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design also, that the officials made a part of their preparations for resisting the French. Not only had they prepared to use the modern methods of warfare learned from foreign nations, but also to employ various old and recognized modes of fighting as well. Hence at great expense they had provided fire-ships with which to burn up the French fleet, and rafts to protect expert divers till they could approach the vessels and throw their hand grenades with stifling compounds among the French sailors. These and other arrangements served to encourage the Chinese sailors and other troops, and in case of defeat would take away from those in charge all appearance of rashness in having trusted alone to new and untried means of defense. The uselessness of all these preparations was clearly demonstrated in the fight, and it would seem that the good sense of the people will prevent any employment of them for a like purpose hereafter.

After the battle, much effort was made by foreign physicians and others, notably by one Chinese gentleman, to bring Chinese wounded men into the hospital for treatment. Over one hundred were thus cared for. This attempt seemed to put the Chinese to shame for their lack of preparation to care for the wounded. Hence subscriptions were raised, a place for a hospital was provided, and a few wounded men were received and others were enticed away from the hospital under the direction of the foreign physicians. Fifty or more dollars were said to have been given in some cases to induce their removal to the new native hospital. Some thus removed are said to have died from the effects of their removal and from lack of proper care. The natives hired as surgeon an old Chinese doctor from the region of Canton who had spent some years in California. This war with France apparently must give impulse to the Chinese to learn the art of foreign surgery and medicine.

But the readers of the Recorder will wish to know how the French trouble has effected the missionary work in this region. The troubles came upon us during the vacation of all our Schools and the time was as favorable for us as any that could be selected. Our native Christians as well as the other Chinese were filled with alarm, and in some cases were threatened with violence as connected with foreigners. A few proclamations were secured from Chinese officials for posting on various churches and chapels, forbidding any interference with the places of worship or with Christians. These proclamations did good in teaching the people to discriminate between different nationalities, as well as in protecting the native converts. As a result of the means used and of the favor of God, while there have been a few cases of abuse and loss of property,

there is not known to have been a single case of serious personal injury to a native Christian connected with either of the three missions, on account of the war. This is an occasion for most devout gratitude. Nor is it known that converts have forsaken the faith. Some of the professed inquirers after the truth have been turned aside for a time by the false reports and stories in circulation. This was to be expected, but the year on the whole has been a successful one in all the missions. A part of the schools opened on time, with some delay in the return of some of the pupils. Others delayed a short time and had full attendance from the beginning. The schools have done well, and since the French were here there seems to be a greater readiness to listen to preaching than before their coming. We have rarely heard rude expressions in the chapels though they have been common at times from soldiers and others on the street. The foreign colporter of the American Bible Society has had exceptionally good sales for some months past, and we seem to have indications that the experiences of the past year will tend to awaken the people not only to more interest in foreign countries, but also in the religion which is brought to them by foreigners. Since the troubles, the missionaries have all returned to their homes, both within the City and outside of it, and have lived in quiet, though in the city we have been surrounded with soldiers from other places. All the houses belonging to the American Board's Mission are away from the foreign settlement and we were not allowed to visit them for a short time during the greatest excitement, but nothing was harmed. For this we feel that we are much indebted to the advice and influence of our American Consul and to the natives in charge. For the last few months the missionaries visiting out-stations and touring in the country have been well received and have brought back favorable reports respecting the work. The Rev. S. F. Woodin, writing from Tsiang Loh, nearly two hundred miles west of Foochow, under date of 16th January, says: "The French victory has done the people more good than a large amount of exhortation would have done, so far as leading them to be more friendly to us and to Christianity is concerned." The general report, therefore, from all the region around us is encouraging, and we have reason to hope that a favoring providence will overrule even this scourge of foreign war for the advancement of Christ's kingdom among us. "Surely the wrath of man shall praise Thee; and the remainder of wrath shalt Thou restrain."




is not my object to dwell on that which existed in the time of the Nestorians, nor in the earlier or later days of Roman Catholic missions, but to begin with 1860, and to confine myself mainly, though not entirely, to the action of the British Government and to Protestant Missions. I dwell on the action of the British Government, as it took the leading part in annulling the rights which the Treaty of Tientsin conferred on Christians. Art. VIII of that British Treaty says: "The Christian religion as professed by Protestants or Roman Catholics inculcates the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do as he would be done by. Persons teaching it or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to the protection of the Chinese authorities; nor shall any such, peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending against the laws, be persecuted or interfered with."

Ten years after, it was intended to revise the Treaty. The Chambers of Commerce sent memorials to Peking from most, if not all the Treaty ports, for greater facilities of trade. April 30, 1868, the Rev. W. Lockart advocated the introduction of a clause conceding to British Missionaries the right to purchase land and to reside in all parts of China.

In December, 1868, Sir Thomas Wade, in Blue Book, page 430, says: "If this privilege be conceded to the merchant it will, of course accrue equally to the Missionary; but I believe their cause. will, for a time, be better without it; and I am entirely opposed to any privileges being conceded distinctively to the missionary body. Lord Elgin had serious doubts about the expediency of inserting an Article upon the subject of the Christian Religion at all in the Treaty, his belief, if I am not mistaken, being that, while the enforcement of Treaty stipulations affecting the propagation of Christianity was offensive to our feelings and outraging to the feelings of any nation which might be compelled to accept such conditions, the cause of Christianity itself would be advanced by nothing so little as political support."

Again Wade says, page 432: "But to one and all of the class [literati] the appearance in China of Christian Missionaries, backed by the power or prestige of their respective governments, must be simply as offensive as an invasion, similarly supported, of Buddhist or Confucian teachers would be to ourselves."

Read before the Shanghai Missionary Association, January 29th, 1885.

Therefore he proceeds to suggest that a far superior class of missionaries should come forth able to convince the literati; then the hostility of the people would cease, and advises the British Government to suggest this to the different societies.

Sir R. Alcock wrote to the Earl of Clarendon, Peking, March 12, 1869, as follows: "British Missionaries' right of acquiring land or houses in the interior, does not exist by British Treaty.

"Both residence and acquiring premises in the interior, rests on no better foundation, than a clause added to the Chinese version of the convention, which has no counterpart in the French text, and the French stipulate that the French text shall in all cases govern.

"The Chinese require that no land or houses be either leased or rented, or otherwise transferred for missionary purposes, until after report to the proper local authorities, and under their seal and sanction. This was Tseng Kwo Fang's instruction to the magistrate of Chinkiang. So a 'conditional right, under protest' is all we have. Chefoo, Wuchang, Hankow, Yangchow, Chinkiang, Foochow, and Formosa, show to 'what dangerous extremities both authorities and people proceed, in order to frustrate any attempt of missionaries to establish a new domicile in the interior.'

"These are the untoward results of proselytizing labours, and tend greatly to complicate relations, both political and commercial.

"And whatever force or character of the right of residence, derived from the tolerance of Chinese in the case of the French, it remains a serious question for Her Majesty's Government to decide, whether they will demand for British missionaries the same facilities and privileges that are claimed by the French Government for the Romish Missions in the interior. Because certain terms have been conceded to these, it does not follow that the British Government must of necessity accept the same, with all their consequences of grave complications and national responsibilities. It is, I conceive, a matter in which Her Majesty's Government may exercise a free option, and accept or decline, as they see fit."

If the British Government were to cease to be responsible for British Missions, and refuse them all claim to protection, certain pretensions of the missionaries to supersede civil power would cease, and the foolishness of converts provoking hostilities by being checked would lessen martyrdoms and persecutions. So to remove the "intemperate" missionaries he proposes to lay all at the mercy of the Chinese Government, and the "influence" of Foreign representatives.

The Earl of Clarendon, on May 19, 1869, approves the above.. The grounds for doing so seem to be three-the consequences.

[political and commercial]; the right not resting on a sound foundation; and the wish to give no privileges to missionaries which they do not grant to British subjects in general.

July 14, 1869, four Peking missionaries wrote a long letter protesting against the action of Sir R. Alcock. Sir Rutherford's remarks on it and on the subject under discussion are in the Blue Book.

"Great as may be the evil of rival sects and churches teaching conflicting doctrines to the Chinese, and thus planting the seeds of future war and contentions, will any of these several teachers feel satisfied only to impart those general notions of religious duty and worship, for which my general basis of agreement can be found?"

Page 20: "Missionaries are to be protected wherever they may be, as they have a perfect right to be; but beyond the circuit of the ports it is impossible to give them efficacious protection, even if Her Majesty's Government were as willing, as they are averse to the employment of force."

Page 27: "I quite think it would be decidedly for the peace of China if Christianity and its missionaries were for the present at least excluded altogether."

Page 35: Speaking of the Commercial and Religious interests of Britain he says: "Either the means adopted for the attainment of the first, must be compatible with those necessary for the second, or the one must be subordinated to the other."

As a matter of policy, if not of political necessity, I have suggested one of two courses; either "to abstain from Government interference for the protection of missionaries and their converts in the interior" or, as I understand it, observe the Treaty as it stands. He points out "so many, practical impossibilities" to the latter that his views were to have the Treaty restricted.

Page 37: "The hope of establishing Christianity in China, without first enlisting on its side the sympathies and good will of the higher and educated classes is I fear entirely chimerical."

Page 38: "The conviction in my own mind is too clear to admit of any question as to the utter impracticability by such means as are at present employed, of protecting missionaries and their converts in the interior efficaciously."

"My conviction is equally strong that, without more efficacious protection than it has hitherto been possible to afford, the large extension of missions in the interior will not be practicable, although persevering attempts to attain that end may involve the most serious consequences, and can hardly fail to entail grave complications in the relations of the Empire with Foreign powers."

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