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more, when we direct its scrutiny to the penetration of that universe, which may be said to be included in the human body, (and now said with a meaning unknown to those ancient philosophers who first designated it as a microcosm,) and survey the innumerable assemblage of elementary parts, each having its own independent life, yet each working in perfect harmony with the rest, for the completion of their most significant yet most mysterious whole. In the study of the one class of phenomena, no less than in the survey of the other, are we led towards infinity; and in both alike do we discern the orderly, uniform, and effectual ministration of a wise design, evolving the most varied and astonishing results from the co-operation of the most simple means.


The Races of Man, and their Geographical Distribution. By Charles Pickering, M.D., Member of the Scientific Corps attached to the United States Exploring Expedition. 4to. London: John Chapman. 1849.

THIS splendid volume justly claims a place in every public library. Its price puts it beyond the reach of all but the rich, yet the materials which it contains ought to be accessible to all the studious, and will have much to interest even the superficial reader. The volume is in fact only part of a larger work, which contained an account of the Exploring Expedition sent out by the United States, in the years 1838-1842, under the command of Captain Wilkes, U.S.N. His ship was named the Vincennes. Dr. Pickering was associated to the scientific corps, in the capacity of Naturalist, as our own countryman Mr. Charles Darwin to the English explorers in the Adventure and Beagle. Mr. Darwin's peculiar taste and talent lay in Geology, and the sciences which minister to it: Dr. Pickering's attention chiefly rests on Botany, and on the varieties of the Human Species; though Zoology is not entirely thrown out of view by him. To Mr. Agate, a member of the Expedition, we owe most of the characteristic and ably-executed paintings of human specimens, with which this volume is adorned and illustrated. plate, however, is from Mr. Drayton's pencil, and two from Mr. Prisse, in Egypt and Nubia.


In the course of this five years' voyage, Dr. Pickering visited Brazil, Patagonia, Fuegia, Chili, Peru, California, interior Oregon, various islands of the Northern Pacific, Southern Polynesia, Australia, the Philippines, Singapore, Bombay and the Deccan, Muscat, Mocha, Suez, the valley of the Nile, Zanzibar, Cape Town, St. Helena, Madeira, and the Cape Verd Islands. To condense the results of his researches would be a more elaborate and responsible task than we can take on ourselves, nor do we feel compe

tent to pronounce scientifically on the very difficult problems which he takes in hand. It will suffice to indicate to our readers the direction of his investigations and the character of his work.

Dr. Pickering appears to have no doubt whatever of the original derivation of the whole human race from a single stock, nay, and from a single locality; in so far that he occupies himself with a scientific inquiry into that locality. He assumes that primitive man must have lived where clothing was unessential and art needless to life; and he finds these conditions in the Equatorial Regions only. Assuming further that no great change in the form of the earth's surface and the distribution of land and sea has taken place since a human population has existed, he inquires from what part of the tropics migrations might take place to people the whole globe, so as to produce phenomena most agreeable to the existing distribution of races. If we understand him (pp. 304, 305), he believes that the geographical problem would most easily be solved by supposing two primitive centres,-one in the East Indies and one in Africa,-whence two different human species diffused themselves but physiology resists the doctrine of two species, and demands either one only, or certainly not less than eleven. Under this difficulty, he appears to acquiesce in the belief that the islands of the Indian Ocean are the truest home of the human family; where also the orang-utangs abound, "which in physical conformation, and even in moral temperament, make the nearest approach to humanity." Nay, in central Borneo, the realm of the pongo, it is known that a race of actual wild men and women exist, who make nests in the trees, and in external life, as in food, differ little from apes. Their adult males are often shot by the Dayaks, and their females and little ones captured; and there is no doubt whatever that the race is strictly human.

From the region of Sumatra, Borneo, and New Guinea, the islands of the Tropical Pacific would be gradually peopled. In how very rude a stage of barbarism an art of navigation is attained, adequate to such an enterprize, we are apt to be imperfectly aware. Especially coral-bound shores afford a profusion of animal life for man's support, in water, the temperature of which is delightful to the CHRISTIAN TEACHER.-No. 47.


human skin, and formed into lagoons where the violence of the surf is broken. Here the savage learns an amphibious life, becomes active in swimming, trusts himself to a simple log, defies the fiercest waves in a catamaran, or by a grooved trunk of a tree with a rude outrigger and sail. Before Forster and Cook visited the Society Islands, its natives were accustomed to make voyages to the Marquesas on the north-east, and even to the Samoan (or Navigator's) and Feejeean groups eastward; of which they constructed maps that have proved intelligible. One of the headlands of Hawaii has been found to bear the name of "the starting-place for Tahiti :" and, according to the account of the natives, the canoes used in former times to leave at a certain season of the year, and direct their course by a particular star to this very distant northern goal. Dr. Pickering believes that the Papuans, who reach from New Guinea to the Feejee islands, are (from unknown peculiarities in their past history) wholly indisposed to migration; while the inhabitants of the cloud of little islands to their north,-the Caroline Archipelago,-have all the enterprise and roving seamanship of the Polynesians. The Carolines therefore seem to be the bridge connecting the Philippines with the Central Pacific.

The MALAY race, in Dr. Pickering's view, extends from Sumatra eastward into Polynesia. In fact, the natives of Hawaii, as well as of Tahiti and the islands south of the line, and the New Zealanders, are included in it by him. The Californians also approximate remarkably to the Malays, so that no one need doubt by what route America was primitively peopled. The Atlantic is in apparent extent very inferior to the Pacific; but it is far less passable by barbarous man, in consequence of its want of islands. From Hawaii to California is indeed a vast gap, unbroken by islands in our best maps; yet the distance is considerably less than from Tahiti to Hawaii. Not the countenance only, but the softness of skin in the Californians, is regarded by Dr. Pickering as strikingly similar to that of the Polynesians. To the same race he refers the primitive Mexicans on that side of the Pacific, and on the other the Japanese, the Philippinensians, the Cochin Chinese, Siamese, and Madegassians; possibly also the Cingalese, and a part of the population of India and

Arabia. On the whole, he regards the Malay race as the most widely diffused, though not absolutely the most


Where and how the MONGOLIAN race branched off from the Malay, we do not find in him any very precise hypothesis: but from the Cochin Chinese, who are Malays, we pass to the Chinese, who are Mongolians. This same race spreads northward over the whole terrace-land of eastern Asia, and reaches out over the wide levels of Siberia. It crosses the Pacific by the Aleutian islands, and is found to people north-western America, where the Chinooks, who abound on its shores, and the whole population of interior Oregon, have a most decidedly Mongolian character. The Chinooks are rather more advanced in the arts of life than the Polynesians: their canoes are more elaborate, their mode of fishing more enterprising: while in most points they are superior to the hunting tribes of North America. In Oregon, from some unexplained cause, game is wholly wanting; so that hardly a wolf can live. The multiplicity of languages in that single country testifies to a wonderful isolation in human families, and perhaps implied a rapid dispersion across the breadth of the continent. The Aztecas (or native invaders of Mexico from the North) are referred by Dr. Pickering to the Chinook race; also in Yucatan, he believes the aboriginals to have been decidedly Mongolian. Those of the United States excel the Chinooks greatly in size; yet appear "in every respect physically identical" with their brethren west of the Rocky Mountains. We thus trace the Mongolians from China to Virginia. Dr. Pickering indeed avows the conviction which he had formed before his voyage, that the aboriginals of North America were fundamentally of the Chinese variety: and he informs us that a Feejee Polynesian whom they took with them in their roamings at once identified the Chinese at Singapore with the Chinooks of N.W. America. On the quick observation of savages, Dr. Pickering thinks much stress may justly be laid.-The great similarity of the Hottentots to the Mongolians of N. Eastern Asia has been much insisted on by some writers. Dr. Pickering complains, that, during his very short stay at the Cape, he was unable to get a sight of a Hottentot whose purity of breed he could trust and he abstains from giving an opinion as to the

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