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mark the cross, and by it write our watchword, "Jesus Christ and him crucified"-" Jesus and the Resurrection." And this is what we must preach, positively, pointedly, earnestly, constantly, even if those whom we address should gnash upon us with their teeth, or take up stones to stone us.

We barely allude to several other objections to the establishment of this organization here.

(4) Itself irresponsible to the Church, and with a much larger membership, there would be great danger that it would, here as elsewhere, regard itself as the more important body, and undertake to control the affairs of the Church.

(5) It might do here, as it has done elsewhere, plant itself at the door of the church and successfully create the impression that it is a necessity to enter this organization before joining the Church,

(6) There is danger that the Chinese would make membership in it a substitute for religion, and so stop short of the salvation which is found in Jesus Christ alone.

(7) There is danger that it would set up unfit men as teachers. (8) If it should concern itself as much with business matters here as elsewhere, and should be supported by missionaries, it would give reason for the suspicion, which they so often meet, that they are here for some other purpose than simply preaching the gospel, and the establishment of the Church of Christ. And we greatly fear the Chinese would make it a close-corporation for selfish rather than Christian purposes-in other words a Chinese Guild under foreign prestige.

Finally—we feel no need of such an organization. The Church of Christ, established by the Apostles, under the direction of the Holy Spirit, meets all our present wants.

We have founded the above statements mainly upon what we knew of the organization prior to the year 1879. If in them we have differed, and possibly differed widely, from brethren much esteemed, that difference is an honest difference, and is stated, with the matured and profound conviction that the establishment of such an organization in China would be a hindrance, and not a help, to our work; and therefore it is that we earnestly hope, and if necessary would beseech, that no encouragement be ever given anywhere to its establishment here.

But whatever difference of opinion there may be in regard to plans, there is no difference of feeling in regard to the great object to be accomplished. The work in all lands is one; everywhere the true Christian heart beats responsive to the same great desire that the multitudes of China may be brought to bow before the cross.

Far beyond the number of individuals converted is the influence that comes back to us from the work in Christian lands. Suspicion is disarmed. Our real objects are made better understood. A genuine respect for Christianity is no doubt inspired in many, who are not yet ready to acknowledge their inward thought, but whose influence is felt in softening bitter opposition. More and more will this influence continue to be felt.

We welcome these beams of light coming from distant lands to join in the brightness of a rising glory. The night has been dark indeed. But lo! the morning dawneth on the long midnight ages. Hated, bitterly hated, as the name of Jesus has been, and is still, by most of "China's Millions," the time is surely hastening on when they too will join the ransomed throng and "Crown Him Lord of all"—when all their wide plains, and mountain villages, shall resound with the glad song, "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and strength and honour and glory and blessing."

THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN RIOTS IN THE PROVINCE OF CANTON IN SEPT. 1884. (Copy of a Letter addressed severally to the American, British, and German Ministers, resident in Peking.)



PEKING, March 14th, 1885. THE propagation of a new religion in any nation must of necessity be attended by some difficulties and misunderstandings between the adherents of the old religion and those of the new. was so with Buddhism, which entered China from a foreign country in the Han dynasty and was frequently and severely persecuted till, in the Sung dynasty, China accepted the principle of religious toleration and ceased to persecute the Buddhists. In the year 1858, during the reign of the emperor Wen-tsung of the present dynasty, treaties were made with the western nations. The high ministers appointed to negotiate these treaties with the representatives of foreign powers were desirous of preventing divisions, disturbances of the peace, and grievances, in connection with the spread of Christianity, and it was mutually agreed that articles providing for the protection of native Christians in the practice of their religion, should be inserted in the treaties.

In the treaty with Great Britian, the 8th Article says, the Christian religion as professed by Protestants, or Roman Catholics, inculcates the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do as he would be done by; persons teaching it or professing it therefore shall alike be entitled to the protection of

* In the Chinse text it reads, "and Roman Catholics." The word is “And” is better than "or." But we do not alter the English text.

the Chinese authorities; nor shall any such, peaceably pursuing their calling and not offending againt the laws, be persecuted or interfered with.

The treaty with Russia says the Chinese Government having recognized the fact that the Christian doctrine promotes the establishment of order and peace among men, promises not to persecute its Christian subjects for the exercise of the duties of their religion; they shall enjoy the protection of all those who profess other creeds tolerated in the empire. The Chinese Government, considering the Christian missionaries as worthy men who do not seek worldly advantages, will permit them to propagate Christianity among its subjects and will not hinder them from moving about in the interior of the empire.

In the treaties made with the United States, France, Germany, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Belgium, and Italy, there is in each case an article for the toleration of the Christian faith.

Then in the year 1860 an Imperial edict was issued enjoining on the local magistrates, "in every case affecting Christians (the reference here is to Roman Catholics), to investigate thoroughly and decide justly. So long as the Christians obeyed the laws of China, they were to be regarded as Chinese children and to be treated in the same way as if they were not Christians."

Subsequently it was found that this edict, though repeatedly communicated to the governors and viceroys of the empire, did not prevent disharmony from arising in several of the provinces. The cause of this was found by inquiry to be that the Christians were unwilling to contribute money for the building and repairs of temples, the expenses of idol processions, plays, incense burning, and the like. Prince Kung, chief Minister for Foreign affairs at that time, acting with his full powers, early in 1862, issued an explanatory note and order on this matter. The Emperor, this order said, looks with equal grace on those who are Christians and those who are not Christians, and loves all as his children. The Christian religion teaches the practice of virtue, and in its great principles agrees with Confucianism, Buddhism, and Tauism. It was therefore allowed to be propagated in China in the reign of Kanghi. The note further says that Christians, while they are to pay taxes and rates of a public nature as if they were not Christians, are not to be compelled to pay a share towards the expenses of building and repairs of temples, of idol processions, plays and the like. In cases where taxes and rates of a public nature are united in, with charges of the other kinds mentioned, the local magistrate is ordered to make a just division of the two kinds, civil and religious, and not allow them to remain confused to the disadvantage of the Christians. For instance, if four tenths be for public objects and six tenths for maintaining temples and the like, the magistrate must distinctly point out that the Christians are only liable for the four tenths, and are not to be compelled to pay the remaining six tenths. If the Christians are on account of not contributing to expenses for repairing temples, processions, etc., beaten, insulted, robbed, or have their crops destroyed by any of the

people who are not Christians, it is made the duty of the magistrates to inquire into the matter, punish the guilty parties according to law, and oblige them to make full restitution for losses inflicted. Further, if missionaries present petitions to the magistrates for the redress of wrongs, it is the duty of the magistrates to give fair consideration to the subjects presented to them, and to decide justly.

In the year 1881, at the instance of the Honorable J. B. Angell, then Minister for the United States, all the privileges secured to Roman Catholic converts by this document were then, by a similar order issued by the Yamen for Foreign affairs, also secured to Protestant converts. This order was addressed to the high officers in all the provinces in the 5th month of the 7th year of Kwang-sü. By it the law was made the same for Catholics and Protestants through the empire.

Imperial edicts which have subsequently appeared affecting the relation of the native Christians to the general population have maintained the same just principles and many excellent proclamations have been issued by viceroys, governors and other officers, in accordance with the spirit of the Imperial edicts. Seditious persons have been strictly prohibited from destroying the teaching halls of the Christians, and as regards the Christian teachers and their converts, with their hospitals and schools, it has been plainly stated, as for instance, by the present Viceroy of Canton, in his proclamation of the 23rd day of the 7th month of last year, that the conditions of the treaties must be adhered to, the same protection extended to all, and all molestation and violence forbidden. Unhappily the former tranquillity was changed last summer into anxiety and disturbance on account of the deplorable events which occurred at Foochow and in Formosa. The people in many parts of Canton province rose against the native Christians and destroyed or robbed a large number of chapels. Eighteen of these were Protestant, and among them ten German.* How many Roman Catholic chapels were attacked, we have not yet heard. If we knew, we would mention here the number of these also. Our desire is to see equal justice done to all the persecuted Christians, whether attached to the French mission or to the American, English and German mission. Not only were the chapels attacked, but the private dwellings and shops of the Christians were mobbed and their contents destroyed or stolen. In many places the local magistrates did nothing to check these things. No arrests of rioters were made. No stolen property was restored. In some places, however, in consequence of the importunity of the Christians for help, impotent proclamations were posted. At Shinhing, after one chapel had been destroyed, the District Magistrate sent a guard to protect another, and put out a good proclamation. At Poklo the district Magistrate behaved honourably; after the riot he arrested and punished some of the leading rioters, restored some of the stolen property, and offered some indemnity for the chapel destroyed. At Fatshan the authorities afforded Dr. Wenyon protection, but said they dared not arrest the rioters. They have Chinese Recorder, December, 1884.

since promised to rebuild one of the chapels demolished. On the other hand the Tsinglun Magistrate put out a proclamation, stating that the American chapel belonged to the French, and sat by in his chair while the rioting was going on, making no effort to check it as long as the houses of the Christian inhabitants were not interfered with. The only help he afforded the Christians was to send some of them away in a boat, after their houses had been destroyed, their property stolen, and stripped of their clothes. In the city of Canton itself the magistrates protected the Cathedral and chapels by special proclamation. A guard of soldiers occupied the grounds of the Roman Catholic Cathedral. When a mob of about 1,000 persons collected to destroy it, the officers very promptly suppressed the outbreak, and order was restored.

The immediate cause of the simultaneous attack on so many chapels and communities of defenceless Christians in various parts of the Canton province, was the issue by the high officials in Canton, of the proclamation of August 30th, offering rewards for the heads of French officers, soldiers, and sailors. The rewards ranged from $5,000 to $20. At the close of this document there was an injunction not to touch the persons of any other foreigners, or the property of foreigners at peace with China. The turbulent populace only saw the first part of this proclamation. They at least paid no attention to the end of it. Wild excitement prevailed in and out of the city. On Monday, as soon as the proclamation was posted at Fatshan, mobs gathered and pulled nearly to the ground the Wesleyan chapel. They then attacked the London Mission chapel and left nothing but the walls standing. Soon after, the news came to Canton that the Presbyterian chapel at Sheklung had been destroyed, and the houses of the native Christians looted. Beside this, twenty three houses of Roman Catholic natives were burnt down. At Chingyuen, on the North River, the District Magistrate impressed a boat and sent in it, to Canton, fourteen refugees of the American Baptist Mission, not being able to protect them from the fury of the mob. The native pastor was threatened with death, the roof of his house torn, and all his effects stolen. Other native Christian lost every thing, and the mob tore off the upper garments of the women and pulled out their ear-rings. Similar scenes were witnessed in many other places, the fruit of the proclamation of August 30th.

In the Peking Gazette there soon appeared an edict disapproving of this proclamation, and others were issued which had the effect of checking the persecution and restraining the rage of the people somewhat from this deplorable work of destruction. But the proverb says: "When once a word has been uttered, four swift horses cannot overtake it." In the first few days of September the acts of plunder, burning, wanton ruin, and personal cruelty committed in the province of Canton, on chapels, and native Christians, were too many to be counted.

We desire to draw attention to the disobedience to Imperial edicts, and disregard to their country's laws, shewn by those who committed these crimes. The native Christians who were molested and robbed, and who were deprived of their homes, were living

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