Puslapio vaizdai

2. Mission Work among Native Christians.

a. Preaching and pastoral oversight.

b. Sunday-schools.

c. Meetings for united prayer.
d. Christian Endeavor.

e. Philanthropic work of the
Church for the aged, blind,
deaf, dumb, poor and op-
pressed, famines, etc.
f. Institutions for training mis-
sion agents.

g. Self-support-wages of teachers, pastors, native assistants. 3. Mission Work among Children. a. Boys'schools-Day & Boarding. b. Girls'schools-Day & Boarding. 4. Mission Work among Young Men.

a. Bible classes.

b. Higher education in schools and colleges.

c. Lectures to students. [schools. d. Industrial and commercial

e. Y. M. C. A. 5. Mission Work among Women. a. Evangelistic meetings. b. Training classes.

c. Industrial classes.
d. Higher education.

6. Mission Work among the Sick. a. Hospitals.

b. Dispensaries.

c. Visits to the sick at home. d. Preaching to and comforting the sick.

e. Opium refuges.

f. Medical students.

7. Mission Work by Christian Literature.

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trate distribution of mission forces. VIII. Bibliography-English and Chinese.

IX. Statistical summary.
X. Index.

Feeling persuaded that the leading missionaries everywhere will readily co-operate we take the liberty of asking you if you will be so kind as to furnish a sketchreport of the leading features of your mission in China from the beginning till now, but not to extend, as a rule, over 4 pp. of the RECORDER, otherwise it will not be a hand-book but a history. The smaller younger missions may reGive quire only a page or two. facts: be terse, and thus simplify the editing. Put dates of the commencement or new departure of any branch of work. Several outlines of various missions were published in the RECORDER Some years ago, but what was done was not uniform. For convenience of easy comparison we suggest that the various departments of missionary work in each mission be treated in the order given under Part V, numbering 1, 2, 3, etc. Very few missions have work in all departments; where there is no special work in any line make no remarks but pass on to next number.

Could you kindly arrange for filling up the enclosed statistical schedules with statistics for 1893, or the very latest you have, with date affixed, and for the marking of the stations on the map.

Should you find it impossible to undertake the above, instead of writing to say that you cannot do it, to save time lost in correspondence will you kindly persuade the best and most likely man in your mission to do it, or get your mission to appoint him to do the work and give us his name and address.

We shall also be exceedingly thankful if you can send or have sent to us the sketch-report and the statistical schedules and maps filled up within two months from

receipt of this circular, as much time after receipt of these will be required for arranging them, and those who are bringing out this hand-book can only devote their leisure time to it.

Enclosed herewith please find extra copies of this circular for those who help you in the work.

Kindly address the report and statistics as follows:

1. All sketch-reports to the Rev. Timothy Richard, Quinsan Road, Shanghai.

2. The evangelistic statistical schedules to the Rev. G. F. Fitch, Mission Press, Shanghai.

3. The educational statistical schedules to the Rev. W. B. Bonnell, 10 Woosung Road, Shanghai.

4. The medical statistical schedules to the Rev. W. P. Bentley, Miller Road, Shanghai.

5. The maps to Mr. G. McIntosh, Mission Press, Shanghai.

Special writers will be asked to contribute some of the articles.

If each brother will exert himself to give us an early report in the order suggested we shall do our utmost to classify and publish at the earliest opportunity, so that each mission may have the benefit of the hiory and statistics of the others.

Any suggestions that would tend to make the hand-book more generally useful will be most thankfully received, as we are anxious to make it the most perfect of its kind in any mission field.

We remain, dear brethren,
Yours faithfully,




Shanghai, March, 1894.

Missionary Journal.


AT Ta-li-fu, on 8th Nov., 1893, the wife of Mr. J. SMITH, C. I. M., of a son. AT Amoy, on April 19th, the wife of FREDERICK R. JOHNSON, of the National Bible Society of Scotland, of a


AT Nanking, on 22nd April, the wife of Rev. WM. REMFRY HUNT, of Foreign Christian Missionary Society, of a daughter.


AT Hankow, on March 31st, by the Rev. Griffith John, D.D., JAMES WALFORD HART, of the London Missionary Society, Chungking, to MARY HARRIS, of the London Missionary Society, Hankow.

AT Hankow, Mr. JOHN G. NELSON, to
Miss C. CARLSON, both of C. I. M.
Ar Shanghai, 3rd April, Mr. JOSEF BEN-
DER, to Miss SCHNÜTGEN, of C. I. M.
AT the Cathedral, Shanghai, on April
6th, by the Rev. H. C. Hodges, M.A.,
BROWN, both of C. I. M.


AT Wuchang, on the 14th April, of dysentery, JAMES WALFORD HART, of

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The Edward Bellamy of China: or the Political
Condition of the Middle Sungs.


[Methodist Episcopal Mission.]

(Concluded from p. 213, May No.)

2. The Militia Law (Pao Chia Fa,


HE second important law established by Wang An-shih was called the Pao Chia Fa. By this law, says Mayers, "the

whole population was rendered liable to service as an armed constabulary."* Every ten families was organized into what was called a Pao, over which was appointed a headman called a Pao Chang; every fifty families became a Great Pao, over which was appointed a Great Pao Chang. Ten Great Paos, or five hundred families, became a Fu Pao, over which was appointed a Fu Pao Chang and a Vice-Pao Chang.

From every family in which were two able-bodied men one was selected as a soldier (T). Should there be another strong man besides these two he also must meet with the Pao; indeed every man who had either wealth or courage was forced to become a soldier.

These soldiers were all to furnish themselves with bows and arrows and be taught the art of war. Every fifty families must have five men on guard. If they caught a thief a prize was given to them. If the same Pao should have one of its own men become a robber, a murderer, a plunderer, a conjurer, or an adulterer, and the Pao knew it and kept it a secret, they were condemned, and received extra punishment when it was discovered.

Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 244.

But no Pao was forced to interfere with the affairs of another Pao, nor were they expected to reveal anything concerning any but their own. Each Pao was responsible for its own affairs and not for the affairs of any other. Notwithstanding this it became a matter of common occurrence for men to escape from the ranks and become thieves and robbers.

The emperor heard that the people in the villages mourned, because they had no money to purchase bows and arrows, and it was not long till it became a street rumor that the emperor was choosing and drilling soldiers to go to war to protect the borders, and the historian adds, "Fathers and sons were known to weep." The emperor told An Shih that he must put the Pao Chia Fa into operation very slowly. But, said An Shih, we must not lose the present opportunity, and he advised the emperor not to worry about it.

The Prefect of K'ai-feng Fu (#), the capital at that time, was the man who had refused to receive the praise which was due An Shih. He told the emperor that after the enrollment the people were in disorder and alarmed. Some cut off their fingers, others their whole hands, in order to escape being drafted as soldiers, and he asked the emperor to wait till after the harvest, when they could consult further about it. The emperor asked An Shih about what the Prefect () had said, and this was his answer: "This matter of their cutting off their fingers and hands is in the first place uncertain, and even if it were certain it is not to be wondered at." The emperor thought that the speech of the people ought not to remain unnoticed. "If the man who governs the empire," said An Shih, "wants to follow the wishes of the people then why have an emperor and why have the officials ?" An Shih was successful, and the man who had refused to receive another's praise was sent to an outpost.

3. The Law regarding the hiring of Workmen, called the

Mu I Fa(募役法)

The third important law enacted by Wang An-shih was regarding the hiring of workmen for public service. Formerly when any important work was to be done for the government each Fu, Chou and Hsien sent its people to help do the work. This law was enacted that the people should be required to pay a tax, so that men might be hired to do the work. This tax was to be levied according to the property of the person.

The people were divided into five ranks, in order to distinguish how much each should pay. These five ranks were expressed by the indefinite terms-the very rich, the rich, the common, the poor

and the very poor. The official, the widow, the orphan, the priest and the young man under age were also taxed according to their position.

When the money was subscribed an estimate was made as to how much money the subscribers would need for their Chou or Hsien. The amount of the subscription depended upon the financial condition of each family, but besides the subscription they were required to pay 2 % extra to provide for drought or inundation. This money was all to be used to hire men to work instead of having them sent by the Chou or Hsien.

After this law had been enacted several hundred persons of Fuming Hsien () went to K'ai-feng Fu, the capital, to demand redress of their grievances. The emperor knew this, and asked An Shih about it. "The people," said An Shih, "want to bring this law into disrepute. They think they have subscribed so much money that we must have a surplus; they therefore all together tell their grievances, hoping that they may thereby force us to abrogate the law. If we stop the subscription we must allow them to become laborers again."

Whether the emperor was convinced or not he acceded to the wishes of An Shih, but when many documents were presented by the officials, and he told Ah Shih that he must "let up a little on this law," he received this answer: "The court makes the laws; they must be righteous laws. And they must not be changed simply because ignorant people do not like them." The emperor refused to listen to the officials, and the laws were enacted.

The sum of An Shih's three most important laws may be said to be this:

1. By the Seed Grain Law the people were provided by the government with all the seed necessary to produce a harvest, so that all their needs might be supplied.

2. By the Militia Law they were provided with a system of selfprotection and self-government, the very thing our socialists claim the people want.

3. By the Law for hiring workmen they were protected from ever being impressed by the government to perform any public labor without remuneration.

What now are the reasons why this system failed to accomplish the desired results?

fact that Men are The more

In the first place it did not take into consideration the when men's needs are provided for they seek for luxuries. not satisfied simply because their needs are supplied. wants are satisfied the more he has to be satisfied. Our poet has said truly :

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