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The Government struck a snag in its ments of this kind, the resisters make it attempt to expel the Indians already their business to take quick and sharp in South Africa. A treaty stood in advantage of any difficulty into which
South-African employers their opponents may fall, and press their who, like some of our employers, de
claim the harder for this advantage.
Gandhi, however, took the opposite pended upon cheap alien labor opposed
course. Whenever, in these years of the move. And, of course, the Indian
struggle, the Government became emGovernment protested. Blocked in
barrassed by unexpected troubles, Ganthis attempt, white South Africa
dhi, instead of pushing the fight ruthmade it very unpleasant for its Indian
lessly to victory, would call a truce and residents by innumerable irritating come to the succor of his enemy. In discriminations, into which it is not 1899, for instance, the Boer War broke necessary to go here.
out. Gandhi immediately called off his Gandhi threw in his lot with that strike, and organized an Indian Red of his fellow-Indians. He won a fight
Cross unit, which served throughout the against the Asiatic Exclusion Act by
war, was twice mentioned in dispatches, legal tactics. Then, in his fight for
and was publicly thanked for bravery
under fire. In 1904, there came a visipolitical and social recognition, his
tation of the plague in Johannesburg. distinctive tactics of passive resistance
Instantly, the strike was "off," and were brought into play. This contest
Gandhi was busying himself in organizhas been clearly described by Mr. John
ing a hospital in the pest-ridden city. Haynes Holmes, who, quite naturally, In 1906, there was a native rebellion in is attracted to Gandhi because of Natal. Again the strike was suspended, his adherence to non-resistance. Mr. while Gandhi raised and personally led
a corps of stretcher-bearers, whose work
was dangerous and painful. On this ocActing as the leader and counsellor of casion he was publicly thanked by the his people, Gandhi founded a settlement Governor of Natal—and shortly afterin the open country, just outside the city wards, on the resumption of the resistant of Durban. Here he gathered the In- movement, thrown into a common jail in dians, placed them on the land for self- Johannesburg! . . . He was thrown insupport, and bound them by the solemn to prison countless times, placed in solivow of poverty. Here for years these or- tary confinement, lashed hand and foot ganized thousands of resisters, suffering to the bars of his cage. He was again and constant deprivation and frequent out- again set upon by raging mobs, beaten rage, carried on their struggle against into insensibility, and left for dead by the government. It was in essence, I the side of the road. When not outraged suppose, a strikea withdrawal of the in this fashion, he was insulted in public, Indians from labor in the towns and vil- mortified and humiliated with the most lages, and a paralysis, therefore, of the exquisite pains. But nothing shook his
, industrial and social life of the republic. courage, disturbed his equanimity, exIt was such a strike as Moses declared in hausted his patience, or poisoned his ancient Egypt, when he led the Israelites love and forgiveness of his foes. And at out of the land of Pharaoh into the vast last, after twenty years of trial and sufreaches of the wilderness. But this fering, he won the victory. In 1913, the strike, if it may so be called, was in one
was taken up by Lord thing different from any previous strike Hardinge, an imperial commission rein human history! Universally in move- ported in Gandhi's favor on neårly all
the points at issue, and an act was students from schools owned or aided passed giving official recognition to his by the British Government, a boycott claims.
of British courts and the setting up of The same principles are now dictat private courts of arbitration, a refusal ing Gandhi's policy in India. He re- upon the part of all Indians to take turned to India in 1913. In his ab- office in the new assemblies provided sence the revolutionary forces had been by the recent act, a boycott of all gathering. He became at once a lead- British goods, the resignation of all ing figure in the movement against Indians from government positions, British rule. But, true to his policy, and a refusal to pay taxes levied by when the war began in 1914 Gandhi the British Government. All this is to gave his support to England. He pro- be carried out in a peaceful manner. fesses to have believed throughout These measures are, as I understand, the war that when the war was ended to be adopted progressively. That is India would be given at least a work- to say, all of these items of the nonable home rule that would enable the coöperation program are not urged at people of India to work out their once, but the plan is to make the boyown destiny. In that faith, he says, cott progressively severe until inde he supported England during the war pendence is achieved.
Gandhi sees as far as he could consistently with the possibility of this movement gethis religious principles. He was dis ting out of his hands and becoming appointed with what he terms the the usual violent revolution, but he "half-hearted reform bill" offered by contends that if violence comes, it will England. And then his long avowed be caused by the repressive measures faith in the fairness and justice of of England, not by him or his followers. England was finally shattered by the This apostle of a new kind of warAmritsar massacre. For Gandhi that fare is a frail, small man with sunken was the last straw. Straightway he cheeks, extreme modesty of bearing, began in earnest to work for a complete and a weak voice; but his appearance
a boycott of the English Government is the signal for the assembling of by the Indian people.
crowds that sometimes number fifty He is now leading a revolution thousand. The disinherited millions against British rule that is giving the of India look to him as to a messiah. leadership of the British Empire many The development of his movement sleepless nights. It is, however, a will be one of the highly interesting revolution with a difference. In strik- points in world politics for many ing contrast to Lenine, Gandhi asserts months to come. Will his influence that “the condition of success is to in- be confined to what he calls “this resure entire absence of violence." His ligious battle” with the British Govplan is one of thoroughgoing non- ernment, or will he emerge as the darkcoöperation. It involves the surrender skinned messiah of that unified world by Indians of all titles and honorary of color which is disturbing the thought offices bestowed by the British Gov- of the ardent defenders of white-world ernment, the abstention of all Indian supremacy?
TUN KUMFORD PREAS
The CENTURY MAGAZINE
GLENN FRANK, Editor
Contents for AUGUST 1921
Messer Marco Polo. A story. I. .
DONN BYRNE 481 Drawings by C. B. Falls Four Immoralities of the Church
FRANK CRANE 495 Pamela's Shawl. A story
DOROTHY CAN FIELD 504 Drawings by John Wolcott Adams Our Awakening Theater
OLIVER M. SAYLER 514 Francis Bacon
PIERRE MILLE 525 Drawings by FLORENCE Howell BARKLEY.
(Translated by Charles Louis Seeger) Miniature. Verse.
AMY LOWELL 529 The Hole in the Film. A story
CHARLES SAXBY 530 Drawing by O. F. Howard In Praise of Johnny Appleseed. Verse
VACHEL LINDSAY 545 Drawings by John R. Neill Wilfred Reginald and the Dark Horse. A story
· JAMES MAHONEY 553 Drawings by George Van WERVEKE A Showman in Brazil. II
HARRY A. FRANCK 566 Drawings by Arthur G. Dove The Crystal Heart. A novel. IV
PHYLLIS BOTTOME 575 Drawings by Norman Price The New Mind of England
WILLIAM HARD 589 The Travel Bureau. Verse
RUTH COMFORT MITCHELL 598 Jack London's Last Days. From "Tbe Book of Jack London." V
CHARMIAN LONDON 599 Many Kisses. A story
STEPHEN FRENCH WHITMAN 607 Drawings by Lui Trugo The Prinkin' Leddie. Verse
ELINOR WYLIE 621 The Unsheathed Sword of France
HERBERT ADAMS GIBBONS 622 The Tide of Affairs
THE EDITOR 630 Making Uplift Pay Its Own Way -- Weeding ibe Garden of Eden - Tbe Mental Hunger of Main
Street — Tbe Damaged Goods of Divorce - The Rodin of American Poetry. Investment and Banking.
JOHN K. BARNES. Advertising pages THE CENTURY MAGAZINE; Published monthly; 50 cents a copy, $5.00 a year in the United States, 85.60 in Canada, and $6.00 in all other countries (postage included). Publication and circulation office, Concord, N. H. Editorial and advertising offices. 353 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. Subscriptions may be forwarded to either of the above offices. Pacific Coast office, 327 Van Nuys Building, Los Angeles. California. W. Morgan Shuster, President; Don M. Parker, Secrelory; George L. Wheelock. Treasurer; James Abbott, Assistant Treasurer. Board of Trustees: George H. Hazen, Chairmon; George Inness, Jr.; W. Morgan Shuster. The Century Co. and its edilors receive manuscripts and art material, submitted for publication, only on the understanding that they shall not be responsible for loss or injury thereto while in their possession of in transil. All material herein published under copyright, 1921, by The Century Co. Title registered in the United States Patent Office. Entered as second-class matter August 18, 1920, at the United States post-office, Concord, N. H., under the act of March 3, 1879; entered also at the Posi Office Department, Ottawa, Canada,