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Her effusiveness embarrassed him. And the teachers are not to be pro

“You make too much out of noth- fessors, talking to us down from their ing.”

heads, but living people, talking out of "Nothing?" Her eyes were misty Her eyes were misty their hearts.

their hearts. It's to be what there with emotion. “I was something wild never yet was in this country-a up in the air, and I could n't get hold school for the people.” of myself all alone, and you—you President Irvine had the sensation made me for a person.”

of being swept out of himself upon "I cannot tell you how it affects me strange, sunlit shores. The bleak land that in some way I do not understand of merely intellectual perception lay I have been the means of bringing re- behind him. Her ardor, her earnestlease to you. Of course," he added ness broke through the habitual requickly, “I was only an instrument, straint of the Anglo-Saxon. not a cause. Just as a spade which digs “Let me read you part of my lecture the ground is not a cause of the fer- on the new school," he said, the contility of the soil or of the lovely flowers tagion of her enthusiasm vibrant in which spring forth. I cannot get his low voice. “Teachers, above all away from the poetic, the religious ex- others, have occasion to be distressed perience which has so unexpectedly when the earlier idealism of welcome overtaken me."

to the oppressed is treated as a weak She listened to him in silent wonder. sentimentalism, when sympathy for How different he was from the college the unfortunate and those who have people she had met at luncheon that not had a fair chance is regarded as a day!

weak indulgence fatal to efficiency. I can't put it in words,” she fum- The new school must aim to make up bled, “but I owe it to you, this con- to the disinherited masses by confession. I can't help it. I used to scious instruction, by the develophate so the educated! 'Why should ment of personal power for the loss they know everything, and me noth- of external opportunities consequent ing?' it cried in me. 'Here I 'm dying upon the passing of our pioneer days. to learn, to be something, and they Otherwise, power is likely to pass holding tight all the learning like more and more into the hands of the misers hiding gold.”

wealthy, and we shall end with the

same alliance between intellectual and $ 7

artistic culture and economic power President Irvine did not answer. due to riches which has been the curse After a while he began talking in his of every civilization in the past, and calm voice of his dream of democracy which our fathers in their democratic in education, of the plans under way idealism thought this nation was to for the founding of the new school. put an end to."

"I see it all!” She leaped to her “Grand!” she cried, clapping her feet under the inspiration of his words. hands ecstatically. "Your language is “This new school is not to be only for a little too high over my head for me the higher-ups by the higher-ups. to understand what you 're talking It 's to be for everybody-the tailor about, but I feel I know what you and the fish-peddler and the butcher. mean to say. You mean, in the new school, America is to be America, after “I shall never see the America which all.” Eyes tense, brilliant, held his. is to be," he said as he took her hand “I'll give you an advice,” she went on. in parting; "it will not come in my "Translate your lecture in plain words day. But I have seen its soul like a like they translate things from Rus- free wild bird, beating its wings not sian into English or English into Rus- against bars, but against the skies that sian. If you want your new school to the light might come through and rebe for the people, so you got to begin veal the earth to be." by talking in the plain words of the She walked down the corridor and people. You got to feel out your out of the building still under the thoughts from the heart and not from spell of his presence. “Like a free the head."

wild bird! like a free wild bird!” sang Her words were like bullets that in her heart. shot through the static security of his She had nearly reached home when traditional past.

she became aware that tears were run"Perhaps I can learn from you how ning down her cheeks, but they were to be simple."

tears of a soul filled to the brim"Sure! I feel I can learn you how to tears of vision and revelation. The put flesh and blood into your words so glow of the setting sun illuminated that everybody can feel your thoughts the whole earth. She saw the soul close to the heart.” The gesticulating beneath the starved, penny-pinched hands swam before him like waves of faces of the Ghetto. The raucous living flame. "Stand before your eyes voices of the hucksters, the haggling the people, the dumb, hungry people women, the shrill cries of the children hungry for knowledge. You got that all seemed to blend and fuse into one knowledge. And when you talk in song of new dawn, of hope, of faith that high-headed lecture language, fulfilled. it's like you threw stones to those "After all," she breathed in prayerwho are hungry for bread."

ful gratitude, “it is 'to the stars Then they were both silent, lost in through difficulties.' A meshugeneh their thoughts. There was a new light like me, a cook from Rosinsky's Resin her eyes, new strength in her arms taurant burning her way up to the and fingers, when she rose to go. president for a friend!"

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HEN Cicero, the greatest of know the means by which this form of

Roman orators and states- intellectual inquisition was made posmen, in 63 B.C. rang for a sible, will a thousand times wish that stenographer, no dainty maid shorthand had never been invented.

came tripping to his desk with Startling as it may seem, shorthand note-book and pencil ready to perpet- was widely used in the time of the uate the thoughts of the man whose Cæsars. Its beginning is a matter of every word was pondered by the intel- conjecture; its evolution has extended lectuals of that day. Instead, we can over several centuries. imagine a dignified and scholarly man, The first mention of an abbreviated sandaled, tunicked, and togaed, com- system is in connection with the Roming forward with waxen tablets and an poet Quintus Ennius, 200 B.C., who styli, the writing-implements of the used a scheme of eleven hundred signs time, and sitting at his feet to take that he devised for the purpose of dictation. But the result was the writing more swiftly than was possible same. The living words were trans- by the ordinary alphabet. Doubtless fixed for future generations to read some method of abbreviating words and study.

was used by the Hebrews, and also by Those who have struggled with the the Persians, several hundred years translation of Cæsar's "Commenta- before Christ, though there is no eviries" or Cicero's orations on the con- dence that shorthand characters or spiracy of Catiline, now that they other special symbols were employed.


The first definite and indisputable Tiro must have possessed unusual evidence of the use of shorthand is skill as a shorthand-writer, for Cicero, recorded by Plutarch, who mentions in writing to a friend when Tiro was that in the debate on the Catilinian absent, complained that his work was conspiracy in the Roman Senate in 63 delayed because, while he could dicB.C. the famous oration of Cicero was tate to Tiro in "periods," he had to reported in shorthand.

dictate to others in “syllables.” CicThe method of shorthand used was ero himself was a shorthand-writer, invented by Tiro, who was a freedman but evidently not a skilful one, as he of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Like many writes to Atticus, “You did not underof the slaves of that time, captives of stand what I wrote you concerning the other nations, he was highly educated, ten deputies, I suppose, because I and on receiving his freedom from wrote you in shorthand." Cicero he adopted two thirds of his In reporting the Roman Senate, it is master's name and became Marcus said that Tiro stationed about forty Tullius Tiro. He then became Cicero's shorthand-writers in different parts of secretary and confidant.

the Curia, who wrote down on their When one remembers that the tablets what they could. The transhorthand-writers of those days were scripts were afterward pieced together without paper, pen, pencil, or ink, and into connected discourse. Even topossessed only a crude method of day, in the reporting in our own Conshorthand-writing, it is almost incred- gress, a somewhat similar method is ible that they could report anything. used, except that the writers take The writing was done on tablets that notes in relays. It is stated that some were covered with a layer of wax. of the Roman stenographers were The edges of the wax tablets were trained to take down the first parts of raised in order to allow their being sentences and others the closing words. closed without injury to the writing. These tablets were fastened together

§ 2 at the corners by wire, thus forming a The world is indebted to Tiro and kind of book. As many as twenty his followers for the transmission to tablets could be so fastened. When posterity of some of the finest bits of the book consisted of two tablets only literature and some of the most effecit was called a diploma, and the official tive orations of Roman civilization. appointments conferring public office By the grace of shorthand, we possess were in that form; hence our word the opinions on the immortality of the "diploma.”

soul of two of the famous men who The instrument used for writing lived before the Christian era. When was a stylus, which was about the size we remember that in the days of Cicero of an ordinary pencil, the point being and Cæsar the sayings of the famous of ivory or steel, with the other end intellectuals were passed on almost enflattened for the purpose of smoothing tirely by word of mouth, and were the wax after a record had been made, handed down in the same manner, the in order that the tablet could be used part that shorthand played in the again. It was with such instruments preservation of thought was enormous. that Cæsar was stabbed to death. A knowledge of the Tironian notes



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became a much-prized possession in Seneca, the friend of Cicero, became the early days of the Christian era. so interested in shorthand that he Emperors, statesmen, orators, poets, used his ingenuity in improving the and philosophers were among its dev- system originated by Tiro. He exotees. References to shorthand are tended the Tironian notes by several to be found in the works of Cicero, thousand abbreviations of his own

invention. When he returned to his native city, Cordova, he encouraged the teaching

of the art. 1

83 With the rise of the early Christian Church and the

demand for a recPortion of a speech by Cicero in shorthand

ord of the exact

words of the religHorace, Livy, Ovid, Martial, Pliny, ious leaders of the day, the teaching Tacitus, and Suetonius. Julius Cæsar and practice of the shorthand of Tiro was a writer of shorthand, and the poet received a new impetus. Pope ClemOvid, in speaking of this, records, “Byent, in A.D. 196, divided Rome into these marks secrets were borne over seven districts and appointed a shortland and sea.”

handwriter for each. Cyprian, the Titus Vespasian, the eleventh of the famous bishop of Carthage, devoted twelve Cæsars, was so proud of his much of his time to the elaboration of skill as a shorthand-writer that he took several thousand abbreviations to suppart in contests for wagers and per- plement the Tironian notes. These sonally taught the art to his stepson. abbreviations were devoted for the

Augustus Octavianus, the first of the main part to scriptural and proper Roman Emperors, was an expert writer names and to current phrases peculiar of shorthand. During his reign he ap- to the early Christians, thereby renpointed three classes of stenographers dering the work "much more useful to for the Imperial Government. It is re- the faithful,” as he expressed it, but at corded that he taught shorthand to his the same time making the learning of grandchildren, which indicates the es- shorthand much more difficult. teem in which he held it. By decree Certain recent historians have prothe Senate named the month of August duced a good deal of evidence to show after him. It will thus be seen that that the Sermon on the Mount was retwo of the months were named after ported in shorthand by St. Luke. They men who wrote shorthand, the other base their assumption on the fact that being July, after Julius Cæsar, it being shorthand was then a very fashionable his birth month.

and highly prized art, and it is reasonThe great orator and philosopher able to suppose that St. Luke mastered

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