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ite accusation against critics who remember We do not talk about verse and essay in quite that art and English literature are long; and this disproportionate fashion, it seems to me; in America at least it is far less often amiable but a Novel-of whatever infantile qualitypersonal log-rolling than a real exaggerated is more likely to be treated as an object of disreverence for anything in the form of fiction. tinguished consideration than as a “ dolly."
THE FIELD OF
MORE ABOUT TRAVELLING SCHOLAR- the final work. Any radical deviation from SHIPS OPEN TO AMERICANS.
the composition as indicated in the sketch,
any alteration from the dimensions of the HE condensed history of the establish- large work, or any assistance on the work, ment of the American Academy of will exclude it from the competition." The
Rome and of the various travelling winners, during their stay in Rome, must scholarships for the painters, in the August execute a bas-relief containing two life-size issue, may be supplemented by the following figures, a life-size figure in the round, and a notes concerning the sculptors and the archi- life-size group of two or more figures. They tects.
must also devote a year of their time to By the will of William H. Rinehart, the travel in France, Italy, and Greece. The sculptor, a fund was established for the en- young sculptor now in Rome under these couragement of Art which has increased to terms, is H. A. McNeal; A. Phinister Proc$100,000 under the skilful care of the late tor, in Paris at this writing, was also given W. T. Walters of Baltimore and of the Pea- the benefits of the endowment. The four arbody Institute, to which it was entrusted by tists constituting the Advisory Committee of his son.
This now provides for two scholar- the Trustees of the Peabody Institute were ships for sculptors, the beneficiaries to receive Messrs. J. Q. A. Ward, Edwin H. Blashfield, each $1,000 a year for four years, a passage Augustus St. Gaudens, and Daniel Chester to and from Rome, and a studio and lodg- French. ing in the Villa dell'Aurora, where they must It is from the spring of 1894 that the Amlive and work. “ The candidates are se- erican School of Architecture in Rome dates lected from among those only who, by a pre- its history. On June 12th of that year, at liminary examination, show themselves to be a meeting held at the Century Club in New of marked proficiency. In the final competi- York, “it was definitely decided to found an tive examinations, they are required to sub- institution which in course of time should mit a bas-relief or a subject in the round, as equal in endowment and advantages the forindicated by the judges, to be executed in eign academies in Rome, although at first twelve weeks from the day on which the somewhat different in its scope. It was also work is begun. A preliminary sketch one decided to invite the co-operation of certain foot square and made in two days must be gentlemen who should constitute a permanent presented to the judges, one copy to be re- managing committee.” This school is founded tained by the trustees of the fund, the other for the benefit of advanced students only, and by the competitor. The composition as “is designed to further the more disciplinary shown in the sketch must be adhered to in work of other institutions by opening to young men, already well trained by them in drawing arships, the Columbia and McKim Fellowand design, certain special lines of study, ships and that of the University of Pennsylwhich at present can be pursued only under vania, being each connected with a school of great disadvantages.” The work of the hold- architecture, omit the preliminary examinaers of the various travelling scholarships hav- tions, the two of Columbia College completely ing previously shown “no common purpose —the fellowships being open only to graduand little consistent prosecution along care- ates of the Department of Architecture of the fully chosen lines,” it was hoped by bringing College—and that of the Pennsylvania Unithem together under the discipline of the versity omits it for students who have comschool to direct their foreign travel and study pleted these courses, in the University of "to more definite and specific courses.” This Architecture. The latter competition being institution, in the absence of a permanent open also to candidates under thirty years fund, is at present supported by the contribu- of age, matriculates of a full college year's tions of a few American architects. It was for- standing in an architectural school in Pennmally opened under the charge of Mr. Austin sylvania, or draftsmen of at least one year's. W. Lord, a former holder of the Rotch travel- service (probably soon to be made two) in the ling scholarship, on November 1, 1894, in tem- office of a resident architect, the preliminary porary quarters in the Palazzo Torlonia, and examination is obligatory for these aspirants. the first term of the school lasted about four This scholarship gives the beneficiary $1,000 months. There were present for the whole for a year's travel and study in Rome under the or part of the time four students, three of direction of the School of Architecture of the whom were holders of travelling scholarships Institute, and the methods and conditions of or fellowships. In the following July it re- the examinations resemble closely those of the moved to its present home in the Villa dell' Rotch Scholarship, the awards being made Aurora; and the beginning of its scholastic by a jury composed of New York and Boston year, in the following October, may be consid- architects. The winner is expected to submit ered the formal opening of the new Academy his itinerary of travel and study for the apof Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Mu- proval of Professor Warren P. Laird ; and the sic in Rome.
arrangements for the general line of action and Of the four architectural travelling schol- responsibility of the student while abroad, his arships —one more than in England - the rendering of regular or quarterly reports and longest established was founded by the chil- envois of his work, bear a general resemdren of Benjamin S. Rotch, a wealthy mer- blance in all these travelling scholarships. chant of Boston, in 1883. A fund of sufficient The School of Architecture in the Pennsylmagnitude to assure an annual income of vania University was founded in October, $2,000 was placed in the hands of three trus- 1890, and was the outcome of a movement in tees, who have given the general direction of the city of Philadelphia among the more conthe affairs of the scholarship to the care of the servative members of the profession, which Boston Society of Architects, under certain con- was not very cordially seconded by the followditions. The successful candidate in each year- ers of the enterprising leader in that remarkly examination receives $1,000 annually for two able and original architectural development years; all competitors presenting themselves of styles which so excites the surprise of the must be under thirty years of age, and have stranger in that usually placid metropolis. worked during two years under an architect The travelling scholarship was established two resident in Massachusetts. They are required years later, and has sent four men abroad, all to pass a preliminary written examination in residents of Philadelphia. Two of these spent the history of architecture, construction, the- ten months each in the American Academy ory and practice, an elementary knowledge of at Rome; the latest takes with him a somethe French language, and in free-hand draw- what original course of study on the social ing from the cast, and a final examination of aspects of municipal architecture. a problem of an extended nature in design. The Schermerhorn Scholarship of Columbia The preliminary examinations are held on the University was founded in 1889 by the trustees first Monday and Tuesday of each year; the of the College, who set apart $13,000 for this designs are judged by a jury of experts, usu- purpose in recognition of donations amountally not residents of Boston, invited by the ing to a similar sum by Mr. F. A. Schermercommittee. The three other travelling schol- horn. This awards $1,300 every second year, the winner to spend at least one year in for- ground that the Rotch Scholarship offered eign study. On the alternate year, the Mc- two years abroad instead of one, and at the Kim fellowship is awarded, of two prizes of same time is open to anyone who has had $1,000 each. This was endowed by Mr. C. merely two years' experience in an office. F. McKim in 1890. The prizes are open to Any graduate, under thirty years of age, all graduates of the Department of Architect- of Cornell University, the Massachusetts Inure, under thirty years of age, each candidate stitute of Technology, the University of Ilon his return being required to present his linois, Syracuse University, Lehigh University, written report, and to exhibit at the School Columbia University, or the University of of Mines the drawings he has made. When Pennsylvania, may enter for the Roman Scholthe School of Architecture in Rome was es- arship in Architecture. All American students tablished, a second, a Roman Scholarship, a who have spent three years in the Paris École real Prix de Rome, was endowed by Mr. Mc- des Beaux-Arts are also eligible. The holder Kim with the sum of $1,500, and the next year, of the scholarship receives $1,000 a year for 1896, a similar sum was added. It was then three years. As at first arranged, he has to proposed to unite the two McKim fellowships spend eighteen months in foreign travel and into one, and send the winner to Rome for study, ten in the American School in Rome, two years instead of one. Complications nat- in Italy, Sicily, and Greece, under the direcurally arose with the architectural scholar- tion of the Secretary, and the other eight, as ships in other States-one of the first sugges- might be agreed upon between himself and tions being that each of them should require the Executive Committee of the School. As attendance at the Roman Academy of the already stated, the establishment of the full students sent abroad. Several of these, from Academical term of three years has necessiPhiladelphia, Boston, and New York, had tated a modification of these arrangements. gone of their own volition to the Villa dell' This scholarship may be made cumulative Aurora, and, to simplify matters, in the spring with any of the four travelling endowments, of 1896, a joint competition was arranged so that the winner of both may enjoy double among the various institutions whose gradu- advantages of time and funds. The award ates are available for the Roman Scholarship, of the Roman scholarship is made by a jury so that the competitors for the Rotch Travel- appointed by the Executive Committee, which ling Scholarship, the Columbia Fellowship in jury does not meet until the other juries Architecture, the Travelling Scholarship of the have made their awards, these latter not to University of Pennsylvania, and the Scholar- be made public until the Roman scholarship ship in the School of Rome, should be exam- has been decided upon. Thus in 1896, Mr. ined on the same programme and conclude John Russell Pope won both the Colum. at the same date, May 9th. Objections to bia Travelling Scholarship and the Prize of this plan had been raised in Boston on the Rome.
HE multiplicity of “congresses" and foreign correspondent, and it was hoped that
"conventions " nowadays has produced the present Congress might grapple success
a wide-spread feeling of indifference to fully with the problems involved in the issusuch gatherings, outside of those who gather. ing of a “universal ” stamp. The delegates The International Postal Congress, however, at the Corcoran Art Gallery, however, depossesses a lively interest for every individual, cided, after some five or six weeks of discusand its session at Washington this year was sion, that the question was entirely too large
expected to produce some striking for them to grapple with. The obvious diffi. improvements in our foreign pos- culty lies in the diversity of monetary values tal service. It is a truly wonder- in the various countries. An English sovful system, and surely not the least ereign will purchase only ninety-six tuppence of nineteenth century achieve- ha'penny stamps, whereas the German equivaments. That anyone in Oshkosh lent of twenty marks and twenty pfennigs is or Kalamazoo can for five cents good for a hundred and one foreign stamps, communicate with friends in Cal- these costing twenty pfennigs each. The cutta or Melbourne or Stockholm, situation here and in France is just as compliand that the missive shall be for- cated, so it is no wonder the Congress was warded to its destination with a daunted. It seems almost beyond question regularity well-nigh infallible, are that the near future must contain some relief facts which are not only marvels from the exasperations of the present state of
but which must be accounted most affairs, and one need not be a visionary to forepotent factors in our social and economic life. see the time when international currency and
The founder of the international system, postage will seem as much matters of course Dr. von Stephan, died quite recently at Ber- as are our present postal facilities. Since the lin, yet it is difficult already for those of the next Congress, however, is scheduled to meet later generation to realize the conditions be- at Rome in 1903, it is evident we must worry fore " Post-Stephan," as he was nicknamed, along as we are for at least another decade. devised the far-reaching plan now in vogue. Some slight changes for the better the late Fifty-one countries now belong to the Postal meeting did bring about. Foreign postal-cards Union, and China, who was represented at not prepaid will hereafter be taxed only four the recent congress, has given notice that she cents instead of ten; type-written circulars will fall into line before long. This will leave may be shipped in batches of twenty at no countries of consequence outside except printed-matter rates; and, most evident gain Corea and the Orange Free State, so that Dr. of all, foreign letters may weigh three-quarStephan lived to see a singularly complete ters of an ounce instead of a half, without bedevelopment of his great scheme.
ing subject to double charge. The most important project before the Congress this year was the much-discussed propo- ERSONAL prejudices go down like sition for an international stamp. It has long ninepins before figures—is the latter been pointed out as one of the most radical are big enough. While no one could weaknesses of our system that it is now prac- fail to sympathize with the motives and aims tically impossible to send return postage to a of the evangelical workers who are respon
sible for Christian Endeavor meetings, it is that from New York to the Pacific coast and undoubtedly true that their methods are not back — without the least hesitation or conwholly acceptable to some staid individuals cern? It is not only religious fervor that
who cannot bracket religion is responsible, for a very respectable proporand emotion without trepida- tion of the travellers who crowded the trains tion. Yet it is doubtful if even of all the trans-continental roads between the Salvation Army presents June 30th and July 5th, were not Endeavorers such a noteworthy phenome- at all, but merely pleasure-seekers taking adnon as the rise of this society. vantage of the abnormally low fares. One Some sixteen years ago Dr. railroad sent out forty-two heavily loaded
Francis E. Clark, the pastor of special trains in as many hours, and all the CHRISTIAN
a church in Williston, Me., took others were for days almost given up to this ENDEAVOR advantage of a fervent “re. great migration. Nor is this particular gathCONVENTION vival” to organize a Young ering by any means an isolated instance.
People's Society of Christian Every year there are numbers of cases where Endeavor, which was so successful that an ac- vast bodies of people, in order to be prescount of it was published a few months later ent at the gathering of some association, unin two of the prominent religious papers. dertake journeys the thought of which would This was in the summer of 1881. There fill the average foreigner with horror. Cerare to-day 50,00o Christian Endeavor so- tainly a Frenchman or a German would be cieties all over the world with a rapidly grow- apt in similar circumstances to put his afing membership of over three million ! Now, fairs into shape, make his will, and trust to one may have serious doubts as to the effi- Providence for a sight of his home in the dim cacy of the "comfort bags” supplied by the future. Our statisticians have put the matter Floating Society to sailors; one may even be into a somewhat more tangible form. They unmoved, in the manner designed, by the calculate that the passenger mileage in the detailed parallel drawn by an enthusiast be- United States during 1896 ran up to nearly tween a Christian Endeavorer and a trolley- thirteen billions; that is to say, there was an car (“The car is the Endeavorer. The wheels average of about two hundred miles of travel are his ability. .. the trolley is prayer. for each man, woman, and child in the whole The fender is his helping or saving hand”- country. etc.); but any organization which has in fifteen years enrolled three million individuals
HEN the projects for both of the in support of a most praiseworthy idea, which
great veteran societies—the Grand has held ten million meetings and distributed
Army of the Republic and the five million copies of its constitution in some United Confederate Veterans—were first disforty different languages, must claim atten- cussed, one of the strongest arguments tion.
brought against them was that they would tend The annual convention held by this society to perpetuate bitter is worthy of notice from many aspects. It memories that were was held in 1893 at Montreal, with 16,000 best forgotten. This delegates present; next year 20,000 members sounded plausible gathered together at Cleveland, and in 1895 enough at the time, but no less than 56,000 Endeavorers " from the result seems to have England, Ireland, Scotland, Australia, India, been strikingly at variPersia, China, and Japan, as well as from all ance with such predic. THE parts of our own country, congregated at tions. Both organiza- CONFEDERATE Boston. This year the convention was held tions have had the at San Francisco, but the distance seemed to warmest support. The VETERANS have practically no effect upon the enthusiasm Grand Army in its RE-UNION of the members. This modern travel spirit is thirty years of exist- AT
NASHVILLE really a very singular development when one ence has gathered tocomes to think of it. Where else in the world gether nearly 350,000 members, and some 40,could one find thousands and thousands of 000 ex-Confederates have allied themselves to people setting out on a journey of quarter the Southern association from its beginning in the distance round the globe-for it is fully 1889 to the convention just held at Nashville.