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important features of student life. A tinge of humour ran through more than one of these addresses, and the discussions following them. The last session assumed the form of a Sunday service for college and university students on the 23rd July, when the religious movements in the universities of different countries were feelingly and graphically described.
The COLLEGE FRATERNITIES Congress was conducted in a lively spirit and effective manner. There were over twenty addresses and papers arranged in three sessions; the third being entirely a woman's session. The pros and cons on this whole subject, including the pledges of secrecy, were thoroughly canvassed. The woman's session was doubtless particularly interesting, but it certainly appeared strange to hear the numerous secret societies for female students designated "fraternities."
The Congress of REPRESENTATIVE YOUTH was most successful and enjoyable. There were only two sessions. The excellent addresses were interspersed with songs. Messages were given from all parts of the world, and read with applause where the authors were not able to be present. Judging from the specimens present America may well be proud of her youth!
The KINDERGARTEN Congress was undoubtedly the most popular and best appreciated of all. To one long resident in China the extent to which this important branch of modern education has taken root and flourished within the past few years is certainly phenomenal. Wherever one went in America, whether East or West, the kindergarten seemed to be regarded as the very root and foundation of all educational growth and success. No less than twelve sessions were held, including three joint sessions in connection with the Congress of Manual and Art Education, and one Sunday session, in which the kindergarten, in connection with Sunday school work, foreign missions, the spiritual life of children and the mission to the very poor, were all taken into careful and sympathetic consideration. The whole series of sessions embraced nearly forty papers and addresses, most of which were of a very high order. Every conceivable subject connected with the kindergarten received its share of notice. Froebel and his work were dwelt upon with particular emphasis and commendation.
The Congress of MANUAL AND ART EDUCATION opened up a wide field for explanations and illustrations. This branch is very fast increasing in popularity and usefulness. There were no less than twelve sessions, of which two were held in connection with the Kindergarten Congress. Between forty and fifty papers and addresses were given, among which the paper on Sloyd by a professor in Sweden, where the system had its origin, was particularly
noteworthy. Some specimens of Sloyd work in wood and paper (not shown during the meeting but on a different occasion) were most astonishing proofs of the accurate mechanical skill of even quite young children. The system spreads fast over the world, and especially in connection with the more advanced part of kindergarten operations. It is to be hoped that mission schools in China will not be behind in introducing this kind of useful handiwork as a pleasant and profitable recreation for their native pupils. The tools and materials used are by no means expensive.
The Congress of SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS commanded a considerable share of attention during its six sessions. About twenty papers and addresses covered the chief features in this new departure in the science of sociology. The settlement in its connection with university and school work, religious and charitable work, municipal reform, art and science, co-operative enterprises and the labour movement, were some of the subjects dwelt upon. Chicago and its environs seem to be an important centre for the formation of settlements of this kind, and their beneficial influence on the future of this rapidly growing city as well as other large centres is easy to foresee.
The Congress on CHATAUQUAN EDUCATION held three sessions on the 18th of July, at which the peculiar features of this new system of self-teaching and self-examination were explained and illustrated. The Chautauquan education in its relation to the Church, Sunday schools, ordinary schools, colleges and universities, prisons, university extension and correspondence teaching, with other elements of equal importance, were treated in papers and eloquent addresses. Considering the few years that have elapsed since this flourishing work was commenced at that beautiful spot for summer gatherings, Chatauqua, by Bishop John H. Vincent, its success has been extraordinary, showing it supplies a deep-seated want.
The Congress of STENOGRAPHERS served admirably to elucidate the progress that has been made in the various departments of stenography, which is fast becoming a well paid, skilled profession. The first session was a reception by the stenographers' club of Chicago; the second a reception to all visiting stenographers. Of the other four sessions one was entirely for women stenographers, who in some places outnumber and outdo the men. The history, present state and future prospects of stenography as a profession, the different systems, with the use of the phonograph and typewriter, were all ably presented and discussed. Many of the colleges in America give stenography a prominent place in their curriculum.
The two Congresses of the INSTRUCTORS OF THE DEAF and EDUCATORS OF THE BLIND held seven and six sessions respectively.
They constituted a remarkable and highly commendable feature of the whole series of congresses. The papers by the deaf and blind were peculiarly interesting and affecting. The systems of signs and visible speech for the deaf and the various kinds of notation for the blind were each advocated and illustrated by warm. supporters. All parts of the world were represented. There was an able paper by the Rev. W. H. Murray, of Peking, on the Education and Employment of the Blind in China.
The Congress of the BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION held four sessions. The demand for business or commercial education appears to be far greater in America than in any other country. Business colleges are the order of the day, and abound at all the large commercial centres. They are severely practical, seeking only to prepare the student for the office or counting house by the shortest and most effectual course of study and practice that is possible.
In the Congress on GENERAL EDUCATION the science of pedagogics received the most thorough and masterly treatment at the hands of its numerous modern representatives. No less than eight sessions were held. The principles laid down by Herbart were brought into prominent notice. The public school system, the various educational methods, industrial training, teaching in schools for coloured and other races, the place of religion and ethics in ordinary education. and various collateral subjects were among those presented and discussed.
It may here be added that other meetings of an educational character were held at the assembly halls of the different buildings of the exposition, and lectures given or papers read on educational and scientific subjects generally, by specialists selected for that purpose. These did not come under the organization of the Congress Committees, and some of them which the writer attended were almost if not entire failures through the impossibility of collecting sufficient audiences. Visitors to the World's Fair were, as a rule, too busy sight-seeing to be willing to spare time for such purposes, and it was perhaps a mistake to expect it of them.
A few words on the general results of these congresses must conclude these remarks. It needs no very brilliant imagination to see the immense advantages that must accrue to the cause of education. The bringing together of so many educators from all parts of the world; the free interchange of ideas, methods and sentiments; the discussion of such a wide range of vital questions, both new and old; the sympathy which numbers always excites; and the Christian, cheerful, cordial and cosmopolitan spirit that was so noticeable at all the meetings; cannot but give a
great impetus to the minds of all who were so fortunate as to be there and attend a few of the sessions-for it was impossible to attend more than a small and select portion of them-while the publication of the report with the valuable collection of papers, addresses and discussions will enable those who could not be present. to obtain also a large share of the benefit.
The main features of progress in educational work that characterized these congresses may be briefly summed up under three heads. First, the range of subjects requisite to be studied in modern education has been greatly extended. Second, the systems of instruction and methods of study have been made more rational and attractive. Thirdly, wonderful facilities are offered to all classes for the acquisition of all the branches of knowledge, either separately or in suitable combinations. Each of these heads might easily be expanded into a long article, but the limit of space for this sketch has already been reached, if not exceeded.
The Hangchow High School.
THE catalogue" lately issued by the Hangchow High School
presents several features of much interest and importance
to those who are engaged in educational pursuits in China. Started at Ningpo in 1845, and removed to Hangchow in 1867, it will complete its jubilee next year. It is thus one of the oldest, if not the oldest missionary school in China, where anything like a liberal education has been attempted. After passing through various vicissitudes and changes of management it came, in 1880, into the hands of the Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Judson, who have devoted themselves to its welfare ever since, with such assiduity that the character and standard of the scholars and the courses of study are already of an advanced character. It is safe to predict that this High School is destined to become more and more a power for good, and especially in Central China.
It appears from the catalogue that the wish of its founders was to establish a boarding school containing about thirty boys, where the three following objects should be kept principally in view :—
1. To secure the salvation of the scholars' souls.
2. To enable them to get their living.
3. By elevating their characters to make them useful to their countrymen.
A thorough Chinese as well as Christian education was regarded as the best means under the Divine blessing to accomplish this threefold purpose. The chief defects in Chinese education were analyzed, and their remedies suggested as follows:
1. Ignorance of other nations and an overweening regard for their own. To be remedied by showing the relative situation and importance of each, as is done in the study of geography and history. 2. Ignorance of many of the most common appearances and phenomena of nature. To be remedied by instruction in natural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy and anatomy.
3. Ignorance of most of the arts and sciences. To be remedied by instruction in the principles of some of the most useful of them. 4. In great measure an inability for close and patient logical thought and investigation. To be remedied by instruction in geometry, trigonometry and algebra.
5. A great defect in imagination, and taste, and insensibility to beanty and the principles of order and harmony. To be remedied by the study of taste, music and exciting sports.
A glance over the annual reports shows how well these objects. have been worked for, and how far they have been attained. Although during the last twelve years Rev. and Mrs. Judson seem to have striven hard to fit the scholars for whatever calling might in God's Providence await them, yet their attention seems to have been principally directed towards producing a number of young men suited to be trained as teachers, preachers, or in the practice of medicine.
A good feature in their regulations seems to be that an agreement is entered into with the scholars to complete the whole of the prescribed course of study, irrespective of the number of years that may be required for the purpose. Another excellent item in the Report is that no less than $575 has been received as fees for tuition during the past seven years, showing that the Chinese appreciate a foreign Christian education for their children sufficiently to pay for it at a rate bearing a fair proportion to their average means. The terms charged are $25 per annum, and in addition the students find their own clothing, bedding, travelling expenses, writing materials and native books; text books on Western studies are furnished at half price.
No less than fifty-four students seem to have passed through the full course of instruction and graduated from this High School since its commencement; most of them becoming teachers or preachers, either at Hangchow or at some other mission stations to which they have been appointed. Sixteen other students' names are given as "irregulars," who are all engaged in teaching or preaching