Puslapio vaizdai

small, and inclosed within a sort of car with glassed-in observation platforms, for about all the work required of it was to hook us to a cable running on large wheels between the rails, two small trains counterbalancing each other at opposite ends of the cable making little motive power necessary. Just beyond was the apertura, the "opening," or jumping-off place, where the world suddenly spread out far below, some of it visible, some hidden by vast banks of mist that were slowly being melted by the torrid sun. The cable let us down more than two thousand feet in a very few miles, the descending and ascending trains passing each other automatically on a switch half-way down. The road was so swift that the buildings along the way seemed sharply tilted uphill. It took as long to lower us to Piassaguera, in its banana-fields, only eight miles without stops, as it had to cover the thirty miles, with several halts, from São Paulo to the opening of the range.

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Santos is even older than São Paulo, having been founded by Thomé de Souza two years earlier. Not so long ago it was a pest-hole, noted especially for its yellow fever. Those unpleasant days are forever gone, though it is still not a health resort, and many of its people prefer to live up in São Paulo and come down daily on business. If it was not raining in torrents during my stay there, at least it was overhung by a soggy, humid heat which had nothing in common with the cool, clear atmosphere of São Paulo. Such air as arises in Santos drags its way sluggishly through its streets, and there was a heavy blue-mood temper

ament about the place quite unlike the larger city up the hill.

In all the business portion of Santos there are pungently scented warehouses in which coffee is picked over by hand by women and children whose knowledge of sanitary principles is embryonic, while down at the wharves the coffee-porters give the town a picturesque touch. Long lines of European laborers, dressed in undershirt, cotton trousers, a cloth belt, and a tight skull-cap, all more or less ragged, discolored, and soaked with sweat, trot from train to warehouse or from warehouse to ship, each with a sixty-kilogram sack of coffee set up on his neck, moving with a jerk of the hips and keeping the rest of the body quite rigid, their manner gayer than one expects of men constantly bearing such burdens. The law requires that each sack shall weigh exactly that amount, say, 132 pounds, that the state may levy its tax without difficulty; and the men are paid sixty reis for every sack they carry. In the slave days of thirty years and more ago this coffee-carrying was done entirely by African chattels, trotting in unison to the time of their melancholy-boisterous native melodies.

The steamer of the Spanish line that is owned by the Jesuits spent most of Tuesday in "leaving within five minutes," during which the passengers all but succumbed to uproar, congestion, and perspiration.

About five in the afternoon, we let go the wharf and, making a nearly complete circle in the "river" on which Santos is located, and dipping our flag to its last fort, we were soon out on the high seas, the roll of which I had almost forgotten in the two years since I had entered South America far up in Colombia.

The Menace of Migrating Peoples


N 1868 Anson Burlingame negotiated a treaty in which the United States of America and the Emperor of China cordially recognized "the inherent and inalienable right of man to change his home and his allegiance." Fourteen years later our Chinese Exclusion Act made a jest of this fine flourish of American political idealism. It has now become apparent that there are other sociological lessons our people will have to learn under the harsh tutelage of facts.

§ 2

In the past the chief guaranty of stability in the relations of races and peoples has been human inertia. Most men lived and died within a few leagues of their birthplace. Under the empire of habit they bore their lot, be it never so hard, without reflecting that a brighter life might be awaiting them overseas. Only the exceptional were gifted with the imagination and courage to pluck up and wander forth in the hope of bettering their condition.

But this molluscan stage is not likely to last much longer. Since the birth of men now living, the conditions of the mass movement of peoples have been utterly revolutionized. Not only has steam on land and sea made travel swift and safe and cheap, but the long-distance carriage of human beings has been organized as never before. To-day a peasant liv


ing within sight of the rock of Prometheus or the cedars of Lebanon may buy a through ticket to a frontier point in the Canadian Northwest. For the sake of the profit to be extracted from them, penniless laborers are gathered, despatched, and cared for during their long journey to a destination on the other side of the globe as if they were commercial wares.

In the villages of southwestern Asia passenger-tickets to some remote zone of opportunity are hawked about as newspapers and apples are cried on our streets. The seller will not only incite the peasant to migrate, but will take a mortgage on his home for the passage-money or accept the bond of some relative that the migrant will within a year remit the sum advanced. Parties of "greenhorns,' 'greenhorns," throughbilled from their native village by a professional money-lender, are met at the right points by his confederates, coached on the answers to make to the immigration authorities, and delivered finally to some "boarding boss" in this country who is recruiting labor on commission for a construction gang.

Besides such means of detaching the limpet from his rock, local adhesions are everywhere being loosened by the spread of the capacity to read and by the prodding of the minds of the masses by the newspapers.

So, for better or worse, we have entered on the era of facile migration. No longer is population rooted like a

Mankind delibroad streams

tree in its natal soil. quesces and flows in toward any place on earth which holds out the prospect of a better living. This readiness of petty folk to up and away on slight inducement is a new thing, but there is no reason to suppose it a passing phenomenon. On the contrary, so far as we can look ahead, the means and desire of removing from one's native land to another will grow. The collecting and forwarding of human beings will become a business and, like any other business, it will be pushed.

§ 3

To-day every people desires to be a nation, that is, a spiritual unit. In the Roman Empire this ideal played no part, and there resulted an amazing hodgepodge of population. We moderns are afraid of such collections of human odds and ends as came to people Roman Africa or Syria or the valley of the Nile, because we realize that always such muddled mixing begets absolutist government. Dreading a government not subject to the collective will of the governed, we wish a people to be like-minded enough to develop a common opinion upon political questions. When private conduct and public authority are obedient to public opinion, a nation is almost able to dispense with coercion. Furthermore, spiritual oneness prevents the rise of caste barriers to association and intermarriage.

Now, cheap travel and full steerages make mock of this ideal of nationality. Any prosperous country which leaves its doors ajar will presently find itself not the home of a nation, but a polyglot boarding-house. The thriving areas of the world will come to be

populated by a confused party-colored mass of divers languages and religions and of the most discordant moral and economic standards. Coolies at the breech-clout stage of attire, such as you find in the back districts of the Far East, will jostle the descendants of the Puritans. The enlightened will perforce brush shoulders with idolators, wearers of amulets, and believers in the evil eye. In the same labor market will compete those who sit at meat and those who squat on their heels about a bowl of food, those who insist on a carpet underfoot and those content with a dirt floor, those who honor their wives and those who make them chattels, those who school their children and those who exploit them.

Invariably, when elements with such incompatible traditions intermingle, castes form; so that the nation which persists in welcoming all inoffensive comers will presently find its people going asunder into closed groups. The fact is, removal from one land to another is becoming so easy that any nation which is economically well off has to choose whether it will see caste barriers rise in it or will itself rear a barrier against nonassimilable aliens.

$ 4

In the masses of the Orient, which steam has made next-door neighbors of ours, the family customs and the status of women are such that land shortage, overcrowding, and economic stress have no appreciable effect in checking the flow of babies. With these folk economic necessity does not prompt to birth control. If the excess of births over deaths cannot be taken care of by the improvement of agri

culture or the rise of factory industry and export trade, and the people cannot migrate, then the growth of the local population is accompanied by deepening poverty and misery until mortality rises to such a degree that human beings die as fast as they are born. At this point population is in equilibrium, and conditions need not become worse. This is "the stationary state" which the greater part of the Asiatics seem to have reached centuries ago.

Within a generation, thanks to science's conquest of disease and to the improvement of public sanitation, the death-rate of the more enlightened peoples has been cut in two. In Norway or New Zealand, for example, not over an eightieth of the population die in a year. Now, the application of these new means of saving human lives is upsetting in the Orient the ancient balance between births and deaths. The West, to be sure, sets the example of a low birth-rate as well as a low death-rate; but the influences which pull down the deathrate come into operation in the Orient much earlier than those which pull down the birth-rate. India and China get pure water, hospitals, antitoxins, serums, and modern medicine before later marriage for girls, the emancipation of wives, obligatory school attendance, and birth-control practices become established among them. During this critical interval, when Asiatics born at the high Oriental rate are dying only at the low Occidental rate, population will tend to increase rapidly, and the surplus, becoming mobile under modern inducements to migrate, will move toward any part of the world which promises an easier existence.

Various influences have spared western Europe the grim experience of the stationary state Asia has had. She never reduced her women to the hapless lot of most Oriental women. Her access to the New World afforded relief from the pressure of numbers. Improvement in the industrial arts, especially in the last century and a half, allowed population to grow without making life harder. The impending deliquescence of peoples, particularly of the congested and freemultiplying Asiatics, therefore opens to the Europeans and the descendants of Europeans who find themselves in conditions of comparative comfort in the younger regions of the world a truly appalling prospect of a human deluge.

Nor is this all. Within the last half-century a most hopeful tendency has shown itself in some parts of western Europe, in Australasia, and in North America. With the penetration of intelligence and individualistic democracy to the broader layers of the people, there appears a phenomenon which rarely, if ever, has shown itself before on any large scale. This is adaptive fecundity, or a birth-rate accommodated to the economic outlook for the next generation.

When foresight and self-control in respect to family size have become general, a people is in the way of attaining a degree of comfort and an amenity of life such as can never be enjoyed for long by a people of blind fecundity. For its growth is regulated by its standard of living, and with every improvement in agriculture or industry it raises its standard instead of allowing the slack to be taken up by mere increase of numbers. No limit can be assigned to the

possible amelioration of the lot of the masses when they are canny enough to "salt down" their economic gains in higher standards of living rather than in rearing big families.

Once a people adapts its production of children to the economic prospect, the free inflow of blindly fecund immigrants has a most calamitous effect upon its self-perpetuation. Sensing the curtailment of its children's chances, it withholds offspring in just the degree that the alien element expands. In handing on the torch of life it seems to act on the principle, "After you, my dear Alphonse!" For this behavior the writer coined twenty years ago the phrase "race suicide," which unfortunately has come to be applied to every form of prudence in the matter of family.

For a people which has arrived at an adaptive birth-rate to admit the surplus population begotten by other peoples which multiply without taking thought for the morrow is virtually to cut its own throat. To vary the metaphor, once the camel has been allowed to put his head into the tent, the process of displacement goes on quietly, but inexorably, until the camel is the sole occupant of the tent. It is a painless death, to be sure, which extends over a century or two and proceeds without clash or scandal, but no people which foresees it will adhere to the fatal policy of the open door.

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earliest to look ahead and limit the size of the family, while the dullard races will be the last to abandon the blind fecundity which characterizes the animal. During the two or three centuries that will be required for the practice of adaptive fecundity to become general among mankind, unhindered immigration, by favoring the blind breeders at the expense of the prudent breeders, would enable the stupid and inert peoples to poach on the preserves of the bright and aspiring peoples. Since the latter will not allow themselves to be elbowed off the earth by the superfluous children of the former, it is certain that every advanced nation will rear immigration barriers. Dogmas of the open door and the melting-pot become absurd in a time when population rolls hither and thither about the globe like particles of quicksilver.

The barriers with which each national comfort area will endeavor to surround itself will not obstruct the passage of culture or culture-bearers. Travelers, officials, students, scholars, merchants, and artists will be able to go anywhere without molestation. It is only the broad masses that will be hindered from migration.

§ 6

One reason for the hesitation of this and other nations about joining in a league of nations is dread of losing control over immigration. Since every people has an interest in the immigration policy of any people, a strong effort will be made in the interest of world peace to have all disputes between governments arising out of immigration submitted to arbitration. This, however, would tend to the equalization of peoples and races in

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