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explosive sounds, she listened by the lilac neither Patience nor anybody else could be bushes under the returned soldier's window. regarded as mourners. For all that was said,

« Swearin'! Yes; actually swearin' at her, it might have been anybody's funeral, or noMis’ Acorn, and throwing things-teacups body's; by which it was evident that the minand shoes-with that one arm o' his. And ister was in doubt. she answerin' just as patient! I never could Speculation even found place about the ’a' believed it o' Cyrus if I had n't heard it silent form. « Surely that was never Cyrus with my own ears. And it kind o'shakes my Benson's nose!» It was surprising to find how belief that 't is him.»

little one really knows about his neighbor's « Well, I would n't mention it further; it's nose when it comes to a definite description safe with me; and probably he's out o' his thereof. mind.»

There was an immediate division as to At the end of the second month the soldier, whether Cyrus's was Roman or straight, and who had never got farther than the arm- two or three were sure that it turned up at chair on the sunny south porch, took to his the end. And his hair? Cyrus's was black; bed, and the doctor was called in. When he no, it was brown; but the locks of the sleeper came away he was stopped nine times by as were so scant and so gray that whether brown many women between the door of Patience's or black could not be determined. Had it been house and his own. Each asked two ques- his right hand that was left, the doubt as to tions: «Will he get well?» and « Is he Cyrus his identity could have been solved, for the Benson?»

middle finger of that hand had been chopped To which the doctor replied that he would off by an ax; but the left hand was just like probably never be any better, and that a man any other man's hand. ought to know himself who he was, and he But upon one thing all agreed: Patience supposed this one did. Upon which it was re- had done her part handsomely. The coffin ported that the doctor said that it was Cyrus was of the best black walnut, lined with fine Benson.

white cashmere, and the handles were silverMrs. Acorn shared the last vigils with plated; the robe, too, was of fine white cashPatience. She would have no one else, and mere. Yes, there could be no doubt that, would not have had her had not Mrs. Acorn whatever others might think, Patience belaid aside her bonnet and declared that she lieved that, but there was no plate, no inwould stay.

scription, no name to tell who slept therein. « No woman 'd ought t' be left alone at Did that omission look like certainty on her such a time,» said she.

part? They were again at sea. « I never could ’a' got through with it, it He was laid at last in the old graveyard seemed to me, if I had n't kep' sayin', «Poor just where it sloped greenly to the small lake, creatur'! he don't know what he's about,)» and the autumn maples dropped their scarlet she confided to her husband. «Such lang- and gold into his grave. It was far from the widge and strikin' at Patience! His sufferin's corner where lay the Bensons and the Hathemust 'a' been dretful. And she so gentle! I ways, and again it was asked, Did Patience, never could ’a' believed Patience could 'a' been or did she not, believe it was Cyrus? She so gentle-mannered. Liftin' his poor head just was seen to wipe her eyes as she turned away as if ’t was a baby's, and speakin' so tender! from the open grave, and would she weep for "T was a relief when he breathed his last. And a stranger and a deceiver? But why had she she never shed a tear; only said, Poor boy! not put on black? Surely for a promised The Lord have mercy on him!)»

husband There was a crowded funeral. Probably No one dared to put the question directly there had never taken place in Mantit one of to her; but each was consoled therefor by the more absorbing and dramatic interest. The reflection that certainty would have spoiled doubt concerning the authenticity of the sub- half, nay, three fourths, of the interest of the ject-a doubt only momentarily quelled by occasion. the doctor, whose reply, it was discovered, Patience went back alone, and sat awhile was capable of more than one interpretation in the parlor, and felt as though life, like her --- lent an original piquancy to the occasion. house, had suddenly grown very empty. And And the doubt was strengthened as the then she went and stood in the silent bedservices went on. It was observed that the room, and even took down and surveyed the minister was very general in his remarks shabby uniform and cap; and as she did so she and prayer. No direct mention was made of muttered to herself something that sounded mourners; and of course if it was n't Cyrus, like «atone.)

Then she put aside her bonnet, and sat phere, when he suddenly came to a full stop. down by the round, light stand in the sitting- A man was opening the gate. room, upon which lay the great old leather- « Je-rushy!) muttered the grave-digger, bound family Bible, and opening, read the falling back behind a tall clump of cinnamon words, « Inasmuch as ye have done it unto rose-bushes. one of the least of these my brethren, ye The man walked straight toward the spot have done it unto me.)

where Patience was kneeling at work, and And so might it not be that, doing to one stopped within a few paces of her. Though of the great brotherhood of man, it was done his face was pale, he was no ghost, and he to all, or even to some other one of them in walked with a firm, soldierly step. Patience particular? Surely He who knew the heart presently got up, and turning, saw him. The of man, who had a knowledge of its infirmi- grave-digger, looking intently, observed her ties, who had Himself suffered, though sinless, pause an instant, and then run toward the surely it would be like Him to open some such man with hands outstretched, and stumbling way of atonement to the repentant soul. So, over the intervening graves. Cyrus, for it vaguely at first, and then with a sense of was he, caught her hands in his. peace, this thought cleared itself to her « Whose grave is that?» he asked. understanding.

«O Cyrus, it 's a poor man's who wore a Peace came soon (the nation's peace), and uniform, and said he was you; and he was the boys—those that were left-came home. maimed and poor, and-and-I nussed him Life settled back into the old ruts, and for your sake; for I thought you were dead, Patience went her ways, though changed, it and it would atone. I said it would atone! was said, showing less temper, and being She spoke so wildly that the grave-digger kinder, but keeping to herself, and not car- thought she must have gone out of her mind ing much to see folks. She always carefully at the sight of Cyrus's unexpected coming, tended the grave on the green slope, though as if it were from the dead; and he thought the sentimental widow, who had erected a of going forward, but she spoke again: headstone to her husband's memory, with a «I spoke cruel to you, Cyrus," she said; «I space left upon it which was to be filled spoke cruel to you when you went away. But in due time with the name of his «inconsol- I've been punished - I've been punished.>> able relict,) could not be reconciled to Pa- And then he saw that Cyrus put her two tience's neglect in placing no stone by this hands-not pretty or slender or white hands, grave.

but hands brown and hard with labor - into Patience was busy about it one night, dig- one of his, and patted them with the other, ging the plantain from the turf, and water- saying: ing a rose-bush and the root of pinks she « 'T ain't wuth namin', Patience; I never laid had transplanted thither. It was sundown, it up. There! there! » as he would have done and the old grave-digger, unseen by her, was to a baby. For Patience was now sobbing and prowling about the yard, soliloquizing upon crying, Forgive! forgive! » the many he had put to bed and covered up The grave-digger could hear her where he therein, and thinking that his own retiring stood, though he could not, strain his old hour could not be far distant, and that a ears as he might, hear Cyrus's reply; neither quieter, prettier spot could not be found in could he hear what followed; but at last he which to take the last sleep, with the pris- heard her say: matic tints of the evening sky reflected in « Come, Cyrus, let us go home. And he the placid lake, the breeze humming a gentle watched them as, hand in hand, they passed lullaby in the pines by the shore, the aromatic out of the gate, stepping westward through scent of sweet-fern, bayberry, and sweet- the afterglow, which of a sudden suffused brier afloat, and saturating all the atmos- both earth and sky.

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Frank Pope Humphrey.


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HEN Hans von Bülow, in 1851, many between 1842 and 1845, enlarged the

at the age of twenty-one, re- orchestra with new instruments and new solved to devote his life en- tone-coloring. Wagner employed all these tirely to music, he found a innovations in his music-dramas, and became large field for desirable re- the exponent de facto of the new German

form in which to exercise school. his activity. Liszt, who, previous to 1847, Wagner's versatility as a writer soon had reaped the laurels of a royal virtuoso, brought matters to a crisis, and at the same

a then began his career as conductor at the time secured him a host of adherents. Among Royal Opera House in Weimar, and soon the Liszt-Wagner forces were many men now found himself surrounded by the best of the well known for originality and talent. Among young musical talent of the world. His them we recall Friedrich Nietzsche, professor pupils--the artists of our generation-he of classical philology in Basel. Upon the easily indoctrinated with the novel ideas publication of « Parsifal,» however, Nietzsche which he brought forward in his own com- publicly announced his defection from the positions. He began the publication of his cause in a pamphlet called the «Fall of symphonic poems, and in 1850 brought out Wagner. On the other hand, Heinrich Wagner's «Lohengrin» in Weimar for the first Ehrlich (better known in America as the time. This production, under the baton of editor of « Tausig's Studies ») contributed a Liszt, opened the « thirty years' war» between tract on «Wagner's Art and True Christianthe classical and the new German schools. ity.) Richard Pohl, L. Köhler, Franz Müller, The offensive struggle was made under great Joachim Raff, William Tappert, Heinrich difficulties, the headquarters of Liszt, the Porges, Otto Lessmann (Bülow's pupil), and general-in-chief, being in Weimar. The con- Gottlieb Federlein all wrote, analyzed, and tention was between form and freedom; the explained in tracts, in the columns of the « classicists » confined their creative acts to « Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung,» or in other well-definedart forms, while the«romanticists) musical periodicals wherever open to their desired to bring out new ideas, to enrich the views. Franz Brendel, who succeeded Schutone material of their art, and to add to it mann in the « Neue Zeitschrift für Musik,» new means of expressing emotion. The made that paper a kind of official organ for romantic school, however, had within itself the propagation of the ideas of the young the germ of artistic realism. Thus Schubert, dramatic-musical school, and it was in its whose spirit is essentially romantic, is ac- pages that Wagner's famous anonymous arcounted classic because he merely sought to ticle, «Das Judenthum in der Musik,) first express the sentiment of the poems he turned appeared. The activities of the new prointo songs, without any effort to make each paganda did not stop here. Felix Draeseke note conform to the exact shade of feeling wrote a humorous school of harmony in expressed by the word to which it was sung. rhyme, while Weitzman actually formulated Thus conformity of note to word, the crucial the laws of the new harmonic development, test of the new German school, was insti- and reduced the whole to a practical pedatuted by Liszt, whose songs are practically gogic basis. Karl Klindworth wrote the piano small phrases in recitative form. Liszt further scores of the Nibelungen Trilogy; Peter declared war by breaking the laws of formal Cornelius, poet and musical littérateur, transsymmetry in his symphonic poems. In propos- lated many of Liszt's French writings into ing that the only limits to musical form should German; Tausig, whom Weitzman dubbed be the limits which define the poetical idea «the last of the virtuosi,» conducted the expressed by the music, he became, with works of Wagner, Liszt, and Berlioz in Berlioz, the champion of program music. To Vienna. The entire movement was full of obtain new means to express the different energy, productivity, and violent rancor. emotions, he used new and unusual harmonic Religion, race, morals, politics, and artistic combinations. Berlioz, who had visited Ger- convictions were inextricably involved in the


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mêlée. Such an array of musical genius as made, for music's sake. He shared with the world will hardly see again, intoxicated Liszt the habit and principle of working with the beauty, the liberty, the originality, continuously for what he recognized as good. and the power of the new creative movement, As pianist, conductor, and writer, Bülow threw itself into it with all the ardor of the taught and trained his public; but among his artistic nature.

many personal pupils, although his lessons No wonder that a man like Bülow, a thinker, were careful, minute, and painstaking in the a student educated in the universities of Ber- extreme, not one has achieved undoubted lin and Leipsic, did not stand aloof, but took preëminence; while Liszt, who inspired, atup the cry, « The public needs education, and tracted, encouraged, and never taught, really must have it. I will be your teacher; follow formed the pianists of the world. Creative me.» Like Napoleon, he decided to be dictator genius is a fire that kindles and sustains in the new empire. He wrote, he edited, he kindred genius, and such genius Bülow had gave concerts and recitals, he revised, he not; yet his relations with his pupils are a founded concert organizations, he published, pleasant theme, in sharp contrast to his he brought forward writers and musicians. haughtiness among people of high social He invigorated, disciplined, inspired, and, in rank, and to his short memory of favors short, constituted a head center of aggres- received from such noble sources. I like to sion in the prosecution of the movement to remember how, in the midst of a brilliant which he adhered. The declaration of war concert in a famous capital, he recalled the against Wagner in Paris in 1859, Wagner's name of an old bassoon player in the orchespart in the political conspiracy in Saxony, and tra, the father of a former pupil; how he his consequent exile, the glorious victories of hunted the old man up, and sat by him the his operas in the Bavarian capital, and the whole evening in the intervals of the perpresent recognition of his greatness in Paris, formance, saying kindly things about the son. are significant epochs in the struggle. In all But, although Bülow formed no one prethis Bülow's success is identified with Wag- eminent pianist, he succeeded in impressing ner's; but in estimating Bülow's life-work, he his standard of musicianship upon the whole is seen to be greatest not in his own musical musical life of Germany, and that standard performances, but in what he impressed upon was exacting. One of his pupils once rethat performance. In him Emerson's saying, quested of him an opportunity to play in con« Somewhat resides in the men whose fame cert. Bülow looked non-committal, and made has come down to us that begot an expecta- no reply. Six months later the applicant, who tion that outran all their performance,» is had meanwhile given up hope of appearing in most strongly exemplified. Neither Bülow's public, and had been teaching diligently in a piano-playing nor his conducting accounts for conservatory, received a note announcing the enormous influence that he exercised upon that, through Bülow's recommendation, he the musical life of his generation. His influ- was invited to play exactly five days later in ence on music was the work less of his musi- one of the oldest German university towns. cal endowment than of his personality; «that Appalled at the prospect, the young man reserved force which acts directly by pres- hurried to his patron to explain. «Not ready!» ence, and without means," was emphatically exclaimed Bülow, looking through him as if his. And behind that force lay his simplicity he did not exist, and then, turning scornfully of aim and his sincerity of conviction. He on his heel, «An artist is always ready.» was first and foremost a teacher. To teach Stung by his contempt, the youth undertook he traveled as concert pianist, and gave re- the concert, slept not during three nights and citals in all the principal cities of Europe. days of preparation, was successful, and, hastHis programs were carefully planned to pro- ening to return thanks, found that Bülow had pagate his ideas. To a collector these pro- already possessed himself of full information, grams would be treasures of art;every worthy and was humming and playing snatches of master, known or unknown to the musical the program in high good humor. world, was represented. What the painter Another pupil, on whom he sprang a simigains from the exhibit of academy and salon, lar surprise, did not fare so well. Bülow had the composer obtains from the concert pro- promised to bring out a concerto (Op. 30) gram of the popular artist. The popularity which Friedrich Kiel, his enthusiastic adwhich more than one modern composer now mirer, had dedicated to him. The annual enjoys is directly traceable to Bülow's intro- meeting of the Ton-Künstler Verein, to be duction of his works. This presentation to held at Carlsruhe, furnished the opportunity. the public of new music Bülow persistently Although Kiel belonged to a most conserva

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tive classical school, and Bülow was immersed bill with a waltz; but Bülow could not collect heart and soul in the «music of the future,» his thoughts to compose on lesson days. the latter threw himself into the study of his Bülow had no mercy on himself; he would friend's composition with such ardor that rob himself of sleep for weeks to do a bit of when, after the manuscript had been in his writing or editing. The story of the tumbler possession five days, Kiel called, by invitation, of cold water that Buffon ordered his valet to to look over the tempi and nuancen, Bülow throw in his face to spoil his morning nap is litplayed the whole from memory, and turned erally true of Bülow. Under such hydropathic over the manuscript to the composer so that inspiration he actually finished his « Fantasie » he could accompany him on the second piano. (Op. 17) on the « Ballo in Maschera.» ) The domestic sorrow which resulted in the It is usual to say that Bülow could not breaking up of his home immediately fol- compose; but this is true only so far that his lowed. Beside himself from the shock, Bülow talent for composition was of less importance was confined to his room by his physician's than his personality. His «Sänger's Fluch» is orders; but in his agony he did not forget musical, interesting, and beautiful, but devoid Kiel, though playing was now impossible for of emotion. The same is true of his «Nirhim. As soon as he could command him- vana.) Musicians enjoy Bülow's compositions self, he wrote to one of his most efficient pu- in exact proportion to their musical learning. pils, offered the young man a check for one The same must be said of his piano playing. hundred thalers for his traveling expenses, His interpretation was always interesting and and begged him to undertake the concerto. polished, accurate even to the smallest deThere were now only four days before the tails; but there was no spontaneity in it. concert; the pupil could not prepare Kiel's Schumann he disliked because he could not work in time, and it was omitted from the command the necessary technic to play him, program. Bülow never forgave the unfortun- and he could play neither Chopin nor Liszt, ate pianist, and would have nothing more to because he lacked the fancy required for the do with him.

one and the abandon necessary to interpret the I have before me a letter of Bülow's, other. The difference between Liszt's « Don written to a pupil who had disappointed him, Juan» fantasia, under the fingers of Tausig, or which gives a curious insight into his work even of D’Albert, and under those of Bülow, as a teacher. After complaining that out of discovers the fatal defect in the latter. At the every eighteen lessons he loses six, that he piano Bülow was never free. His fame as a cannot compose on lesson days, he adds: «It pianist must rest on his playing of Beethoven, is not preference for teaching that makes me especially Op. 106 and Op. 111. Here his rerob myself of my time; I have talents which sources are exclusively intellectual-discrim

suffer greatly from my choice of this profes- ination, contrast, construction, and climax. sion, and time is very short, especially for an Bülow's mental organization was inflexible. He artist who wishes to accomplish anything out has been described as a cross between a Bisof the ordinary. I cannot persuade myself to marck and a Schopenhauer. He was rigid in resign this ambition, though I am obliged to mind and body. The feline suppleness of muscurtail it greatly by using my time for other cle characteristic of the born pianist was not matters. I have therefore divided my hours his. His technic was obtained and kept up at in such a way that some days are taken up great physical expense. His well-known saying

entirely in giving lessons, others exclusively that if he lost one day's practice he felt it himin private work. Except when small concert self, but if he lost three the public knew it, is tours have interfered, I have always consid- a confession of the burden he carried. Contrast ered myself bound to keep my appointments the career of Paganini, who, during the great with my pupils. You, whose capital is the use concert tour in which he carried the world by you make of your time, will understand the storm, never practised a note. He had his justice of my resolution. I am not going to skill by nature. Bülow, on the contrary, acbe absurd, and blame you for the lessons you quired his virtuosity painfully and late, and have missed, but I must make other arrange- in consequence lost it early. To the bodily ments in future.) Here we have the man fatigue and nervous wear occasioned by inscrupulous, industrious, ambitious, and kindly, cessant piano practice must be attributed a but devoid of the careless spontaneity of the great part of his irritability, and ultimately his creative musician. Mendelssohn could beguile untimely death. He always said that he be

. a sleepless night by writing a hunting-song; gan to study two years too late, i. e., at eight

; Schubert scrawled his immortal serenade on years of age instead of six. As he had sufa wine-house table; Mozart paid a butcher's ficient execution at fourteen to play Men

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