built a sky-scraper. But that he wants a building that will pay good what amazed me most was the thought interest on his capital, is to choose his exand the forethought and the cleverness perts, and form them into a committee, over that have gone into even the smallest which he himself presides to see to it that things connected with a building, and the the best executive mind directs the work, complicated perfection to which every- while the considerations of the other spething has been brought.”

cialists are regarded in proportion to their This financier, it happens, is one who importance from the owner's point of view; attempted to manage the construction as or, if the owner cannot attend to it, to well as the financing of his company's leave it all either to the real estate man building, and, like many another expert who is to manage the building as a busimanipulator of capital who has thought he ness after it is constructed, or to an archicould build an office building to pay, sim- tect who has built buildings that pay. ply because he could put up a country Corporations appoint a committee of their house or run a railroad, he has paid heav- directors, to which are added, one by oneas ily to learn that it distinct business, they are chosen, the architect, the builder, requiring special knowledge and training. and the manager. Individuals go first to

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A DEEP FOUNDATION IN ROCK. A simple but long and costly process, because of the proximity of high buildings, easily disturbed by the blasting. The scene is from Fifth Avenue, New York, and the depth, forty feet from the curb, is for cellar and subcellar space, not to reach solid bottoin. Downtown in New York and in Chicago the spread or floating foundation of concrete and steel beams is for safety, and is more expensive and difficult. Most elaborate is the pneumatic caisson foundation, invented to reach down through water-bearing material

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