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three or four in common, with the accom- mers deep and abiding joy to all the summer panying and inevitable weariness of each maids. The bedazzled scorn of the native other's constant society, for those whose in- rustics for these “ purple girls " (as they have come is so limited as to shut them out from been called when led by a distinguished most comforts, physical and intellectual, these impressionistic landscape-painter) has only warmed, well-lighted, and well-furnished served to contribute to this holiday hilarity. rooms offer an opening into the world which The delights of small afternoon

in they see around them. The pecuniary re- very small housekeeping apartments are not sources of these patient workers are in many monopolized by the women students, at cases pitifully small. It has been proposed to home and abroad, but they are usually more open soon at Twilight Park, in the Catskills, a cheerful and appropriate when not under boarding-house for these students, with rates masculine dispensation. Loftier fights are adapted to their slender purses ; and, in this furnished by the issuing of small illustrated city, it is even hoped by some of those most periodicals, dealing with art topics-a favorite interested in the training of women in indus- enterprise with a few of the larger schools, one trial design to erect a large apartment-house, of the latest of these being a quarterly, The with a restaurant attached, near the building in Quarto, by the pupils of the Slade School in which the Art Students' League is established, England. The workers in Paris have until for the accommodation of women students. very recently enjoyed the great advantage

Various methods have been adopted to over those in London of finding all the gallighten this burden of poverty, both by the leries and museums open on Sunday. The young aspirants themselves and by their object of the Art Students' League of this friends, both at home and abroad, in crowded city, as set forth in its first circular in June, cities and in small summer settlements, and 1875, was declared to be, not only “ the atto these the young woman lends herself with tainment on the part of its members of a that general cheerfulness, that lively interest higher development in art culture," but also in details and ability to make the most of 'the encouragement of a spirit of unselfishsmall things, which give her in many cases ness and true friendship, mutual help in study, an advantage over the man. The little club and sympathy and practical assistance (if in Grace House, for her benefit exclusively, need be) in time of sickness and trouble.” is similar in some respects to that of the Art Unhappily, the burden of intelligent testiStudents' Association in Paris, organized five mony, from those having the widest experiyears ago, for students of both sexes, with ence as instructors, seems to demonstrate the reading-rooms, periodicals, entertainments, unwelcome fact that in very many cases it is etc. ; " the social life of the school ” of the but a mistaken kindness to encourage the Chicago Art Institute " is fostered by the study of art by educated young girls, as, inorganization among the pupils of scientific, deed, it is but too often with their masculine artistic, and literary clubs. It is believed that fellow-students. Against this, of course, are such organizations among the students them- to be set off the benefits that the community, selves are important adjuncts to the symmet- or, at least, her community, may derive from rical development of the scientist, the artist, the well-directed training of even an unsueand the scholar.” The young women of Mr. cessful art student. Whether triumphant or Chase's famous Shinnecock summer school disappointed, each would-be artist returns early came into the enjoyment of a large home sooner or later as a missionary of bethouse on the hills provided for their special ter culture, and, as Mr. Van Dyke has said, amusement as an Art Club in which to hold · they are all jesuitical in their advocacy of fancy-dress balls, witch parties, and other art.' In this missionary work, the pupils diversions ; and various manifestations of from the industrial art schools are possibly this feminine capacity for relaxation will be even more valuable; it is Mr. Grant Allen's recalled by innumerable visitors to pictu- opinion, apropos of the Home Arts and Inresque summer-resorts in the land where these dustries Association, that in order to arouse disciples bave gathered, generally under the artistic feeling in the people at large, they lead of some masculine preceptor. In one must all make something with their own very paintable Connecticut village a real Jap- hands themselves.” Dürer's advice to ceranese princeling, who was studying Western tain young artists, to take counsel only of a art methods, furnished for two or three sum- “ who can explain his meaning with his

man

hand,is applicable also to the artistic indus- after its founding in 1883. So strongly was tries. The necessary encouragement of a the individuality of the Bavarian - British due sense of the dignity and value of the lat- master impressed upon everything that some ter branches need not, however, always be of the more intelligent and better equipped carried as far as the directors of the School of the female scholars revolted. All visits of Industrial Art of the Pennsylvania Museum to the art galleries of the metropolis, fifteen did recently when they declined to accept a miles away, were discouraged on the grounds free scholarship from the Academy of Fine that “ it would do them no good.” On the Arts. It is but natural that in the exercise of oak panellings of the walls of the school-house some of the many branches of applied art, was a singular absence of reproductions of openings will be found for many more of works of art of any kind; in the “ gallery" these workers with little talent than in the were some of the master's pictures and a cast more restricted professions of the painters, of Thornycroft's “ Teucer.” Strict discipline sculptors, and illustrators.

was maintained, and attendance was expected The oft - quoted impossibility of really at all the classes from life and in painting, teaching art adds to the difficulties of the morning, afternoon, and evening. Mr. Cobstudent who brings to his tasks nothing more den-Sanderson, the English bookbinder, is valuable than a strong desire. Even in the a convert to the Socialistic doctrines of Willo imparting of technical methods of expression, iam Morris and Walter Crane, and believes in the recognition of the danger that the pre- that the salvation of humanity is to be found ceptor may smother the pupil's struggling in- in handicraft. Led by these principles, he dividuality under his own, there are the wid- abandoned his profession of barrister, and est divergings. (Possibly one of the young took up with that of a maker of books, in the woman's special disadvantages may be found treatment of the covers of which especially in her greater proneness to accept masculine he has endeavored to demonstrate a new arleads.) The most highly valued principles tistic individuality. If we may believe Mr. have been set aside in course of time as value- Brander Matthews, he is one of the most less, and the educational institutes vary as characteristic personalities in the strange much as those of any other profession. The struggle for artistic freedom now going on in long course of assaults from outside which England.” His theory of ornament is dethose of the Beaux-Arts and of the Royal fined as designs “ composed of a few simple Academy have sustained is matter of history, tools, arranged upon a geometrical plan of and that bulwark of British Art, the South equal simplicity, the figured tools being diKensington, has lately been discovered to be rectly copied from natural forms,” and the so completely under the management of the general effect sought being “one of great • officers and ex-officers of the Royal En- richness and elaboration." His methods and gineers " that its administration and its pro- principles, somewhat modified, have been ductions have been declared, on very good brought to this country by his only Ameriauthority, to be "a very by-word in centres can pupil, Miss Nordhoff, who, with a strong of artistic learning on the Continent.” feeling for decorative beauty, has found in

Two of these fountains of instruction which this, with us, little worked field success in are accepted as embodying the latest and conveying by skilsul handicraft artistic aspiramost valuable principles, have been con- tions suggested as much as possible by the cerned with this great question of the female book itself. The joy of working with your student. The school of Professor Herkomer, own hands is indeed very sincere-as so R.A., which enjoys a high reputation in many of the explorers of the lofty and windGreat Britain as one in which the course swept regions of pure intellect have testified of training is wholly opposed to the idea of when they came down ; and it is this joy of forcing the neophyte into a groove in the material creation, of making something out way of a particular line of thought or action," of nothing like a very little god, that holds as one in which “ the learner should ' find his steadily to their work through poverty and own identity,'" was by no means conducted great discouragement so many hundreds of on these high principles in the first few years men and women.

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Voi, XXII.-12

WORLD

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O THE

OF THE

UST as the world has become about re- they will be practically unavailable for skin

signed to the threatened extinction of hunters' purposes. He and his staff made

the fur seal species, an energetic move- a careful practical test of this method, and ment has been set on foot by our State de- found that heavy and ineffaceable brands partment toward a final effort to give the could be burned across the back of the mother Behring Sea herds a chance for existence. seal, in the parts where the skin is most val

The results of the uable, without hurting or seriously incommodParis arbitration ing the animal. One is accustomed to think had been abso- of seals as wary animals inhabiting the Arctic lutely nil for any fastnesses of the northern waters, and anyone

effective relief; who has tried his hand at making pot shots T.

the pelagic seals with a rifle among the casual phocæ of Nova RESCUE

ers, Russian, Scotia and Newfoundland waters may sus

English, and American, have pect the seriousness of a proposal to catch, FUR SEALS

continued to slaughter the help- brand, and turn loose practically every female

less beasts, and pelagic sealing seal in Alaskan waters. But President Jorhas accounted for the death of some 1,100,000 dan knows exactly what he is talking about. animals--for with the 400,000 females killed He and his aids branded more than three at sea perished not only their unborn young, hundred and fifty animals in their experibut 400,000 nursing pups that were left with- ments, and he calls into evidence the practice out food by the death of their mothers. Last of giving the Aleutian Indians five thousand year President Jordan, of Leland Stanford seals each year for food-a measure which University, was appointed by President Cleve- involved the herding of about ten thousand land to make a thorough and scientific in- animals in order that the quota of bachelors vestigation of the habits of the herds, and might be separated and killed. So much for the causes of their rapid decline, and the re- the mothers and the more important sect; but sults of the study are unusually interesting, President Jordan is not inclined to turn the especially in the charmingly simple and ef- noble army of bachelors over to the tender fective remedy which President Jordan pro- mercies of the sea-hunters. He thinks that poses. After spending last summer in the it would be feasible to herd up, say 50,000 northwest waters in a minute investigation bachelors in July, on St. Paul's or St. George's of the animals, he has made an official re- Islands, and keep them ienced in during port which places the entire responsibility for August. Since the climatic conditions of the decline of the herds on the pelagic hunt- Behring Sea confine active operations in the ers. Not only does land-killing fail to account open waters to these months, the poachers for the decrease, but President Jordan thinks would be at a loss for game sufficient to justhat it would actually operate to the advan- tify their rather costly paraphernalia, with tage of the herds in reducing the natural mor- such a number of animals subtracted from tality, provided only the bachelor seals were the field, and with the females unmarketable, killed. To insure immunity for the mothers, and the industry must die. President McPresident Jordan proposes the striking plan Kinley has appointed ex-Secretary Foster and of branding the females so thoroughly that Hon. Charles S. Hamlin to do what can be

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done this year, and this plan of President notable men in the kingdom. Back of them Jordan's should furnish the basis of such ac- is a steady volley of local charitable efforts, tive precautions as actually to give the seal headed by the plan of the Prince of Wales species a chance. It is thought that the two to raise a permanent endowment fund of specific measures which we have outlined £150,000 a year for the London Hospitals. will not only stop the radical decrease in the With this suggestion as a fillip, there is herds, but will actually lead them to increase surely not a benevolent society in England steadily to something like their former abun- which has neglected this occasion to get itself dance.

out of debt or add to its income. If this de

partment were given over entirely to a mere HACKERAY ventured to say that the enumeration of their names, without a word

celebration of the Princess Alexan- of comment, there would be too little space to

dra's marriage was the greatest and print the list, especially as many of the titles most impressive fète ever planned in honor read like the “ Queen Victoria Jubilee Nursof a woman. If so, it is very safe to claim ing Institute Commemoration Fund," which a superlative distinction for Queen Victoria's had, months before the event, some hun

Diamond Ju- dreds of thousands of dollars to its credit. Inbilee, which is numerable towns are preparing to celebrate being cheered, the occasion by clearing away slums, by

preached, spo- erecting statues, by having art and artisan THE

ken, burnt, marched, and cannon- exhibitions, by erecting public buildings, enQUEENS:

aded as this magazine leaves the dowing technical schools, renewing churches, JUBILEE

presses. The proposals for brill- establishing libraries, museums, public gar

iant ideas of glorification which dens, gymnasiums, coffee taverns, and drinkhave agitated the epistolary friends of the ing - fountains without end. And the adTimes during the past six months have run dresses to Her Majesty! One London paper through all phases of human interest from a which has unsuspiciously begun the task of monster petition for the oblivion of the chim- printing a note of national festivities suggests ney-pot hat, to the total abolition of slavery wearily that a wing of Buckingham Palace in her Majesty's dominions. Another plan will have to be set aside for the warehousing energetically put forward, founded an acade- of these addresses. my of philologists in honor of this sixtieth year of the Queen's reign, and composed of the HE Senate has now finally disposed of most eminent scientists, whose devoir should the treaty of arbitration. In its checkbe to look after the Queen's English, to see ered career the most important clauses that its essential purity is preserved, and to of the measure had already been amended to weed out corrupting influences-in short, to a degree that led the more enthusiastic friends preserve the English tongue, which, accord- of arbitration to cry out over its “ evisceraing to the London and Parisian essayists, is tion.” Of the imporin danger of extinction along with the fur tant changes made by seals. The imaginary picture of such a the Senate before the body dealing with Walt Whitman is not Treaty was

deemed without elements of humor. A fourth and worthy of final annihil. very pretty scheme, emanating from some ation, one withdrew more poetic quality of loyalty, suggested that the suggestion that THE FATE OF THE on the great Jubilee Day all rural and sub- King Oscar of Sweden

ARBITRATION urban England should repair to its fields, its should appoint the

TREATY trees, its mountains, its vales, its lakes, and its umpire of the second rivers, to choose the most beautiful of these class of tribunals, and eased the minds of works of nature, whether they be Exmoor sturdy democrats, who feared even this much Heath or only a lonely yew-tree, and bestow intervention from one tainted with the suron them the Queen's name, to hold forever. roundings of monarchism. Another amend.

These are samples of the running fire of ment allowed the President to appropriate commemorative plans, which are suggestions any“ jurist of repute " to be an arbiter, not not of irresponsible blâtherskites and con- limiting him to the members of the Supreme firmed Constant Readers,” but of the most Bench, on the plea that the justices might be

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fully occupied with the exacting and important ments made each year in turbine construcduties of their court. Finally, the most im- tion had in 1892 produced a machine that portant, indeed the only greatly important, would generate one horse-power for each 15.1 amendment provided that when a particular pounds of steam used per hour, and

The Fastest question arose for arbitration it should not be in the last few years a number of tur

Ship Afloat. placed in the hands of the tribunal until the bines have been successfully conformal assent of the Senate were given. If structed, some with so much as 900 horsethere are many other Senates with the relative power, and an even greater relative efficiency. temper of the present body, one can imagine Three years ago some gentlemen formed that this possible limitation would have be- a syndicate to investigate the adaptability of come very real. But having thus provided the turbine engine for the propulsion of steamthat only such specific cases as they approved ships. Last winter the Turbinia was built, of should be arbitrated, our legislators came and her successive trials, after various imto an opinion, by a vote of 42 to 26, that no provements and alterations, have shown this arbitration at all was even better. The vote marvellous little vessel to have, even in her was phenomenally outside of party lines or present state, a maximum speed of 324 knots. sectional prejudices, but it requires no espe- or 374 miles per hour. There are some cially keen analysis to find arrayed against the new torpedo boats which run just a trilling treaty all those names which have been impa- fraction of a mile more per hour, but they are tient or sceptical of reform in other shapes. vessels five or more times as large as the

The popular mood toward the matter of ar- Turbinia. She is but 100 feet long and 9 feet bitration was strikingly shown by a device of beam, and it is almost incomprehensible to the National Arbitration Commission, the re- think of so slight a craft flying through the sults of which have just been made public. water at the rate of 374 miles per hour. The Commission wrote to a great number of But even if there were not this extraordinary citizens, who might fairly be termed “repre- exhibition of speed, the trial of the Turbinia sentative," of the most diverse occupations in England would have an unusual interest with total disregard of the known or suspect- for marine engineers, and a glimmer, at least, ed sentiments of the persons approached, ask- of hope for all the sea-going public, in the ing. “May we quote you as standing with totally new conditions of her methods of proourselves in favor of the ratification of the pulsion. The piston-rod jerking up and down Arbitration Treaty without amendment ? ” for each revolution of the screw has absoIt is true that such a question would bring lutely disappeared. In its place there is pracanswers from a larger proportion of those tically a second screw on the shaft, inside

who favored arbitration than of those who the vessel. This is turned by the expansive - opposed it; but even thus the result shows power of the steam, and forces the shaft to that a vast majority of the intelligent people revolve and the exterior propeller with it. of the land wished the Senate to show far The turbine weighs scarcely a fourth as much more hospitality to the original treaty than per horse-power as the engines and auxilthe measure received. Out of a total of one iary machinery of the great express steamers thousand and two answers, nine hundred and of to-day. But most important of all, since thirty-two assented without qualification ; the turbine is a perfect rotary engine, there is only twelve expressed opposition to the scarcely any increase of vibration with intreaty; twenty-two thought it ought to be crease of speed, whereas with ordinary maamended, while the rest, thirty-six, did not rine engines one finds a fearful addition of jar explain their position in refusing their support. and wrack with every knot gained.

If the Turbinia means that we are to get to OR more than a decade the Hon. Charles Europe in three days at 37+ knots—it would

Algernon Parsons, a son of that Earl of take three days and a-hall--without any vi

Rosse who built the great telescope, has bration to speak of in the hull, she will be welbeen working with devoted patience on the tur- come indeed. But even without this benebine problem, in the attempt to perfect a mech- faction there is more radical importance in anism that would not allow the great rela- her feats than in any departure in marine contive loss of steam-power which had made this struction that has been seen for many days, class of engines useless for the most impor- and the public will look forward to the trial tant applications of power. The improve- trips yet to come with vivid interest.

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