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that in his natural instincts, if not mounting up to the region of his thoughts, there was a continual protest going on against much of it; that nature and all his inarticulate persuasion (however much forbidden to articulate itself) taught him the futility and unfeasibility of the system followed here. The Visiting Magistrates, he gently regretted rather than complained, had lately taken his tread-wheel from him, men were just now pulling it down; and how he was henceforth to enforce discipline on these bad subjects, was much a difficulty with him. “They cared for nothing but the tread-wheel, and for having their rations cut short :' of the two sole penalties, hard work and occasional hunger, there remained now only one, and that by no means the better one, as he thought. The sympathy of visitors, too, their pity' for his interesting scoundrel subjects, though he tried to like it, was evidently no joy to his practical mind. Pity, yes : but pity for the scoundrel-species ? For those who will not have pity on themselves, and will force the Universe and the Laws of Nature to have no 'pity' on them ? Meseems I could discover fitter objects of pity!

Abundantly clever and accurately exact as is this description of a Model Prison, no rose-colour hues thrown over them can make of the deprivation of liberty, and the consciousness (if it were supposing too great a refinement to say of guilt, yet) of being degraded and prostrate beneath a strong arm outside itself, things easy to be borne, notwithstanding the taxes and botherations which the free and innocent man has to bear, and because he is free and innocent has strength to bear. Nevertheless, there is room for grave question whether there is not an amount of sympathy and tenderness for crime among us which is itself becoming criminal. We do not, indeed, see how any item in the above description is to be cancelled, or what single step is to be retraced. No one will maintain that it is a necessary or legitimate part of the punishment of crime to expose it to loathsome disease; then, when you confine human beings, you must remove all active causes of disease; and doing this in the cheapest and most systematic man. ner, you necessarily do it in the most perfect. Neither is it a necessary or legitimate part of the punishment of crime to confound its various degrees of criminality; then you must remove one of the most appalling portions of the old gaol punishment to every sensitive mind, its undiscriminating companionship, and cease to throw the debtor and the murderer to live for months together in the same room.


A Christian Legislature cannot think moral pollution a legitimate part of the punishment of crime; then age and sex must be separated. Neither can it (believing that “for the soul to be without knowledge is not good”) deny instruction and moral influence, especially to the young ; then necessarily ensue the daily visits of the schoolmaster and the chaplain. So far from retracing our steps, it is possible that we shall be obliged to take more in the same direction, for the question has already arisen, whether the transference of persons—who are sent out of prison, who must live, but whose labour society does not want, and whose labour, if it did want, it would rather want than employ, and who have no alternative, therefore, but to steal, be committed again, imprisoned again, or die—whether their transference to other scenes, where honest living is possible to them (even if it were to replace the wild beast and the wild forest and make habitations fit for man), be not a further step in the progress of a wise humanity, and whether we can consistently stop short of it: yet what a coleur-derose account would not then be extended from the happiness of the model prison to the bliss of the Prisoner's Emigration Society? All these changes have originated in an improved state of mind and feeling in mankind themselves, and the restoration of the old brutal neglects, and the old Draconic punishments, would soon have a perceptible influence in degrading and hardening mankind. We do not suppose that Mr. Carlyle would restore dirt, disease, jailfevers, cursing and swearing, and miscellaneous companionship, to our prisons; but he would not, certainly, be very nice, and we are not sure that we should either. In other matters his acquaintances of the Model Prison he does not think likely to be reclaimed “ by the method of love."

“Hopeless for evermore such a project. These abject, ape, wolf, ox, imp and other diabolic-animal specimens of humanity, who of the very gods could ever have commanded them by love ? A collar round the neck, and a cart-whip flourished over the back; these in a just and steady human hand, were what the gods would have appointed them; and now when by long misconduct and neglect, they had sworn themselves into the Devil's regiments of the line, and got the seal of chaos impressed on their visage, it was very doubtful whether even these would be of avail for the unfortunate commander of twelve hundred men! By 'love' without hope


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except of peaceably teasing oakum, or fear except of a temporary loss of dinner, he was to guide these men, and wisely constrain them,—whither-ward ? No-whither; that was his goal, if you will think well of it; that was a second fundamental falsity in his problem. False in the warp and false in the woof, thought one of us; about as false a problem as any I have seen a good man set upon lately! To guide scoundrels by 'love;' that is a false woof I take it, a method that will not hold together; hardly for the flower of men will love alone do; and for the sediment and scoundrelism of men it has not even a chance to do. And then to guide any class of men, scoundrel or other, No-whither, which was this poor Captain's problem, in this prison, with oakum for its one element of hope or outlook, how can that prosper by 'love' or by any conceivable method ? This is a warp wholly false. Out of which false warp, or originally false condition to start from, combined and daily woven into by your false woof, or methods of love and such like, there arises for our poor Captain the falsest of problems, and for a man of his faculty the unfairest of situations. His problem was not to command good men to do something, but bad men to do (with superficial disguises) nothing."

From this “universal syllabub of philanthropic twaddle" Mr. Carlyle would summon bis readers to the execution of “justice”-to that “divine hatred,” with which God hates sin, “with a most authentic, celestial and eternal hatred, a hatred, a hostility inexorable, unappeasable, which blasts the scoundrel, and all scoundrels ultimately, into black annihilation and disappearance from the sum of things." He would make short work with scoundrels--hang them up incontinently—thereby preaching a more impressive sermon than John or Chrysostom, and would begin with the Supreme Scoundrel, sitting "well cushioned," as he conjectures, in high places at this time, if he could find him. And, certainly, we, too, would make decisive work, if not quite so short and butcher-like, with the supreme scoundrel and all his class—he should have no opportunity of exercising his liberty and wronging society again. For inferior scoundrels we much approve of Mr. Carlyle's recommendation of armies of industry—under a stiff rule-sent to a kind of half-way house between beasts and man, to remove the first and prepare for the last. This for those who had given proof that they had not embraced a first or second opportunity of mending at home.

The worship characteristic of our author is Power; the



remedy characteristic of him is Force. Applied to Quashee" (whose only proved crime against society is the very determined and indeed original sin of being black, and the additional present and contingent one of not caring for “peppers”), this doctrine is simply brutal, partaking of an animal ferocity and tyranny, which is the coarse but strong thread that runs throughout our author's nature. But, applied to the enforcement of the Law, or common agreement of the people of a country, and against the transgressors of that Law, it has its exemplary and necessary place. On the executive power that is to wield this and all other force, Mr. Carlyle advances his old opinions. We are still to look for a Man or Men-scattered and distributed power effects nothing; it is the obedience that is to be scattered and distributed, the power is to be concentrated in one or a very few hands. "Democracy is for ever impossible.” In fact, the only feasible, possible form of human government, according to our author, is a tyranny or despotism, in the ancient sense of the words, enlightened, if you will and can, but, at least, a manifest and indisputable Lordship. Though from the force of individual conviction and a wonderful potency of speech, Mr. Carlyle seems to advance and urge some very new, distinct, and solemn duty upon us, we cannot make out that he does anything but point out the eternal problem of this our human society, or tells us to do anything but the precise thing that we are doing. The commonest man will at once assent to the proposition, that suppose your Despot is wise and good, and will decree nothing but what is the same, a despotism is the best form of government. But whether you trust to Nature, and try what hereditary power will do, as in the cases of the monarchs of Spain and England, or to a choice of “the few," and try what elected

power will do, as in the case of some forty Doges of Venice, and some scores of Popes of Rome, the secret of discovering this wise Despot has not been laid open. Suppose you trust to the revelation of his mission and his power within the man himself, and he forces himself on the throne ; how long does he sit there ? Does he not ascend in anarchy and go down in anarchy ? and does not that very power which our author treats with so much contempt, show itself supreme on earth-the will of the

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people, the sovereign power of the respective congregated nations ? Our author is haunted with the vision of Bonaparte, Cromwell

, Charlemagne, Julius Cæsar, and Alexander, and he wishes Nature to supply successive crops of these men. But she will not, and does not, and the brief and hurried moments of these sways are, to the steady course of actual government, what comets are to sun, and moon, and stars. Mr. Carlyle cries out, this insufferable daily sun—now bright, now cloudy; this capricious nightly moon-sometimes “round as my shield,” and then absent altogether; these little wretched evanescent stars, only daring to show their faces in the absence of the greater lights—let us have more comets. These things don't come for calling; they will come of themselves, or not at all. It were an easy thing to concentrate power in one, two, or a dozen, if we could, at the same time, concentrate wisdom. Let Mr. Carlyle do the last, and we will do the first. This perpetual crying out for a Man won't make a Man.

If a Cromwell should arise, he will carve his own career, and need no pointing out. Indeed, the successful demonstration has never been made by the prophet, till the event has been made by the hero. But the appearance of these men becomes limited more and more to unsettled times and to the earlier attempts of nations after civilization. The progress of our race is towards autonomy, not autocracy-the government of a man by himself, not the government of a herd by one man. This « inborn reverence of the constable's staff,” on which Mr. Carlyle sets a just value, is not intended to be, and is not, with a large portion of our people, the ultimate feeling. It is yielding to the inborn reverence for honesty and justice. The constable's staff may have taught us, originally, the difference between meum and tuum, and it may be well to keep it in the remote perspective still, but that is not what consciously and hourly keeps the multitude from picking and stealing; it is the law which has grown up under this and other teachings in their own minds. Keep the constable's staff for those whom it concerns, still; but don't let Mr. Carlyle whisper to his own soul, and don't let him insist upon proclaiming it as the motive to the rest of the people, to avoid stealing or killing, that they will have the constable's staff upon them. It is to this

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