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to meet with something that put us in touch with home thought at this point, which we regarded as being the point farthest from Western civilization, and we thanked Mr. Muirhead for his work. These boys believe in missionaries. The Taotai's yamên also was a surprise. I don't know of any yamên except that of the GovernorGeneral here in Nanking that can compare to it in appointments, order, repair and cleanliness. In the court were two small pavilions, and in one a Chinese band was discoursing excellent Chinese music to all who cared to listen. The present incumbent, Shen Sheochien (t), is a native of Kia-hing, near Shanghai, and it must be that he has been impressed with foreign ideas of order.
But we found here traces of missionary invasion from the other side. Some 13 years ago one of those pushing Shantung men, Rev. A. G. Jones, of the English Baptist Mission, spent some months here and left a native evangelist, who remained for six years and then left, because, we were told, the growing importance of the work in Shantung demanded all the force. Since then the American Presbyterian missionaries from Tsing-kiang-pu have visited this point occasionally, and communication has been opened with the American Presbyterian Mission lately established at Chi-ning-chow. There is a small body of Christians here, and we felt as if we had come out on the other side of the wilderness, and if we were exploring it was time to retrace our steps. So we started the next day to return, and on the evening of March 26th again entered Nanhsu-jeo. Over the gates in cages were the ghastly decaying heads of six robbers. This city is prosperous. Has wide clean streets. The yamên is quite a pretentious two-storey red brick affair, evidently quite old, and the necessary oriental accompaniment quite dirty. Good shops and inns. Sold more books here than at any other one point along the road. When we started away we had difficulty in restraining the runners sent by the magistrate to accompany us as guard. But we assured them that we did not fear, and that there was no need for such an expenditure of politeness and bowed ourselves apart.
We separated here; Mr. Saw going to Fung-yang Fu, 240 li to the south-east; I to Huai-yüen Hien, 180 li to the south, and also a little east. These two places are both on the Huai river, 90 li apart. No, Fung-yang is 20 li south of the river really, and for that reason not a great commercial point. The road to Huai-yüen Hien was through the level plain already described. The city lies at the foot of mountains visible for nearly 40 miles. As far as I could judge I would give it second rank of all the cities we saw next to Tsü-jeo Fu in point of business transacted. A peculiar point is that the magistrate's yamên is not in the city proper but in the
suburb outside the south gate. The inn-keepers were unwilling to receive me, but I said I was expecting to send a communication to the yamên, and was received temporarily. It appeared that a foreigner had visited the city some months earlier, and had barely escaped a riot. But when I sent card, passport and books to the yamên a deputy came at once and called, and was very polite. I spent the whole day on the streets preaching and selling books with no molestation. The next day I went to Fung-yang. Found two walled cities-a Fu and Hien city-within two li of each other; the Hien city a dead place, the Fu better, larger and more pretentious, with a Taotai, Futai and a military official. This is the native place of Hong Wu, the founder of the Ming dynasty. We were shown the temple which is reputed to stand on the site of the house where he was born. 18 li to the south are Ming tombs on the same plan as those at Nanking and Peking. Some contend that Hong Wu himself was buried here.
After some inquiry I found the inn where Mr. Saw was stopping. Mr. S. himself was not in, but I learned that they had arrived the previous evening about dark, and had been denied admittance to inns. Mr. Saw with a native had gone to the Taotai's yamên, and had been treated very rudely. The underling had not taken his card to the Taotai, but reported him unwell, and had been unwilling to admit Mr. S. farther than the gate house. In consequence Mr. S. and the assistant had staid there all night asking to be treated in the manner to which they were entitled before they . would go away. In the morning the deputy from the Hien yamên called, and after learning the facts apologized for the rude treatment, compelled the one who should have carried the cards to the Da Ren, but did not, to apologize to Mr. Saw and invited Mr. Saw to go to the Hien yamêu, where he would settle the affair properly. So in the afternoon when I got there Mr. S. was in the yamên. After resting awhile I thought I would go and meet him on his return from the Hien city. Presently he came out, followed by a large crowd, some of whom soon began to throw stones. I ran up, and we faced the crowd for a few moments; then men from the yamêns came and escorted us to the inn. We now decided to remain for a few days, so as to live down the trouble. We therefore staid two days longer, and had no more trouble. We were constantly on the streets of both cities, and were not molested. Quite a number came and called politely at the inn. On the fourth day we left. My time was out, and I knew that affairs at home were needing attention, so I pushed through and made the 325 li from there to Nanking in three days. The first day I had fairly . level road. The second day travelled a mountain road. Instead of
going around the mountains and following the valleys as usual, this road leads right over the tops, and is a very tiresome one. It would have this advantage however, in wet weather it would not get muddy. That evening I reached Chu-jeo, whose dilapidated walls told of a former prosperity not now enjoyed. It is still, though, a large city, and governs two smaller districts. Here Rev. W. R. Hunt, of the F. C. M. S., is at present living and carrying on a good work. The next day at dark I reached home, having been out 33 days; travelled 1700 li (about 560 miles), visited seven Hien cities, two Jeo and two Fu cities and preached and sold books in 83 smaller towns. In all of these places but two no regular missionary work is being done. This seems like a long trip, but when we look at the map and see what a small portion of the empire we traversed we get some idea of the immense territory we have to contend with. Altogether we sold on this trip about 22,000 cash worth of books, besides what we gave away.
Published in the interests of the "Educational Association of China."
Symposium on Foot-binding.
BOUT July 15th the following enquiries were sent to the ladies in charge of several boarding-schools for girls. Not all have replied, but there are enough answers to show how strong the sentiment in all parts of the empire is against the custom of foot-binding.
"What are the requirements of your school as to foot-binding in admitting and retaining pupils? What do you consider the proper course to pursue in this great problem?
Your answer is requested for a Symposium to appear in the RECORDER.
JOHN C. FERGUSON."
Our school for girls has been in operation for twenty-six years, and our rule from the beginning has been to admit no bound feet. Some have come in with feet bound, but we have taken off the bindings gradually and kept them off to the end. We have no difficulty in getting pupils, the number of applicants being generally more than we can accommodate, though we keep about fifty in the
school all the time. Neither is there any difficulty in finding husbands for our big-footed girls, although we do not control this after they leave the school. With very few exceptions our girls now all come from Christian families, and we hope through them to establish and keep up a sentiment against foot-binding in our Christian community.
My own decided opinion, sustained by that of every member of our mission, is that foot-binding should not be allowed in any of our Christian schools for girls.
I might add that it is a rule in our mission that no one in our employ as Christian helpers is allowed to bind the feet of his (or her) girls, on account of the influence of example.
Hoping that these few facts may be helpful to you in working up this difficult subject,
(Mrs.) MARY H. STUART.
Southern Presbyterian Mission, Hangchow.
On first coming to China I had no well defined views of what was duty in regard to foot-binding. As time went on, however, the question was pressed upon my attention.
A parting of two ways had come to view-which one ought to be taken? For it was one or the other-there was no middle course. Circumstances, not of my creating, had made clear the point that I must either bind the foot or forbid its being done.
Since I could not do the former I must do the latter. There could not be two classes under the same supervision and the same instruction, with the confident expectation of God's blessing on the mixture.
I have always been thankful that for me the policy of having no pupil enter without a promise to loosen foot-bandages was thus, by the circumstance of having an orphanage in connection with the school, forced upon me.
I take no credit to myself for having by myself worked out this problem. The circumstance above mentioned, with earnest appeals of wiser and more experienced friends, has defined the course which I now see is the right course.
Hence you see I have come through the successive stages of indifference, doubt and indecision, to one of a settled conviction, that it is the duty of every follower of the Cross to do the utmost possible to fight this custom in the native Church.
The method to be pursued is for each one to decide, and so :
To your first question I have this to reply, that among the requirements of this school in admitting and retaining pupils is a promise or contract in writing from parents or guardians that those whom they place in it must have unbound feet.
Experience has shown in regard to your second question that this is the best course for us to pursue in solving this problem. Yours sincerely,
MARY C. ROBINSON.
Methodist Episcopal Mission, Chinkiang.
In reply to your note of July 15th I will say that for many years it has not been our custom to receive any girls with bound feet into our boarding-schools, unless their parents are willing to have them unbound; the only exception to this rule being the privilege granted in a few cases to those who were willing to pay $2 per month for board and tuition; the principle being that no mission money should be used for the support of such girls.
By pursuing this course we have occasionally lost the opportunity to receive bright, intelligent girls, but we feel that this is more than compensated for by the firm establishment of the principle.
I would say that in connection with our American Board Churches in Foochow and vicinity the sentiment against foot-binding is very strong; hardly a Church member would think of binding his daughter's feet.
With the women the case is different; while we use our influence to have them unbind, and a good number of them have done so, yet we do not insist upon it, as in the case of the girls.
American Board Mission, Foochow.
ELLA J. NEwton.
I am very thankful that when Mrs. Farnham founded this school in 1862 she made the rule that no pupil should be received who was not willing to unbind her feet and to keep them unbound. This rule has never been altered.
As God's people how dare we do less than fight this diabolical custom just as earnestly as we fight the opium-curse, child-murder and other cruel evils?
The same means that have been blessed in other reform work will be blessed in this work if we go bravely forward trusting God for wisdom and direct guidance. Mass meetings, societies, earnest