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Presbytery is quite independent of the Presbyterian Church of England, having no ecclesiastical connection with it whatever.

This brief notice would be very incomplete without some reference to our Medical Mission work. During the year the total number of patients attended to in the Swatow Hospital was 5,485, and it is worthy of special mention that the daily average of inpatients for the same time was about 200. The patients came from over 1,500 cities, towns, and villages in the surrounding country. The Gospel is preached to them daily, the Missionaries and the Senior Hospital Assistants taking regular part in this work. Many of the patients came forward, seeking baptism, and from among such applicants 20 were received. But we have reason to believe that, besides these additions to the church as the result of the work in the Hospital, many of the patients who have made no profession of Christianity, yet have given up the worship of idols, and now pray to the living and true God, and make known to their friends. the truth which they have learned.

I have not, in the foregoing, included the Statistics of the Hakka Mission of the Presbyterian Church of England. Until recently that Mission had its head-quarters in Swatow, and its Statistics were not made out separately. It is now established at Ng-kang-phu, a large village, or rather group of villages, about 60 miles north-west of Swatow, and right in among the Hakka people. I send herewith a brief notice of the Mission, written by the Rev. D. MacIver. Of course the Swatow and Ng-kang-phu Missions, being both supported by the same church and being closely connected in various ways, have a good deal in common; it is merely the difference of dialect between the two fields that makes it necessary to have separate centres and operations.

We have not yet been able to make out how much money was contributed for church purposes during the past year; but for 1883 the total amount contributed by the members connected with both Missions was at least 1,000 dollars. Of this amount over 120 dollars were contributed by the four congregations that have called a Native Pastor; this sum includes his salary and travelling expenses. About 200 dollars were subscribed to a fund started by the Presbytery to assist in paying the Preachers' salaries. The remainder was paid for various church purposes, e.g., the building, renting, or repairing of Chapels, ordinary chapel expenses, schools, the support of the poor, &c. In regard to this matter of native contributions we have to admit that there is still a lamentable lack on the part of the converts. Many, we are persuaded, give much less than they ought to give, and some of the better-off give less

than their poorer fellow-Christians. It does not help the matter to say that in the West, in lands long under Christian influences, there is still much backwardness in giving for Christ's sake. In China we have ourselves to blame to some extent, I daresay. For in the beginning of our work, among the earlier converts, and at the stations first opened, we were not sufficiently on our guard against doing for the converts what they should have done for themselves in the way of defraying expenses. It would be a long story to go into details on this subject, but the longer I live among the Chinese, the more I am convinced that it is for the best interests of the Church in China that the foreign missionaries should in every possible way make the converts pay from the beginning for all manner of Church expenses, and out-and-out refuse to expend foreign money for objects for which the Chinese themselves may reasonably be expected to pay.

In concluding this summary of the present state of our work, I would remark that it is matter for profound thankfulness to God, who giveth the increase, that during the last 25 years over 1,400 adults have been baptized in connection with our Mission at this port, that there is now a native church having (in connection with both centres) over 1,000 communicants, and that over 30 stations have been opened in the surrounding region. There is certainly no ground for elation or self-complacency; much rather for sorrow and humiliation on our part and on the part of our Chinese fellowChristians, that we have been so slow to believe, so prone to err and to come short of using to the full our splendid opportunities. Much, much land yet remains to be possessed. Idolatry, judging by the repairing of old temples and shrines and the building of new, is still almost as prevalent as ever, and we have but touched the fringe and outside of that huge, horrid fabric which Satan has raised in this dark land. We are, however, on the winning side. The record of the past has much to encourage and stimulate, if it has also much. to warn and instruct us. And therefore, still looking to our Lord and Master-for we are but servants, doing his work, in his name and by his grace, we go on hopefully to the work of this new year grace, 1885.


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SWATOW, 17th February.



THIS THIS mission works among the Hakka-speaking people in the north-east of the Canton province. The work was carried on from 1870 to 1880 by Hoklo-speaking missionaries residing at Swatow. Since then it has been conducted by agents specially set apart for Hakka work, who have their residence in the Hakka country. The foreign staff consists of two ordained and one medical missionary. One of the ordained missionaries is also a medical man.

During 1884 the number of adults received into the church was 25-thus making the total number of adult members 211. There are 4 regular preachers, and an equal number of studentpreachers; there is, in addition, a theological class with 8 students. At Ng-kang-phu there is an upper boys' school, the pupils of which have been drafted from the various out-station schools. Of these latter there have been six in operation during the year. At all of them the pupils pay for their education. Medical work receives a large share of attention-from the fact that there are two medical men on the staff. There is a dispensary at Ng-kang-phu where 2,390 patients have been treated; of these about 200 were in-patients. The medical men itinerate through the region; some of them resided for a few months in the district city of Ta-fu.

As to the matter of self-support, the native congregations meet all the current expenses of the various chapels, and contribute more or less liberally to the support of the preachers.



IN writing the history of War, a prominent place must be given to the rumors which precede and accompany actual hostilities. The " rumors of War" often create more mischief than the real warfare. Such has been the case at Ningpo.

When the news of the French victories at Foochow reached our city, the excitement rose rapidly, and the fears already aroused were intensified by the rumor that the French fleet had been seen coming up the coast, with the purpose of taking Chusan and Ningpo. The 26th of August is a day that will be long remembered in the history of Ningpo.

The moving of families from the city to places of safety in the country, which had been going on for several preceding days, on the 26th of August, worked up into a panic, and towards evening the whole city seemed to be in commotion. At this juncture, whether

by accident or design, the report was set in motion that the French were coming up the river, and would soon be at the gates of the city.

Hereupon commenced a scene of the wildest and most pitiable description. The cry ran through every street that the French were near, and the inhabitants, old and young, rich and poor, in wild confusion, rushed for the city gates, and all night long the stream of affrighted people poured out of every gate of the city. Mothers carrying their babes in their arms, and leading the older children by the hands, sons and daughters helping their aged parents, the sick carried in chairs or on the backs of their friends, the calling out, in the confusion and darkness, of one member of the family for some missing one-all formed a scene such as it is impossible to describe. The panic abated somewhat towards morning, and the poor people having no houses to go to and no money to hire. conveyances, returned to their houses in the city.

But the moving of families went on actively for weeks afterwards, until about eight-tenths of the population had left the city for supposed places of safety in the country. Business was suspended, and suspicion and terror took possession of the people who remained. All this was the result of the "rumors of war.”


The long dreaded French fleet hove in sight on Sunday, March 1st, and moved boldly up to the fortifications at the mouth of the Ningpo river. On the 27th of February they had encountered the Chinese fleet in the harbor of Zih-pu, and after blowing up with torpedoes the two largest and most formidable of the squadron, they pursued the three remaining vessels of the fleet to the mouth of the Ningpo river, when the fugitives found refuge within the barriers. The French were peculiarly desirous of getting possession of these three ships, as they are the pride of the Chinese navy. Having recently come out from Germany, where they were constructed after the best models, with all the latest improvements in speed and armament, they would make valuable prizes. They are also manned by German gunners, which adds much to their efficiency. It is the general opinion, that but for the entrance of these unwelcome visitors to our river, we would have been saved the dangers and hardships of war.

The war vessels were at first ordered to leave the river, by the civil and military authorities here, but their commanders positively refused, and the crews fearing they would have to meet the French, deserted in such numbers that there were not men enough left to work the ships.


The first attack was made on Sunday, March 1st, 2 p.m. As we were going to Church we heard the booming of cannon ten miles down the river, and having had intimation in the morning that the French were at Chinhai, and the port was about to be closed, we were somewhat prepared for the shock of war.

The French ships came up boldly under the guns of the forts, but waited for the latter to begin the firing, which they did rather reluctantly, and then the French promptly replied with their well directed broadsides.

The fight continued about an hour, when the French retired out of the range of the principal fort on the north side of the river, but where their guns covered the fortifications on the south side.

There was not much damage done on either side; a few wounded Chinese came up to the city, but no deaths were reported on their part. After the first bombardment, desultory firing was kept up between the forts and the ships, almost daily for two weeks; but for the last two weeks, there has been very little firing.

During the first two weeks of the blockade, the French, nearly every night, with steam-launches, and torpedo-boats, attempted to cross the barrier, and reach the fleet inside, with the view of blowing them up. But the Chinese have kept up a strong picket line outside the bar, and thus far they have been able to beat back their enemies.


The French fleet is still outside of Chinhai; their ships go and come, almost daily, and their numbers vary from four to eight. Now and then merchant steamers and sailing ships are seen along side, from which the fleet gets coal and provisions. Where these supply-ships come from, and who supplies them with stores and coal, is a mystery to the uninitiated. The French have no trouble also, in getting news, or in sending news, though far away from their own land and in an enemy's country. These things sorely puzzle the Chinese, and strongly incline them to the belief that all the other Europeans in China are in league with the French.

In the meantime the Chinese are busy in strengthening their fortifications, and in making more secure the barriers at the mouth of the river. There are about twenty thousand soldiers in the entrenchment, on both sides of the river, and five gun-boats inside the barrier, while the fortifications are mounted with the best Krupp and Armstrong guns.

On the 12th of March, official notice was served on the Consuls that the port of Ningpo was closed to all shipping, native and foreign. For some time the blockade was carried out strictly, neither junks, fishing-boats, nor foreign vessels of any description, were

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