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NAME OF BOOK.
FOOCHOW. HANKOW. | SUGGESTED.
書 Su 士 Su
11. 列王紀界上 王上
Tai I 代上
代下 Tai II
Thiap 帖 Thiap帖 Thiap 以
伯 Pek 伯 Pek
詩 Si 詩 Si
Chim 箴 Chim箴 Chim 箴 Chim
Thoán 傳 Thoân 傳 Thoân 道 To
Khap 哈 Khap 哈 Khap
Ngá 雅 Ngi Ngá
賽 Sài 賽 Sài 賽 Sài 耶 Iâ 耶 Ja
歌 Ko 雅 Ngi
哀 Ai 哀Ai 西 Se 結 Kiat 但 Tin
Bí 来 Bí 米 Bi
Hoan 番 Hoan 番 Hoan
Ki 基 Ki 基Ki 哈 Hap
亞 A 利 Li
Liáp 拉 Liáp Má
馬 Má 基 Ki
+ Thái 4 Thái 可 Khó 可Khó 路 Lo 路 Ló từ Hàn 約 Iok 使 Sù 羅LO
52. 帖撒羅尼迦前尼迦前Ni-kaI迦前Kia I撒前Sat I 羅 Lô
53. 撒帖羅尼迦後尼迦後Ni-kaII迦後Kia II 撒後Sat II 尼 Ni
54. 提摩太前 提前Thê I 提前ThêI提前The I
55. 提摩太後 提後 The II 提後Thê II 提後The II 摩Mô.
默 Bék 默 Bék 默 Bék
Very little study of the foregoing columns will show what needless confusion may arise from the use of such a variety of contractions. All Wên-li books are intended for general circulation, and thus it is that brethren at Hankow proceed to verify a quotation from by turning to the Gospel of St. John, while the same symbol sends an Amoy man to the book of Job. Has any essay ever received a smaller number of marks at Foochow because the author quoted from Ezekiel instead of Colossians by the use of the character? Of course no one supposes that dire mischief is being wrought through the circulation of these lists, and all that is pleaded for here is the saving of one's time by rendering the nomenclature they contain a little less perplexing.
It is not necessary to say much about the list of "suggested" contractions which are given in this paper. They appear because it seemed ungracious merely to criticise without making some sort of an attempt in the direction of improvement. Of one thing there can be no doubt that if the first and second of the book-name characters which occur in pairs were utilized in the manner herewith indicated it would be possible to dispense entirely with the
Tand of the existing lists. Nor would such an arrangement place any additional burden on the memory since the very
collocation of those duplicate characters would immediately suggest what particular book is being referred to. Thus, would represent I Sam. and II Sam.; I Kings, E II Kings; I Chr. II Chr.; I Cor.; II Cor. and so on. The only hitch that occurs is in帖撒羅尼迦前and後; the second character of that name being required for I Sam. Following the Amoy list, however, the third and fourth characters are free to be used for this purpose.
Still greater simplicity would be given to any list of contractions if the present translators saw their way to alter one or two of the book-names of Scripture. For example by changing # Thiap-sat into Te-sit and Lo-tek into Lũ, the last-named character might serve as a good sign for the book of Ruth, for Nehemiah, for Matthew, for Luke, for Romans, for Galatians, for I Thessalonians and for II Thessalonians; all the remaining contractions falling into some such order as that given in the "suggested" list. There could not be very much risk in making a slight change like this, especially when the three discarded characters are replaced by others of equal suitability in sound, and already to be met with in the Chinese form of so familiar names as Tarshish, Decapolis and Lydia.
Some importance attaches to keeping down the number of Roman letters that may come into use. Bagsters' well-known pocket edition of the Bible gives a quarter of an inch of space for printing the contracted name of a book with the figures for chapter and verse, an allowance which would be obviously insufficient in our vernacular versions were books to be represented by such expressions as Thoân, Chhut and Chhòng.
CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR RALLY IN FOOCHOW.
It may interest some of the readers of the RECORDER to know that the five Local C. E. Societies connected with the American Board Mission in Foochow had an enthusiastic rally in connection with the last Annual Meeting of the Mission, at which over three hundred members were present. The Societies were distinguished by banners of different shapes and colors, and the members wore badges corresponding in color to the banner of the Society to which each belonged, so with appropriate decorations the Church presented a very gay appearance. The first address was on "The C. E. Idea; its origin and history and the use we can make of it in China." Three minute reports of the Societies were given, also reports of the Montreal Convention and the First Yearly Convention in Japan; an address was given on "The Junior Movement;" greetings were presented from the American Societies and from the Epworth League in Foochow, and the service closed with a brief Model Consecration Meeting, in which a large number of pointed testimonies and short prayers were crowded into a few moments. Then the five Societies repeated together the C. E. Pledge and joined in singing, "God be with you till we meet again." Everybody seemed to enjoy the occasion so much that we mean to have a rally every year, and while the working of the organization is far from perfect, yet we feel that it has been a great blessing to the Foochow Churches.
Early Buddhism in China.
BY E. H. PARKER, ESQ., H. B. M. CONSUL, HOIHOW.
(Concluded from p. 288, June No.)
The Chao Sungs1 took up the succession. T'ai Tsu commanded that a monastery should be erected on the battle ground outside the walls of Yang-chou and a repository for sûtras at Chiêng-tu.3 The people were forbidden to make images of Buddha or pagodas. the first year of Hwei Tsung's period Sran-ho, acting upon the advice of Lin Ling-su, the emperor issued a manifesto bestowing upon Buddha the title of Great Intelligent Golden Genius, whilst bonzes were to be styled "meritorious personages, "8 and nuns women of merit." 9 In the second year meritorious persons were styled "bonzes" as before. In the 13th year10 of Kao Tsung's period Shao-hing the issue of certificates" to bonzes was discontinued; the emperor saying that "if no certificates were issued bonzes would gradually die out, and our doctrine1 flourish."
The esteem in which the Yuan dynasty held the Buddhist faith was far in excess of that of any previous dynasty. Some of the bonzes of the period were even created "Instructor to the State" and "Instructor to the Emperor."13 The "commands" of the latter ran concurrently with the decrees of the emperor. There was absolutely no length to which the court would not go in expressing their reverence for and their supreme confidence in him. Emperor, Empress,14 imperial concubines and princesses of the blood all went down on their knees to him as they took holy orders.15 Even in full open court, when all the officials were drawn up in ranks, the "Instructor to the Emperor" had sometimes a special seat of his own at the side.15 Chariots and horsemen by the hundred were 1 Chao Kwang-yin (E) was the founder or Tai-tsu, A. D. 960.
3 In Sz-ch'wan.
; often used in this sense. See Note 8, p. 225, May No.
5 A. D. 1119.
; a Taoist. Mr. Watters compares him to Richelieu; I suppose be cause the latter persecuted the Calvinists.
7 ; I suppose from Bôdhi or E See Eitel's Buddhism.
9 ; the term had been applied to both Nestorians and bonzes. 10 A. D. 1143; Chao Kou (), the first of the southern Sungs, brother of K'in Tsung, the last of the first line who was taken captive by the Nüchên Tartars (i.e., early Manchus).
11 See Note 3, p. 283.
presume Taoism, but the author gives us no reason to suppose this, and Lin Ling-su, the renegade bonze of Wênchow, had died at his native town long ago. 13 The second of these titles was bestowed upon Paspa by Kublai,
14; I suppose this means both.
15; I may be wrong in my translation, but I never knew that Kublai himself took orders.
16 ✯✯✯; the term 4 means, "to sit not as an equal but at the side."
there to receive the "Instructor to the Emperor," and half the emperor's own cortège formed the head of his procession. His seal was made of white jade with the double dragon and coiled lines. All bonzes had a round baizal at the belt with letters of gold, and took advantage of the protection they enjoyed to put on the most supercilious airs, which people were obliged to put up with. During Shi Tsu's reign some Buddhist and Taoist priests were ordered to proceed to the emperor's place to dispute. It was agreed between them that if the Taoists gained the day the bonzes should put on the cap and become Taoists, whereas if the bonzes gained the day the Taoists should shave the head and become Buddhists. In the sequel the Buddhists gained the day, and His Majesty sent one of his inner circle named Toh Hwant to conduct seventeen Taoists, headed by one Fan Chi-ying, to the Lung-kurang monastery to have their heads shaved and become bonzes. There were 270 Buddhist monasteries in the empire, which the Taoists had in their possession, and all these they were ordered to restore. At the same time enquiries were instituted for distinguished bonzes, and the emperor ordered a great Buddhist celebration to be held at the capital. One Ai Sich sent in a memorial begging that such unprofitable things should be stopped, and the emperor highly commended him.
The Emperor Chêng Tsung" once more inaugurated a Buddhist function and made very ruinous and expensive demands upon the people for that purpose. A censor named Li Yuan-lio expostulated very seriously, but he was not listened to. However one of the chief ministers of state called Tah Lah-han11 represented that after the bonzes should have concluded their services it was expected that all great criminals would be released, and all murderers, even wives and concubines who might have murdered their husbands, would be indicated by name as objects for similar clemency, in such wise that the living would escape well-merited punishment, whilst the dead would remain unavenged. Where would the common happiness come in? The emperor approved and accepted this view.
In the 1st year of Wu Tsung's12 reign, period Chi-ta, a western bonze1s of the Kai-yaan monastery of Shang-tu had made some forcible purchases of the people's fire-wood. The persons affected
1; these were also used in war; those with silver letters being of less urgency. 2; it is worth while calling the attention of students to the fact that the second word most unaccountably rhymes with
3 Shi Tsu was Kublai. This evidently refers to the chapter found only in Ramusio's edition of Marco Polo touching the easter festival at Cambalu.
4 脫懽 5樊志應『龍光寺
7 Mr. Watters says that the emperor ordered the destruction of all Taoist books,
save the Tao-téh-king.
9 Kublai's successor, Timour.
; now the modern Lama Miao or Dolonor, the "Upper Capital."