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tical motor bicycle, and the more general use of the following declaration, the coradoption of motor carriages in certain parts rectness of which most wheelmen are quite of the country where the roads have been im- willing to concede: proved. Meanwhile the bicycle now in common use will hold its way, with such improvements

It is difficult to define passengers' luggage, in detail

, and perhaps in form, as will add to but the articles a man takes with him as his perits usefulness, and to the comfort, conve- nected with locomotion, and not merely those

sonal luggage must be such articles as are connience, and security of the rider.

which he wants to transport from one place to

another. All such things as are required and are BICYCLES AS RAILWAY BAGGAGE.

necessary for the personal use of the passenger in

the course of his journey, without regard to the ob« The bicycle is a vehicle,» say the railway ject for which the journey was undertaken, would lawyers, and cannot therefore be baggage. be ordinary luggage.

) This somewhat captivating but superficial form of argument is having its brief day. The The New York Court of Appeals, in the case contest over the passage of the Armstrong

of Merrill versus Grinnell (30 New York, 594), Law, compelling New York railways to carry has declared its judgment to be exactly in bicycles as baggage, might well have been accord with that expressed in the English avoided. It began in November, 1895, when cases. In the case just cited the court said: the chief consul of the New York State division of the League of American Wheelmen

Baggage is defined by Webster to mean the wrote a letter to the Trunk-line Association clothing and other conveniences which a traveler of Railways, and invited a friendly confer- impossible to enumerate the articles that consti

carries with him on a journey. It is, of course, ence for the purpose of establishing some

tute what is called in the definition « clothing, and common and equitable rule that should gov- it is still more difficult to specify what shall pass ern the transportation of cyclists and their under the name of «other conveniences.» wheels. This request was denied, and the Again, the baggage must be such as is necessary wheelmen made the most of their alternative for the particular journey that the passenger is

, in procuring the enactment of the new law, at the time of the employment of the carrier, actwhich is working smoothly and equitably.

ually making; ... the articles that will pass under Radical as this new statute may have ap- various as the tastes, occupations, and habits of

the denomination of «other conveniences » are as peared, it is doubtful if any substantial right travelers. The sportsman who sets out on an excuris thereby secured which was not already sion for amusement in his department of pleasure guaranteed to the traveling cyclist by a fair needs, in addition to his clothing, his gun and fishinterpretation of the common law. Many ing apparatus; the musician, his favorite instruyears ago, in England, Lord Chief Justice ment; the man of letters, his books; the mechanic, Cockburn reviewed with great care the ques- his tools. In all these cases, and in a vast number tion of what might and might not be properly of others unnecessary to enumerate, the articles and lawfully taken by a passenger as luggage carried are necessary in one sense to the use of the on his journey by rail , and laid down a rule passenger. He cannot attain the object he is in

pursuit of without them, and the object of his with approval by the courts of England and journey would be lost unless he was permitted to

carry them with him. America. It is this:

Whatever the passenger takes with him for the language and intent of these decisions his personal use or convenience, according to the would seem to be unmistakable. They clearly, habits or wants of the particular class to which and in the most direct terms, point out the he belongs, either with reference to the immediate propriety of including in the term «baggage necessities or the ultimate purpose of the journey, the bicycle, which the touring cyclist takes must be considered personal luggage.

with him as a part of his personal property This would include not only all articles of ap- essential to his journey. parel, whether for use or ornament, but also the

But from the railway standpoint the most gun-case or fishing apparatus of the sportsman, the easel of the artist on a sketching tour, or the encouraging and satisfactory reason for carbooks of the student, and other articles of an rying bicycles as baggage is found in the fact, analogous character, the use of which is personal every day more apparent, that the practice to the traveler, and the taking of which has is not only lawful, but profitable. All wheelarisen from the fact of his journeying.

men know this, and many railway companies

are fast finding it out. More than one hunIn discussing the law of this case, counsel dred and forty American railways are to-day for the railway company (Mr. Digby) made carrying bicycles as baggage, without extra

charge; and the concurrent testimony of all sive railroad manager need be told that bread railway officials who have studied the subject is usually buttered only on one side. shows that true business policy will encourage the rule. Thousands of wheelmen ride

WILL CYCLING REVIVE THE OLD STAGEinto the country from populous centers on Sundays and public holidays, and with many

COACH INN? of these the matter of expense is sure to be That the bicycle, and the horseless carriage considered. It is often a question between of the larger patterns, will inevitably change an eighty-mile trip and home by rail, or a and quicken our methods of common road forty-mile trip and return by wheel. Thou- travel is now generally conceded. sands of wheelmen travel in all directions to A few days ago Mr. Edison was quoted attend meets, conventions, and assemblies at in a daily newspaper as saying that within all times of the year, and by a rule of their the next decade horseless carriages will be own they favor the railways which are known the rule. It may be, therefore, that, with the to be friendly. Thousands of others, in their general improvement in road vehicles, and business as merchants, manufacturers, ship- the general improvement of the public roads, pers, and commercial travelers, are con- without which no vehicle can become really stantly directing the shipment of goods in efficient, the volume of road travel will be so such manner as to give preference to lines increased as to bring to life the old inn of whose policy toward the wheelmen is known early days, but not, I think, the primitive and to be equitable. As between two prominent picturesque type that marked the stoppingrailways running westward from New York places of the old stage-coach which, in the city, it is estimated that in the year 1895 up- years following the Revolution, used to make ward of $100,000 was, in this manner, added the distance between Boston and New York in to the income of the one whose friendly atti- six days. Nor will the rejuvenated inn bring tude toward cyclists is well known, while the back the old-time back-log festivals at which tendency of wheelmen to avoid at all times the Knickerbockers and Quakers so often the road pursuing the opposite policy is grow- came together when the fast coach known ing from day to day. It may be said that this as the « Flying Machine » whirled its passenpractice of discrimination is not altogether gers between New York and Philadelphia in right, but argument will not change it. the astonishing space of two full days. The When people have money to spend, they are railway has largely superseded common road likely to be a trifle independent in selecting travel, and our swift business methods will the objects of their patronage, and in their give the preference to railway travel until minds a wholesome grudge will give no place a swifter means shall take its place. But to ethics. To the railroad companies the fact though the great majority will travel by rail, alone would seem to be the important thing, it must be borne in mind that the great and and if the reason for it should appear obnox- growing body of cyclists who travel by road ious, it is quite within their own power to is not greatly less in point of numbers than change the conditions for which they are the entire population of the colonies when themselves mainly responsible. There are the old inns were in vogue; and the marked probably 2,500,000 bicycle-riders in the United effort on the part of hotel proprietors to seStates, and it is estimated that a million cure the patronage of the wheelmen shows wheels will be sold during the present year. how fully the value of this new element is Take into account 250 bicycle-factories, 24 being appreciated. About 7000 official League tire-makers, and 600 concerns dealing in hotels have been selected and granted official bicycle sundries, all representing a combined certificates by the League of American Wheelinvestment of $75,000,000, and the bicycle men within the last five years. The proprietor question seems to gain proportions. Add the of each of these hotels is required to sign a connumber and value of repair-shops, race tract in which he undertakes to supply good tracks, and club-houses, and the aggregate food and clean, comfortable lodgings to all leaps again. Consider the fact that this travelers, and to accord a certain percentage country contains about 30,000 retail bicycle- of discount or rebate from regular prices to all dealers and about 60,000 persons employed members of the League of American Wheelin the «sundry » factories, and that these men on presentation of membership tickets numbers are every day growing apace, and for the current year. In exchange for this the importance of the bicycle business to the concession, the League publishes a list of all common carrier becomes suggestive-sosug- official hotels in the road books, tour books, gestive, indeed, that no prudent or progres- and hotel books issued for the use of wheel


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men; and in this manner the patronage of are likewise affected, though perhaps in a the hotels is encouraged, the wheelmen are less degree; and some of the labor societies brought together at common stopping-places, and trades-unions have declared against the and a direct benefit is secured to the organi- bicycle because of the evident falling off in zation. Wheelmen are quick to discern and the demand for work and materials in their to appreciate the comfort of a well-kept inn, particular lines which the use of the wheel and are not slow to condemn the slovenly is supposed to have induced. Of course these attempts of an incompetent host. And so it trade conditions will adjust themselves in due is that the fittest will survive, and badly kept time, and they have a consoling feature in hotels will inevitably lose the cyclists' patron- the fact that what is lost in one direction is age. From day to day appointments of official gained in another, by the increased demand hotels by the League of American Wheelmen for labor in all branches of industry conare canceled, and new contracts made in ac- nected with the manufacture and sale of cordance with new information and to fit new bicycles and cycling goods and materials. conditions. Within a radius of fifty miles about each of the large cities will be found,

THE TAXATION OF BICYCLES. on any pleasant afternoon in summer, groups of wheelmen sitting beneath the shade-trees In New York, Philadelphia, Rochester, and and awnings of favorite country inns; and Chicago certain city officials have lately proamong the wheel clubs the rule has become posed, in apparent good faith, that bicycles general to add to the announcement of should be made the subject of a special tax. weekly «runs » the names of certain hotels The enormous number of bicycles in the which are known to supply a good quality of country, and the millions of value which they rest and refreshment.

represent, suggest with some force a subject for taxation which is not likely to be

overlooked by the scrupulous assessor. The THE EFFECT OF CYCLING ON OTHER

sound principle that all property should conBRANCHES OF TRADE.

tribute to the support of the State that deMILLIONS of dollars are annually invested in fends it should, of course, apply to bicycles, bicycles and in the purchase of sundries as to other forms of personal property; and appurtenant to the sport. The diverting of our present tax laws provide so clearly for this money into a new channel must neces- such taxation that the justice of a second sarily affect expenditure in other directions. levy which this proposed special tax would The enthusiastic cyclist must often econo- entail may well be inquired into. The bicycle mize in his all-round disbursements in order is noiseless, clean, and a non-consumer. It to gratify his special taste, and the great does not herald its own approach by a nervenumber of wheels sold on the instalment plan wearing ding-dong on the hard stone paveis perhaps the best evidence of the tendency ment, nor does it wear out or soil the streets, of people of moderate means to spend their or occupy an undue amount of space in the money for cycling, to the exclusion of things thoroughfare. Just why it should be made which might otherwise make drafts upon the the subject of a special tax, from the operapurse. Perhaps the carriage trade, more tion of which other forms of vehicles are than any other, has suffered by the increase exempt, is a question which no one has yet of cycling. During the last two years com- attempted to answer. Such a tax would cerplaints to this effect have been numerous in tainly be unpopular, and would probably be the columns of the carriage-trade journals, illegal as well. That it would be unjust goes and their advertising columns reveal the fact without saying. The cycling citizens of the that many of the carriage-dealers and -manu- l'nited States are already heavy taxpayers, facturers are trying to avail themselves of and under our general laws are exempt from the new conditions by making and selling no species of tax to which other citizens are wheels as an adjunct to their established compelled to respond. It would be quite as wise, business. Liverymen in all the cities and and fully as equitable, to declare a special astowns complain bitterly of the great falling sessmentonsewing-machinesandtype-writers off in the number of customers who formerly as uponbicycles, or upon anyotheruseful thing indulged in carriage-rides on Sundays and in which citizens generally have acquired an holidays, and in many cases livery stables ownership. The bicycle tax as a specialty will, have been sold out or closed by discouraged I think, never become a fixture in the tax laws proprietors. Tailors, hatters, and jewelers of this country.

Isaac B. Potter.

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The Services of Art to the Public.

The bill recently introduced in Congress, under the

auspices of the Public Art League of the United States, NS

"O one in touch with the progress of art in the United creating a United States Commission, which shall pass

States can fail to note the evidencesof a new and wide- upon the artistic merits of all plans for important public spread movement of late, which recognizes the good in- buildings and of all works of art that the government fluence of art as an offset to the materializing tendencies may propose to purchase or order, marks another step of the age. When Mr. Millet, as chief of decoration at in the right direction. How far the good intentions of the World's Fair, in 1893, obtained from the board of the bill, if it becomes a law, may be thwarted by the directors commissions for pictorial decoration in some machinations of « practical politics » remains to be seen. of the principal buildings at the great exhibition, and The conclusion must not be drawn that it is all visitors saw how capable our painters are in this field plain sailing ahead for those who wish to see art ocwhen an opportunity is given them, the plainest proof cupy its proper place among us, and none but capable of the ability of native talent was afforded. Taken to- men intrusted with the duty of giving it in its best gether with the excellent sculptural work and the archi- forms to the world. One has to note in New York City tectural triumphs at the exhibition, it was seen that, alone the contest between its citizens and the then unknown to the general public, certain American artists Board of Park Commissioners over the Harlem River had attained to a high degree of proficiency in decora- speedway; the indefensible decision of a better board, tive work, and only required such a chance as was who succeeded them, in the matter of a site for the offered at Chicago to convince the layman of the ex- Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, directly contrary to the pediency of spending money for purely esthetic purposes. recommendations contained in an excellent and thoughtPrivate enterprise quickly recognized it, and various fully considered report on the question submitted by the hotels and residences recently erected in New York and Fine Arts Federation, which spoke for all the societies elsewhere exhibit on their walls and ceilings further of painters, sculptors, and architects of the city; and the evidences of the merit and capability of the American determination of certain excellent citizens, through the artist as a decorator in the true sense of the word. The Board of Aldermen, to force upon the city an unsatisorganization of the Municipal Art Society of New York, factory work in the shape of the Heine Memorial Founin the spring of 1893, the object of which is to provide tain. However, the obstinate procedure in the last adequate sculptural and pictorial decoration for the instance brought forth the enactment of a law providing public buildings and parks of the city, by devoting the for a competent commission, the approval of which is funds obtained from its membership fees to the execu- necessary before a work of art can be accepted for the tion of artistic projects determined by competition or city by the Board of Aldermen, or anybody else. The direct commission, owes its origin in part to the « reve- evils of the apparently fair, open-competition system lation » at Chicago. This society has already presented meantime are still with us. to the city, as custodian for the State, the beautiful

In the National domain an obstacle to artistic prodecorations by Edward Simmons, in the room occupied gress has been found in the results of the Sherman by the criminal branch of the Supreme Court, and has Statue competition. But such mistakes are merely obother work in hand. The architects of the Boston Public stacles on the upward path. The good influences will Library, acting with the public-spirited trustees of that ultimately outweigh the bad, and the American people institution, have succeeded in obtaining for their noble may be congratulated on the prospect before them in building mural decoration by such artists as Puvis de the near future, when public taste, and the standard of Chavannes, John S. Sargent, and Edwin A. Abbey, and public criticism, will be lifted by the presence of good sculpture by Augustus and Louis St. Gaudens. Finally, art in public places. as the most conspicuous instance, the United States government has given commissions to two score or more

The Defacement of Natural Scenery. of our best-known artists, both painters and sculptors, to decorate the new Congressional Library at Washing- Carlyle's famous explosion, in «Sartor Resartus,» ton. These works are now well under way, and at the against what he called « view-hunting,» meaning the present time there is a feeling which amounts to con- delight in nature for its own sake, like a good many viction that we are not far from such general recogni- more of his utterances, represented nothing but a temtion of the value of art as a factor in our civilization porary irritation. At Craigenputtoch he had plenty of as has existed for centuries in Europe, and finds its « scenery,» but he lacked other things that he seemed best expression in our day in the liberal provisions made to require more. Having nothing but the « mountain by the French governmental authorities, not only for the solitudes » and the state of his digestion to take the artistic embellishment of France's splendid capital, but place of society, it is no wonder that he should have for all its historic towns and industrial centers. issued his « Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous


Regiment » of the Picturesque. It is satisfactory to re- more and more the result of an open and conscion: mark that, later in life, even he attained a saner view. defiance of public sentiment. To extend and intensify The pages of the « Reminiscences » that may be read this sentiment, and to apply it to the cases that come with the least mixed pleasure are those in which he under one's own observation, is a worthy and humanizpaints the scenery of which, in his early days, he became ing work. It is a work in which every farmer, and so impatient.

every farmer's family, and every villager, and every Whether Carlyle was right or not in attributing the summer sojourner among the rural beauties of our revival of « view-hunting » to the influence of Goethe in country can be a useful missionary. particular, there can be no question that it was con- In his « Democracy and Liberty,» vol. I, p. 167, Mr temporaneous with the Romantic movement in literature, Lecky has a suggestive passage which, though addressed to which Walter Scott and Wordsworth, in their several primarily to English readers, applies, also, to our own ways, so powerfully contributed. The Romantic move- country: ment was in itself a return to nature, and it was inevitable that there should attend it an increase of interest

The State cannot undertake to guarantee the morals

of its citizens, but it ought at least to enable them to in the external aspects of nature.

pass through the streets without being scandalisec. At any rate, there is no need now of arguing in favor tempted, or molested. The same rule applies of the love of nature. We all know that it is one of the morals: to unnecessary street noises which are the man

also to some things which have no connection with greatest helps, if not to what used to be called «grace,» casion of acute annoyance to rumbers; to buildins to what is now called culture, denoting spirituality as which destroy the symmetry and deface the beauty of well as refinement. An indifference to natural scenery consumed smoke; to the gigantic advertisements by

a quarter or darken the atmosphere by floods of unall cultivated persons look upon as a pitiable or blama- which private firms and vendors of quack remedies ar ble insensibility, and the wanton defacement of it as a now suffered to disfigure our public buildings, to de misdemeanor. Our urban parks, simulating wild or cul- stroy the beauty both of town and country, and to

pursue the traveller with a hideous eyesore for hundreds tivated nature, are the most cherished of our municipal of miles from the metropolis. This great evil hsi possessions, and show that a democracy may be trusted vastly increased in our day, and it urgently requires to supply itself with this kind of public possession, as

the interposition of the Legislature. well as the aristocracy, the maintenance of whose own

« The Crime of 1873.) « seats,» in part for the public benefit, is in older countries justly regarded as one of its most valuable func- No assertion in regard to silver has been made more tions.

persistently during the past few years than that a With respect to rural scenery, it must be owned that «crime » of some kind was committed in 1873 when the case is somewhat different. Scarcely any American Congress passed the act discontinuing the coinage of the can fail to recall some rural scene which he might de- silver dollar piece as a unit of value, and establishing sire to see under the control of a benevolent despot, or, the gold dollar as the sole unit of value. When first in less majestic language, owned by some rich and re- made the charge was that the passage of the act was fined person, who should have the power and the will to the work of a «conspiracy » by some English and other bring out its latent beauty, or at least to protect its foreign bankers, who sent an agent to this country with patent beauty from defacement. In fact, we, too, have half a million dollars with which to bribe members of instances to show of the private acquisition for the Congress. This was soon abandoned, and in its place public benefit of scenes that need to have their natural was started the charge that the act of 1873 had been advantages either developed or protected. There is one passed « by stealth. One silver writer said it went fashionable seaside resort at which it is brought to the through Congress « like the stealthy tread of a cat." attention of the visitor, that the smaller cottagers hold Another said it was passed « surreptitiously," and a hunthat the largest and richest cottager « ought » to acquire dred silver advocates echoed the charge. One silver adan island of manifest picturesque possibilities, and even vocate, who is a writer of history, put it into one of that there is « feeling » because he does not both liter- his books as a historical fact, that the silver dollar was ally and figuratively « meet the views » of the smaller «silently demonetized.) Others added «secretly to cottagers and the more numerous boarders. This is, per- «silently,» or «surreptitiously,) and all accompanied the haps, an extreme instance of a tendency of which every- charge with the assertions that the passage of the act body has observed instances less striking.

took one half of our money out of circulation, and that The sentiment has been embodied in the establishment remonetization would restore the lost half. by law of the reservations at Niagara and in the Adiron- One would think, from reading this charge, that the dacks, great as may be the need of an extension of the act in question was before Congress for a very brief time, law in the latter case, and there is a movement to save and that it passed without its meaning and effect being the Palisades through the intervention of the general known to more than a few members. That is the only government. To preserve all that we have in the way way in which a bill can pass « silently » or a by stealth.” of natural beauty or sublimity from destruction or Now, what are the facts ? The bill was first introduced defacement is a worthy work for legislators, whether' in April, 1870; was urged upon Congress by the Secrethe preservation requires an absolute prohibition of tary of the Treasury in a special communication recomthe advertisements which now disfigure so many noble mending its passage; was subsequently urged by the landmarks, or whether it can be attained, as has been. Secretary in three annual reports -- those of 1871, 1872, suggested, by a tax on such advertisements in such and 1873; was before Congress for nearly three years, places. The defacements that are still allowed to and for five successive sessions; was printed by order vulgarize sublime or beautiful scenes are, however, thirteen different times; the debates upon it in the


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