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Kiang-tu all the bonzes, nuns and Taoist priests were ordered to follow his cortège. A feast was given in the park, and the priests and nuns of both religions were united at one mess.
The founder of the T'ang dynasty replaced the Sui emperors, and commanded that a decision should be come to touching the excellencies and defects of Confucianism and Buddhism respectively and be placed on record amongst the imperial statutes. One of the high officers of state named Fu Yih2 presented a memorial requesting that Buddhism might be abolished. Its purpose was: "Buddha was of the Western Regions; his words were mischievous, and he was far from away us. The Han dynasty had the Tartar books translated, and gave a vent to his false pretences, thus causing disloyal and unfilial persons to cut off their hair and give a second place to their prince and parents, whilst idle vagabonds donned the cowl, in order to evade their villein services. They trump up a system of three inferior transmigrations and six conditions of sentient existence, thus inciting infatuated folk to go on a wild-goose chase after virtue's reward. They fear no prohibitory rules, and are quite ready to break the laws of their country." The emperor followed Yih's advice and issued commands to the executive to make a clean sweep of all the bonzes, nuns and Taoist priests in the empire.
At the beginning of the period Chéng-kwan, T'ai-tsung, a manifesto was issued ordering the execution of persons who should clandestinely become bonzes or nuns. In the thirteenth year a bonze appeared from the Western Regions, who was able to cause the instant death of persons by incantations, and then to bring them to life again by a similar process. The emperor tested him, and it was so. Then he told Yih. Yih said: "It is all black art. I have heard it said that the worst heresy cannot injure true orthodoxy. Let him try it on me. I will warrant he cannot manage it." The emperor ordered the bonze to try his art on Yih. Yih was not in the least affected. A few moments after that the bonze suddenly fell prone, and never came to himself again. Then there was a Brahman bonze, who said he was in possession of one of Buddha's teeth, which would smash anything struck with it. 1; modern Yang-chou-fu. * 太史令傅奕
; it was evidently then thought that India was ethnologically part of Tur.
4 The second T'ang Emperor, A. D. 627. His mother was a Turk.
5 In this reign the celebrated Hüan Tsang (or Yuan Chwang) went upon his travels to India, &c., and on his return, in or about A. D. 656, translated a great many books (cf. Notes 7 and 10, pp. 229 and 230), which were officially "touched up" at the emperor's order in A. D. 656. This work of his was carried on at the Ta-ts'z-êr monastery.
6 Doubtless the art of mesmerising or hypnotising was understood in India and practised much as it is to-day.
; also used for "India," and sometimes even "Burma," and a Tartar prince's name. This may perhaps in some measure account for the Burmese conceit Burma," or "Brama" (in Burmese Bamma or Nyamma) is derived
that the word " from Brahman,
The men and women of Ch'ang-an crowded to see him as if it was a fair. Yih said to his son : "I have heard people tell of what is called a diamond, the nature of which is extremely hard, and which cannot be injured by any other substance except the horn of an antelope; that alone will break it. You go and try this." His son did as he was told, and gave it a blow, which at once shattered it. The crowd dispersed.
In the first year1 of Kao Tsung's period Hung-tao one Pu Lohki2, of Sui-chou3, buried a copper image of Buddha in the earth, and before very long there was grass growing above it. He deluded the rustics by telling them that he had several times seen a Buddhistic halo there. A crowd was assembled to dig the place out, and sure enough they found the Buddha. Then he said that all those who got a sight of this holy Buddha would be cured of any disease whatever. People from all sides visited the place. After that he conspired to get up a revolt, and was condignly disposed of. At this time Tih Jên-kieh was on circuit in Kiang-nan, and he recommended the destruction of the heterodox places of worship in Wu' and Ts'u, numbering 1700 places in all.
When the Empress Wu took over the reins of governments the bonze Hwai I obtained her favour and the run of the palace. was given imperial nags to ride on, and presented with the rank of Duke of Liang.10 He collected from all parts a number of disreputable youngsters and made them bonzes. They set the laws at defiance, and no one durst say them nay. A bonze of Ho-chou11, named Fah Ming,12 memorialised to the effect that the empress was the Buddhist Messiah1 come down to earth, and that the Tang dynasty now occupied in her person the lordship of Djambu Dvipa.14 On this the empress built Buddhist houses on a wholesale scale. Li Kiao,15 Liu
1 A. D. 683; the last year of his reign.
#; this was the pet name of the Emperor dynasty, A. D. 860. As
the former to be a Tartar word.
3 *; in Shen-si.
of the Northern Ts'i was another Toba name we are safe in assuming In fact it was the name of a Hun tribe.
4 This is like Dr. DuBose's story of a bonze who buried a Buddha over a bushel of wet beans and then assembled a crowd to see the image pushed out of the ground by the swelling legumes.
; a very distinguished statesman.
6 ; not permanent officials as now; in after times they were usually eunuchs. 7 The line of the Yang-tsze. Mr. Watters says that in 657 this emperor had al. ready sent a number of bonzes back to India and prohibited monks and nuns from receiving adoration from their parents. Mr. Watters says that in 686 a Chinese monk named I tsing (P) went to India and wrote a work giving an account of visits to India of previous monks.
8 A. D. 684. 9 ㄖ懷義
10A; that had been Tih Jên-kieh's title.
11; in An-hwei.
13 3 彌勒佛
12; this is Mr. Watters' "other priest " apparently.
Chiêng-k'ing' and Tih Jên-kieh lost no time in remonstrating. Jen Kieh said: "The Emperors Wu Ti and Kien Wên, of Liang, gave away alms without end; the Three Hwai and the Five Ranges of Hills were full of disapproving talk. Rows of temples filled the streets, but no menacing disaster was averted by this. Bonzes' frocks crowded the roads, but none of them came forward to fight for their king. Of late we have suffered from the irregularities of flood and drought, and our borders have been disturbed. Government funds. have been exhausted on the one hand and the people's substance on the other. Should anything untoward occur in this or that quarter how are we to apply a remedy?" The Empress-Dowager said: "Your advice to me is good, and I cannot refuse to accept it." Accordingly the works were stopped.
The Emperor Chung Tsung issued commands that every department in the empire should have a Buddhist and a Taoist temple. In consequence of this fresh bonzes and nuns appeared on every side, and there was no end to the eleemosynary contributions. Sung Wukwang sent up a memorial of remonstrance, which was disregarded. An officer named Sin Ti-p'i remonstrated as follows: "Should the horrors of war ever visit us again the S'râmaneras are as unable to bear weapons as the religious buildings are to stave off hunger." "I humbly record my apprehensions." Lü Yüan-t'ai', the ruling magistrate of Ts'ing-yüans, also sent up a memorial running: "There are disorders on our frontiers, and we are hard put to it for commissariat, whilst on the other hand the heavy expenditure on building Buddhist monasteries continues unbounded. Our ancient princes-Yao, Shun, Yü, Tang, Wên and Wu-relied solely upon economy, benevolence and rectitude for the establishment of a virtuous reputation. From the Tsin and Sung dynasties downwards people have vied with each other in constructing pagodas and temples, whilst on the other hand anarchy and dethronements have followed in regular succession, all resulting from lavishing the affections on a mistaken object to the utter misery of the people. I would humbly recommend that the funds collected for building should be diverted to the purchase of warlike equipments. We shall thus cause the fire-signal alarms to forever cease, and the people will gain prosperity. This being so in what better way could the loving commiseration and universal sympathy attributed to Tathagata' be better shewn ?"
1 劉承慶. 2" All over China," or that part under Liang.
3 He resumed the throne in A. D. 705, after twenty-one years of his step-mother's
and step-grandmother's (for she was both) usurpation. Kao Tsung, in Turko-Hun
fashion, took over his father's concubine.
°; a hien in T'ai-yüan-fu.
(To be continued.)
Published in the interests of the "Educational Association of China."
The Educational Congress at Chicago. July, 1893. MONG the nineteen departments, embracing more than a hundred congresses held at Chicago during the World's Fair, the Department of Education may justly be regarded as ranking second to none in magnitude and importance, except the Parliament of Religions. The Educational Department embraced over a dozen separate congresses. Its various sessions were held at the beautiful Memorial Art Palace, in whose capacious halls several meetings were generally going on at the same time. It was organized by the General Committee on Educational Congresses, of which the chairman was the Rt. Rev. Bishop Samuel Fallows; and by the General Committee of the Woman's Branch, under the chairmanship of Mrs. M. H. Wilmarth. On these two General Committees fell the burden of appointing and arranging all the different congresses, several of which had separate woman's branches. The subjects fixed for consideration and discussion, each having its separate congress, with chairman and committee, were classified as follows:
College and University Students.
Manual and Art Education.
Instructors of the Deaf.
The congresses of the whole department of education were formally opened on the 17th of July in one of the largest halls called "The Hall of Columbus," and continued till the 25th of July. As few, if any, of the members of the Educational Association of China were present at these congresses, besides the chairman of the Executive Committee, and as copies of the complete official report do not yet appear to have reached China, it has been thought that a slight sketch of the proceedings and of the results may prove encouraging and instructive to the members of the Association; especially in showing the great impetus the cause of education has received within the last few years, not only in America but all over the world.
Almost every civilized country was well represented at these congresses. It was a sight long to be remembered, when the meetings were about to commence, to witness the army of educators of all classes and ranks trooping up the flight of steps of that magnificent building and wending their way to the different halls where their particular subjects were to be discussed. From the presidents and professors of universities down to the humblest district school teachers every grade of practical educators, both male and female, was fully represented. Their earnest and serious countenances and bearing was a study in itself, showing that they had not come to Chicago merely for the pleasure of sight-seeing but that questions of vital interest and importance in their chosen profession were pending consideration. The very fact of being engaged in any educational pursuit seemed everywhere to be a bond of brotherhood, so that the harmony and goodwill pervading the whole of these congresses was remarkable. A new era of things seemed to have dawned upon the educational world. It was clear that pedagogy had advanced to be one of the most important of the sciences, and was pushing its reforms right and left with a vigour and determination that was encouraging to witness. The school teachers of the olden times who, as Cowper said,
"Dismiss their cares when they dismiss their flock;
were nowhere to be seen in this large gathering. In their places stood a body of men and women, thoughtful, intelligent, in love with their profession; and prepared to work, or even to sacrifice themselves in the cause of progress, until the true end and aim of all educational systems should be realized.
The first congress on the list was that on HIGHER EDUCATION. There were six meetings, at which about thirty addresses or papers were given, covering a very wide range of subjects. The universities of Germany, Austria, Great Britain, France, Russia, Sweden and Italy were all represented by papers of much value. Among other visitors the writer was requested to give an address on the state of education in China, at the first of the meetings.
The Congress of UNIVERSITY EXTENSION held five sessions, at which about twenty-five papers were read, and many eloquent addresses delivered. The sketches of this comparatively new movement, both in England and America, were listened to with marked approbation. The leading universities in Europe and America seemed to emulate one another in pushing forward this most useful and necessary adjunct to university work.
The Congress of COLLEGE and UNIVERSITY STUDENTS held five sessions, at which addresses were given on some of the more