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Germany we have got the phosphates It followed that in the year 1920 the that we had already, and we have now “natural increase” of the population paid for them; and by paying for them of England and Wales—the excess, we have helped to develop the French that is, of births over deaths—was the Empire in Africa, and we are now largest ever recorded. ready to go into a partnership with I noticed further that the rate of Australia and New Zealand to develop deaths of infants in London had Nauru and its phosphates.”
dropped from the rate-figure 104 in It was something like that; it was the year 1917 to the rate-figure 75 in at least as complicated as that. It the year 1920. is that sort of thing that gives the I took all these figures from the British enough things to think about newspapers, and I remembered a reto keep them from getting too excited mark that I had heard from Captain about any one thing.
Walter Elliot, M.P. He said:
We introduce sanitation and old-age Great Britain likes to call itself a pensions and a Health Ministry and
special care for infants and one thing and “weary Titan.” A truer description
another, and we increase the population, of its state of health was implied in
and then where are we? What is Enga head-line I noticed in the London land? England to an Englishman is a “Daily Herald.” The news under it place in which to drive piles for docks. was, “A declaration by Senator Knox It is a firm place that won't give when will be put before the next American you tie the Aquitania to it. An EnglishCongress repealing the declaration of man's life is to earn his breakfast at sea, war against Germany." The head-line and come back to England to eat it. We was, "AMERICAN HUSTLE!" have to import our breakfasts. We have The British are still able to handle a
to export things to pay for our break
fasts. In order to make those things, we good many of their affairs in the same year in which they are up for handling,
have to have cheap power. We had it.
We had cheap coal. By having cheap and when the London newspapers
coal we made so many things and printed the births and deaths of Eng- imported so many breakfasts that we land and Wales for the year 1920, I overpopulated the island. Now by sanicould see that there are going to be tation and so on we are super-overpopupeople to handle them.
lating the island. And now our coal has In the year 1920 the births in Eng- become expensive. Now we have costly land and Wales were over 950,000. It power-extremely costly. Problem: how was the largest number of births ever to support a population that is going recorded in England and Wales, and
up when our old advantage in cost of the proportion of births to population manufacture is going down? We are on -the birth-rate-was the highest have to find a new raft before we melt.
an ice-raft in the Gulf Stream, and we since 1909. In that same year—1920
That being the case, you will understand -the number of deaths was 466,000.
our childlike interest in the diplomacy It was the smallest number of deaths
of commerce. recorded in England and Wales since 1862, when the population was only I understand it, and I also think it about half what it is now.
is going to be successful. On the boat named Gandhi. He is the head of a
coming back to America I met some They are also, I must point out, Americans who had recently been in doing the work and paying the cost the Baltic States.
of breaking the door open in MesopoWe Americans refused to recognize tamia. That Mesopotamian mandate the Baltic States. We had a theory is far from being popular in Great about the "territorial integrity" of the Britain. Lord Northcliffe's “Daily Russian Empire. The British did not Mail" said that it was costing Great have that theory. They recognized Britain thirty-five million pounds a those States. And those States have year to stay in Mesopotamia, and that many natural resources, and they also thirty-five million pounds a year was have banks. Now, the British are well too much to pay for the privilege of into some of those natural resources "forcing the blessings of civilization on and well into some of those banks. the Mesopotamian Arabs." The favorThat is what they have. We have the able comments on the mandate in theory of the "territorial integrity" of the London press were mild and weak; the Russian Empire, which was cer- the unfavorable ones were numerous tainly a very bad empire.
and violent. Sir W. Joynson-Hicks Having built a trade causeway into put his finger boldly and even baldly Russia through the Baltic States, the on the central point of the matter. British then recognized Russia's pres- He said that it might be all right ent Government. They recognized it to stay in Mesopotamia “if we had for trade. Mr. Lloyd George, in the maintained the right of conquest and House of Commons, made some re- could exploit Mesopotamia for Great marks about the Bolsheviks of Mos- Britain.” But "if our position is to COW.
be purely altruistic, if we are to pay “They are very able men,” said he. thirty-five million pounds a year to “I had no doubt from the first mo- stand there and hold the door open for ment I had dealings with them that I everybody, if everybody is to get the
, was dealing with men of great ability.” open-ness, and we British are to do He then went on to give his receipt for the whole paying of the cost, well! teaching the Bolsheviks the principles Why?" of sound business. It was, "a little I really do think that if we Ameritrading," "a little exchange of com- cans want the benefits of the open modities," "a little experience in door in Mesopotamia, we ought to sound business.”
come across with part of the cost of Great Britain has the nerve to start shooting the Arabs who interrupt the in giving that experience to the Bol- opening of the door and of the oil-wells. sheviks, and I suppose that when the There is nothing idealistic in refraining British are managing the Bolshevik from shooting the Arabs, and then oil-wells at Baku, we will write them wanting to get in on the results of
, a little note, saying that even if they shooting them. did get there first, we are still an ideal- From Mesopotamia I proceed to istic people and believe in the “open India. The British are able to reason door." Meanwhile the British are about India quite a lot. In India they doing the work of breaking the door have an extremely dangerous enemy open.
movement that has separated an Also one sees the problem of Egypt enormous number of people in India much more penetratingly than one from all “coöperation” with the Brit- sees the problem of the general Irish ish Indian Government.
settlement. I read Lord Milner's reThe British have four great leaders port on Egypt. What does it say? of "sedition" within the empire, De It says that in Egypt there is a Valera in Ireland, Hertzog in South "nationalism" which cannot be exAfrica, Zaghlul Pasha in Egypt, tinguished.” So there is in Ireland. Gandhi in India.
It says that the thing to do is to let Now, from the British newspapers there be a “Government of Egypt by in London I learn a thing about the Egyptians” and to get a “treaty” Gandhi that I know to be true about between that Government and Great him. I learn that he is a "saint.” He Britain on the subject of British interis. Neutral testimony about him is to ests. It says that there is no use balkthe same effect. Gandhi is a man of ing at the word “independence.” It the highest personal character.
says that the thing to do is to negoI think the British are perhaps the tiate a "treaty" which will be the only people in the world who, having “definition” of the relations between been in India long and being now en- Great Britain and Egypt, and then . dangered by Gandhi, would be able to let that "treaty" supersede all debates ,
“ take the cool and just view of his per- about "words and phrases."
” sonal character that I found printed Well, that is precisely what the often in the British press. I therefore, elected representatives of the overafter having visited Ireland, often whelming majority of the Irish people cursed out Henry II and Queen Eliza- in the Irish Parliament called the Dail beth and Cromwell and William III Eireann have been asking the British for having got the British into a state to do in Ireland for now these several of mind in which they seldom think of years past. trying to take that same sort of cool I claim that the British have been and just view of the personal character fighting the Irish so long that they of Mr. De Valera.
have become the worst possible judges It happens that Mr. De Valera is of what to do in Ireland. The report of personally a man not only of high the Milner Commission on Egypt is character, but of a singularly sweet the work of political supermen. In character. I know from personal ob- Ireland the British are still bothering servation that he is gentle, modest, about words and phrases like “repubkindly, pure of speech, and pure of lic" and "British Crown." In Ireland, thought, with a really quite astonish- I would sum it up, the British are not ing touch of the quality that makes themselves. some people seem to be at the same time both very humanly near and very
§ 4 set apart. In London one sees Gandhi, So I turn with pleasure back to who is Heaven knows how many Great Britain, where in the week in thousands of miles away, much more which the Triple Alliance strike was closely and clearly and justly than one called off I saw the British, I thought, sees Mr. De Valera.
more impressively themselves than
they were even when I saw them dur. get really informed about it, I got the
, ing the war.
answer, "Oh, read the statements in The first man I talked to when the “The Times.' miners first started striking was a Meanwhile the rest of "The Times" man who happened to be very rich and was just as usual, including the also a peer and a conservative. He "agony" column. In the midst of the said:
last days of Great Britain, the weary "You know, I think these cuts in Titan, I find it always reassuring at wages by the owners are too drastic. breakfast to begin "The Times" with
" I asked my wife, 'Could you cut down the column given up to various comyour household expenses one third at municative parts of this weary Titan one cut? She said, “Certainly not.' and to read: I said, 'Neither can a miner's wife.'
Ju Ju. Kick off at ten. Don't be late. You know, I rather like those miners
X. O. X. for striking. It shows Great Britain is
Or, still Great Britain. The cuts are too
Koki. What do I know of your affairs? much, and the miners won't take it
Why should I be interested in your lying down. There you are."
doings? I have no interest in you and There was a considerable streak of
no desire to hear of or see you. Whippet. sentiment of that sort in conservative
Or, quarters—ever so much more of it than I ever saw in such quarters in
Lady having left foot size 5, right foot similar circumstances among us in
size 6, is compelled to buy two sizes of America.
all footwear. What offer for spare parts?
Box T. 34. The Times E. C. 4. Then the London “Times," certainly not a “labor paper," began printing I contend that no nation that can column after column every day of produce the "agony" column can be letters from distinguished people, dis
in its last agony. cussing the main contention of the Anyway, the coal strike in itselfminers—the contention for a "na- I say it with certainty-did not rouse tional pool," for a fund to be supported England to any mood of "rallying by the whole mining industry, and to round the flag" and "crushing" the be paid out to reduce the enormous miners. difference now existing between the Then came the threat of the strike wages paid to some miners in some by the Triple Alliance in support mines and the wages paid to other of the miners. That Triple-Alliance miners doing the same quantity and strike seemed to non-labor England quality of work in other mines. to be "going too far.” Volunteers
These letters had not been running come forward in great numbers to long before “The Times" was itself offer to do whatever they might be saying that some sort of “pool” was able to do in substitution for striking certainly an idea to be thoughtfully railway workers and striking transport considered, and when I asked the sec- workers. The leaders of the Triple retary of one of the largest trade Alliance paused and looked and put unions in England what I ought to a foot out and pulled it back and read about the coal strike in order to considered.
Then came the House of Commons. Coote, he had said that in certain cirTwo hundred members of the House of cumstances the miners would be willCommons, almost all of them non- ing to negotiate a settlement of wages labor members, met and listened to temporarily without a “national pool.” the chief spokesman of the coal-mine The executive committee of the owners. Having listened to him, many miners' union had then, nevertheless, of them thought that his case was not insisted on sticking out for a “national so good as they had thought it was pool.” Whereupon in the Triple Allibefore he came, and they voted with ance there was a strong feeling. Why Captain Elliot, who rose and moved strike to get a “national pool” for the to send for Mr. Hodges, the leader of miners when Hodges himself is willing the miners.
for the time being to settle without a Mr. Hodges came and spoke. By "national pool”? The Triple Alliance
“' the end of the week I was hearing refused to strike-refused definitely political people even in Downing and finally. Street, in the heart of the Government, Meanwhile Mr. Hodges offered his saying easily:
resignation to his executive committee. “Now, when Mr. Hodges some day His executive committee refused to is prime minister"
accept it. Then the British public The verdict in favor of Mr. Hodges, more than ever said, this Hodges is a in favor of Mr. Hodges as Mr. Hodges, strong man. By the end of the week was everywhere and it was emphatic. the following things had happened:
Mr. Lloyd George, in the House of Commons, said that Mr. Hodges was
$ 5 "intelligent" and "able" and "sincere" First, in certain highly influential and "honest,” or the like. Members quarters there had been enough calmof Parliament said privately that Mr. ness and fairness to want to get, and Hodges had quite outspoken the to get, a perfectly fair and full account spokesman of the coal-mine owners. of the case of the miners. Newspapers, "capitalistic" newspa- Second, in the Triple Alliance there pers, said so, too, and printed his life. had been enough calmness and fairness
He was still young, he was a college and caution to refuse to strike for the man, he was also genuinely a working- case of the miners when in the matter man. He had worked, so they said, of the “national pool” that case was in a mine. He had been sent to college, still unproved even to large numbers a
, so they were told, by his union. He of workers. had finished college. He had gone Third, in an atmosphere thus suffiback to work at the face of the coal. ciently calm and sufficiently fair the He had been elected to be a small British nation had looked at Frank officer in his union. Now he was top Hodges and had judged his qualificaof his union. Look at him!
tions and qualities and had accepted Incidentally, he had helped "stop him as a person who might turn out off" the Triple-Alliance strike. In the to be not only a leader of labor, but course of his remarks to that commit- a leader of Great Britain. tee of the House of Commons, and in I think I shall be lucky if I live to reply to a question by Captain Colin see ever again in any people such an