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to one who crosses a country inhabited by Before I turn from the physical conditions savages than the few marks of their presence of South Africa and the aspects of its nature which strike the eye, or at least an unpractised to speak of the races that inhabit it, a few eye. The little plot of ground the Kafirs have sentences may be devoted to summarizing the cultivated is in a few years scarcely distin- main features already mentioned-features guishable from the untouched surface of the which need to be kept in view when we come surrounding land, while the mud-built hut to consider the lines on which industrial and quickly disappears under the summer rains political development have moved and are and the scarcely less destructive efforts of likely to move in future. These features are the white ants. Here in South Africa the na- briefly the following: a hot and moist climate tive races seem to have made no progress for along the east coast, making the flat strip centuries, if indeed they have not actually which extends northward from 30° south latigone backward--a question to which I shall tude unhealthy for Europeans; a parched and presently return; and the feebleness of sav- arid coast on the west northward from 32° age man intensifies one's sense of the over- south latitude, making the whole of this side mastering strength of nature. The elephant of South Africa unattractive and of little and the rhinoceros and the giraffe are as much value save for its minerals; a high mountainthe masters of the soil as is the Kafir, and range running parallel to the southern and man has no more right to claim that the land eastern coast, cutting off a great part of the was made for him than have the wild beasts rains which come up from the Indian Ocean; of the forest who roar after their prey and a wide desert in the western half of the inseek their meat from God.
terior, interposing a sparsely peopled tract These features of South African nature, between the agricultural districts about Cape its silence, its loneliness, its drear solemnity, Town and the pastoral and mining country of have not been without their influence upon the Orange Free State, the Transvaal, and the mind and temper of the European settler. southern Bechuanaland; a climate so dry in The most peculiar and characteristic type the mountains and in the eastern half of the that the country has produced is the Dutch interior that tillage is in most places possible Boer of the eastern plateau, the offspring of only by the help of irrigation; a high and those Dutch Africans who some sixty years healthy table-land stretching northward from ago wandered away from British rule into the the eastern parts of Cape Colony nearly all wilderness. These men had, and their sons the way to the Zambesi; great mineral wealth and grandsons have to some extent retained, in some, possibly in many, parts of this tablea passion for solitude that still makes them land; and finally, a sun everywhere so powerdesire to live many miles from any neighbor, ful that although white men can live, and their a sturdy self-reliance, a grim courage in the children can growupin perfect health, open-air face of danger, a sternness from which the labor and hard physical work of every kind is native races have often had to suffer. The now done, and is likely to continue to be done, majesty of nature has not, however, made by natives, and not by whites. We shall presthem a poetical people, although the fact ently see how these conditions, and especially that they read nothing whatever but the the last one, are likely to tell upon the future Bible might be expected to have stimulated growth of the country, and to determine the their imagination and purified their taste. type of its civilization.
(To be continued.)
AN ENDED SONG.
With many a sweet conceit and rhyme,
Mary Ainge De Vere.
LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
BY WILLIAM M. SLOANE.
THE PINNACLE OF EARTHLY GRANDEUR. TRANSFORMATION IN AUSTRIA - THE FIFTH WAR WITH AUSTRIA: ECKMÜHL-NAPOLEON
DEFEATED AT ASPERN- NAPOLEON VICTORIOUS AT WAGRAM.
Russian alliance was hollow.
seems to have reached Na- only intensified sympathy with his policy
became insignificant. It mat- popular movements in Prussia and Austria tered not that he must leave behind him a half- upon each other had intensified both, until the accomplished task; that, while his strategy more advanced leaders cared little whether the had been successful, he had lost the oppor- process of German regeneration was begun tunity to annihilate the English, which, though under Hohenzollern or Hapsburg leadership. he did not know it at the time, he had really Into this surcharged atmosphere came Metterhad in the tardy arrival of their transports nich with his exaggerated statements about at Corunna; that the national uprising was the great reactionary party in France. The not suppressed by his carefully devised mea- effect was to raise the elements. He declared, sures; that the oaths of allegiance sworn to besides, that the Spanish war had absorbed so Joseph and the constitution had been sworn much of Napoleon's effective military strength under compulsion by a minority, who, pious that not more than 200,000 men were availas the people were, did not, for that reason, able for use in central Europe, and that Ausconsider even themselves as bound, much less tria alone, with her new armaments, would the nation as a whole. All this was serious be a match for any army the French emperor enough, but it was paltry when compared with could lead against her, at least in the first what had taken place in central Europe dur- stages of a war. Austria had been negotiing his absence.
ating for an English subsidy, without which During the campaign of Marengo there her troops, fine as they were, could not be had been a knot of active, self-seeking, and maintained; but Great Britain refused a grant traitorous men who, having risen by Bona- until they should actually take the field. This parte's help, schemed how best to sustain fact was an inducement so strong as to put themselves in case of his death. During his a climax on the already hostile inclinations absence in Spain this same group, under the of the Emperor Francis; and as his minister leadership of Talleyrand and Fouché, had Stadion had long felt that Napoleon's power been again arranging plans for their guid- must not be allowed time for further consoliance should misfortune overwhelm him in dation, the government concluded to strike Spain. Such was their activity that even while his difficulties in Spain were at their Metternich had been deceived into the be- height. lief that they had a large party of French Although the Czar had left Erfurt in an patriots behind them, who, weary of the Em- anxious mood, he was nevertheless clear in peror's incessant calls on France for aid in his mind that through Napoleon alone could enterprises foreign to her welfare, would his ambitions be gratified. He was equally gladly be rid of him. So grave did he con- determined that, while the European system sider the crisis that late in November he left should be no further disturbed, it must for his post and set out for Vienna. St. Vincent's a time be maintained as it now was. On his reports about the friction of Erfurt had al- homeward journey he had time to reflect on ready found credence in the war party, and the situation, and as he passed through Königsberg the warlike temper of Prussia was so pendous schemes reached him in Spain is manifest that he thought Frederick William, preposterous. Bavaria was his faithful subfor a time at least, should be removed from ordinate, and Poland still hoped everything its influence. Accordingly he pressed the from his successes. Both were in the heart King to pay a visit to St. Petersburg. The in- of Germany, and through a carefully organvitation was accepted, and the Czar's efforts ized and well-administered system of spies he were so successful that when his visitor left regularly received information of the most for home his feeling was as unwarlike as it reliable nature. The same historians who ashad ever been. He informed Austria that his sert that after Marengo Bonaparte left Italy interests were those of Russia, that there for Paris to cloak his defeat, and that he fled should be no offensive warfare, and that any to Malmaison to conceal his direct connection conflict must be confined to repelling an at- with Enghien's death, expect us to believe tack. To an inquiry from Vienna, the Czar that Napoleon fled from Spain merely to himself replied, on March 2, that if Austria throw the responsibility of failure on Joseph. should declare war he would fulfil his obliga- Most men in any crisis act from mixed tions to Napoleon; but six weeks later, see- motives. Such a charge displays skill in coming how determined was the war sentiment bining facts, but Marengo, whether a defeat or of Francis, and how complete were his prep- a victory, secured France to the general; the arations, it seemed best to throw an anchor retreat to Malmaison did not induce the Conto windward, and he so far modified his atti- sul to deny his responsibility for the executude as to explain that in the event of war tion at Vincennes; and it would be simply an he would not put his strength into any blow intervention of the supernatural if Napoleon, he should aim at Austria.
for purely subjective reasons, should have The cabinet of Vienna was perfectly aware left Spain to return to Paris just at the very that neither Alexander nor Frederick Wil- instant when his presence was absolutely esliam represented the national feeling of their sential there in order to check those who, respective peoples; that Austria's opportu- although ostensibly his supporters, were in nity to lead a great revolt against Napoleon reality his deadly foes, and for the warlike premight be found in the support of the power- parations to meet the storm which was about ful conservatives of Russia, in the enthusiasm to burst. His secretary has asserted that the of all Prussia, where Arndt was already crying, letters which reached him at Astorga con« Freedom and Austria!» and in the passion- tained all this disquieting news, and there is ate loyalty of her own peoples, not excepting absolutely no proof that they did not. The the sturdy Tyrolese, who, chafing under Na- probability is all on the side of the account poleon's yoke, were not only restless, but which was universally accepted until attacked even turbulent and ready for insurrection. by the group of over-credulous French hisOn March 18, 1809, the French minister at torians whose zeal for the Revolution is such Vienna wrote to Paris that in 1805 the gov- that they feel bound to attack every stateernment, but neither army nor nation, had ment of the equally biased school of Napodesired war; that now the government, the leonic advocates. army, and the people all desired it. In re- It was from Spain that the Emperor warned questing a subsidy from England the Austrian the princes composing the Confederation of plenipotentiary was ordered to state that in the Rhine to have their contingents ready. the event of victory his government hoped His language is guarded - whether the cabito secure such internal vigor as Austria had net of Vienna had drunk from the waters of enjoyed before the treaty of Presburg. As Lethe or from those of the Danube, he would to the neighboring states, she desired some be ready. But his actions could have but one minor rectifications of her own frontier, with meaning. The moment he reached Paris, an indemnification to the younger branches significant looks and conduct warned Talleyof her dynasty for their lost states. These rand to beware. «Is Joseph,» the Emperor might be found either in Germany or in Italy, said, in an interview with Roederer, « to talk and if she should succeed in destroying Na- like an Englishman or behave like Talleyrand? poleon's system of tributary states she meant I have covered this man with honors, riches, to restore all those territories to their right- and diamonds; he has used them all against ful owners, not excepting those of the Ger- me. At the first opportunity he had, he has man princes who had been hostile.
betrayed me as much as he could. He has The credulity of Napoleon's critics often declared during my absence that he kneeled overleaps that of his eulogists. To suppose, in supplication to prevent my enterprise in as many do, that no inkling of all these stu- Spain: for two years he tormented me to un
dertake it. . . . It was the same with regard campaign without an enormous war indemto Enghien. I did not even know him; it was nity. As before, after temporary patching Talleyrand who brought him to my notice. I French finances were again in disorder, and did not know where he was; it was Talley- there was urgent need to repair them. The rand who told me the spot, and after having people needed peace for their enterprises, advised his death he has groaned over it with but the Continental blockade so hampered every acquaintance.
commerce that any peace which did not inAt the same time the columns of the «Moni- clude a pacification of the seas would avail teur » were filled with half-true accounts of them little. It was a customary formality of the Emperor's success in Spain. As after Napoleon's to put the entire responsibility of Marengo, the French people knew everything war on the enemy, and it was announced in that was favorable; but there was a complete February that negotiations with Austria had suppression of all the rest. As Austria de- failed. This was in a large sense true, alsired war to secure her subsidies from Eng- though the particular effort referred to was land, so France was again in need of funds perfunctory, and was intended technically which her own resources could not provide. to secure the help of Russia, who to Because of the failure to paralyze Spain by a fight only in case Austria should be the agsingle blow, Napoleon had, for the first time gressor. in his history, returned after a «successful » Gradually, therefore, the war spirit revived
in France. No one remonstrated when once against Warsaw, while John was to enter the more recourse was had to the fatal policy of Tyrol from Italy and excite the people to anticipating the annual conscription. Not revolt. On April 9 the Archduke Charles deonly were the conscripts for 1810 called out, clared war; all these movements were well but the number was stretched to the utmost, under way, and Hiller had reached the Inn. and those who from immaturity or other Ostensibly this war was to be unlike any causes had been unavailable in 1806, 1807, other so far waged. The secret instructions 1808, and 1809, were now collected. The given to the imperial Austrian envoy in Lontotal of the youths thus swept together was don clearly indicate that the Hapsburgs hoped not less than 160,000. To render available by victory to restore their influence both in their slender efficiency, they were divided Italy and Germany; for that was the meaning among the various regiments already in the of « restitution to rightful owners » and the field, in each of which these raw and boyish «slight rectification of their frontiers,) or, recruits constituted a fifth battalion. in other words, the restoration of European
Since the Archduke Charles had been again conditions to what they had been before Naat the helm of military affairs in Austria, not poleon's advent. This was the dynastic side; only had a transformation been wrought in the national side was also to be used for its the army as a fighting instrument, but the purposes. «The liberties of Europe have taken general staff had likewise been completely refuge under your banner,» ran Charles's reorganized. For two years, therefore, Aus- proclamation to the army; «your victories tria's occupation was not only forging a will break their bonds, and your German sword, but learning, as well, how to wield it. brethren still in the enemy's ranks await The lessons taught her by previous experi- their redemption. To the German world he ence in Napoleonic warfare were thoroughly said, « Austria fights not only for her own learned. It was consequently a very different autonomy, but takes the sword for the indestrategic problem which the Emperor of the pendence and national honor of Germany.» French had to solve in this campaign. For Another manifesto, written by Gentz, the two years the Archduke had been studying ablest statesman in Vienna, declared that his task, and that in the light of his ample the war was to be waged not against France, experience. The conclusion he reached was but against the system of persistent extenthat he would attack and overpower Davout sion which had produced such universal disin Saxony; then, by an appeal to their Ger- order in Europe. man patriotism, raise and use the peoples of The tone and language of these papers northern and central Germany for an over- have an audible Napoleonic echo in them: if whelming assault on Napoleon.
an upstart house, represented by a single life But as the time for action drew near, the and without direct descendants, could win moral influence of those terrific annihilating success by appeals to the people, and gain blows which the French armies had struck the support of their enthusiasm by identifyonce and again began to assert itself and to ing its interests with theirs, why might not create hesitancy. Count Stadion, the minis- an ancient dynasty, with vigorous stock and ter of state, knew that diplomacy had reached numerous shoots, do likewise? Moreover, Nathe limit of its powers and could gain at poleon no longer respected the limits of most only a few weeks. These he felt sure natural, physical boundaries, or the restricthe enemy would use to better advantage in tions of birth, speech, religion, and custom, strengthening himself than Austria in her which inclosed a nation: his empire was to poverty could do. He was therefore urgent disdain such influences, to found itself on the for prompt action. Charles, on the other universal brotherhood of man, and to secure hand, hesitated to face the miraculous re- the regeneration of mankind by liberal ideas sources of Napoleon without a finishing touch of universal validity. Austria would offset to some preparations still incomplete. He this alluring summons by a trumpet-call to the therefore began in January to procrastinate, brotherhood of Germans, to the strong forces and consequently it was not until February of national feeling, to the respect for tradithat Francis ordered the attack. In this inter- tion and history which would animate her val the whole plan of campaign was changed. soldiers and justify her course. The main army, under Charles, was to be col- If she needed a concrete illustration she lected in Bohemia, ready for action in any could point to the Tyrolese. Since the treaty direction, so as to thwart whatever course of Presburg their chains had chafed their Napoleon might adopt. Hiller was to guard limbs to the raw; at this very moment they the line of the Inn, Ferdinand was to march were again in open rebellion. The adminis